CHAPTER 6

THE STEPHENS

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Revision Date : 16 August 2011



    John Stephens

    In the same plot in Moonta Cemetery which holds Richard, Elizabeth Ann and William Richard Stephens is a well-preserved slate headstone recording the death of “Mary Ann, the beloved wife of John Stephens, who departed this life 2nd March 1882, aged 69 years.”  The accompanying verse hints at a difficult life:
Afflictions sore, long time I bore,
   Physicians were in vain,
And God did please that death should seize
   And ease me of my pain.

    The lower half of the headstone bears faint traces of two overlapping inscriptions, both referring to “John, beloved husband of the above, who died ..... aged 73(?) ..... “.  The inscriptions have not been lost through weathering, as the slate is in very good condition, and of even thickness throughout, but the lower half contrasts with the upper inscription, which is deeply engraved, the work of E H Herring of Adelaide.  The SA Biographical Index claims that this John Stephens died on 23rd December 1884.  (It is possible that the headstone was recut by Angus Donaldson.)

    John Stephens and Mary Ann Barratt were married on 12th February 1831, at Kenwyn, Cornwall.

    A John and Mary Stephens had twins, John and Mary, who were christened at Saint Austell on 17th November 1831, almost nine months to the day after the Kenwyn wedding.

    Possible parents of John Stephens

    Assuming that John came from Kenwyn, he could have been the son of Andrew Stephens (or Stephen) and Jane, baptised on 2nd June 1811, or the son of John Stephens and Philippa Richards, christened on 20th September 1812.  John and Philippa Richards were married at Kenwyn on 15th October 1798.

    John and Philippa Stephens had the following children, all christened at Kenwyn :
    A Phillippa Stephens died in the Truro district in the December quarter of 1841, and a Philippa Stephens in the March quarter of 1857.

    There is no record of the birth of John Stephens (senior), but Philippa Richards was probably the daughter of Richard Richards and Elizabeth Burley, who were married in Kea on 6th  January 1775.  Their children, all christened at Kenwyn were :
    There are no records of the births of Richard Richards or his wife.

    Andrew Stephens and his wife Jane had at least two children at Kenwyn :

    Parents of Mary Ann Barratt

    Mary Ann Barrett was the daughter of Paul Barrett and his wife Mary Ann.  All their children were christened at Kea :
    There is no record of the birth or marriage of Paul Barrett or his wife.

    John Stephens in Australia

    John Stephens worked as a carpenter at the Burra Burra Mine, before moving to Moonta.  In June 1850 the workforce of the Mine included 28 carpenters, paid for their skills at a rate of £1-18-0 per week, compared to 254 miners, who received £1-10-0 a week for semi-skilled labour.
   
    When John and Mary emigrated, they were accompanied by an unknown number of children who had been born in Cornwall, and at Burra they had two more sons :
    A possible daughter, Mary, died at Burra of influenza on 29th July 1848, aged 2 years and 6 months.

    A search of the South Australian BDM registers for the marriage of any children of John Stephens (born before about 1860 and married either in Burra, Moonta or surrounds) yielded the following (P = partner) :

        Name                Age           Partner P          P’s age    P’s father                    Date                    Location
    Christina                24        John Pascoe            27        John Pascoe            24-7-1869
                                                                                                                                    Residence of celebrant, Moonta
     Edwin                    25        Harriett Osborne     24        William Barratt        19-8-1867
                                                                                                              Residence of John Stephens, Moonta Mines
     Elizabeth Ann       21       Nicholas Tamblin    30        Nicholas Tamblin   29-9-1864
                                                                                                                                     Residence of C Hooper, Kadina
     Elizabeth Ann       25       Francis Gilbert         24        Richard Gilbert        23-4-1879                 Moonta
    Elizabeth Catherine 18     Richard Borlace       22        Sampson Borlace   15-10-1866
                                                                                                                           Residence of William Varcoe, Kadina
    John                        21        Mary Rosewall        21        Thomas Rosewall     2-4-1861
                                                                                                         Residence of James Dunn Whittaker , Kooringa
    Mary Emma            23        Joseph Cornelius    27        John Cornelius       15-12-1883
                                                                                                              Residence of Jane Cornelius, Moonta Mines
    Selina                      20        James Hendry          28        Peter Hendry           8-9-1884
                                                                                                              Residence of John Stephens, Moonta Mines
    Silas                        32        Sarah Parkyn            23        Joseph Ayles         30-3-1876
                                                                                                          Residence of Mr Grigg, Cross Roads (Moonta)
    Sophia                    26        Samuel Stephens     31        Thomas Stephens 16-2-1887
                                                                                                                                      Bible Christian Manse, Kadina
    Thomas                  25        Elizabeth Holman     20        Charles Holman    1-6-1861
                                                                                                                                                           House, Kooringa
    Thomas                  30        Mary Ann Olds        18        William Olds         1-9-1866
                                                                                                        Residence of Thomas Stephens, Moonta Mines
    William                   22        Jane Waters              17        William Waters    22-3-1870
                                                                                                              Residence of John Stephens, Moonta Mines
    William                Full age  Sophia Wheatley Full age  Henry Streep       22-4-1878
                                                                                                                                                 St Mary’s Church, Burra
    Margaret Stevens  19       William Hill               22        Richard Hill           23-7-1865
                                                                                                                              Residence of William Hill, Kooringa


    Alfred Stephens

    An Alfred Stephen, aged 21, son of John Stephen, was married to Virginia Downing (aged 20, daughter of John Downing) on 21st March 1875 at All Saints Church, Moonta.  The couple had six children, all registered with the surname Stephens :
    Alfred Stephens was a grocer’s assistant before he joined the South Australian Police Force on 1st September 1889.  He commenced as a 3rd class Mounted Constable, and was promoted to 2nd class Mounted Constable on 1st January 1894.  He died on 26th December 1903, and his widow was paid £34-9-8 compensation in November 1905.  Two newspapers carried brief notices :
Adelaide Register 28 December 1903  -  “Police-Constable Alfred Stephens, who for 14 years was stationed at the General Post Office, died at his residence, Parkside, on Saturday.  The deceased constable joined the foot police on September 19, 1889.  He held the one position throughout, and discharged his duties with great satisfaction.  The funeral took place at the West Terrace Cemetery on Sunday, and was attended by Sub-Inspector Shaw, Sub-Inspector Burchell, 78 foot constables, and nine mounted police.  The Commissioner of Police (Col Madley) was unavoidably absent.”
Broken Hill Barrier Miner 5 January 1904  -  “Constable Alfred Stephens, son of the late Mr John Stephens, of Moonta Mines, died in Adelaide on Saturday.”

    Richard Stephens

    Richard Stephens was the son of John and Mary Ann Stephens (formerly Barrett), the youngest of three boys, and was born at Burra on 11th April 1851.  His father’s occupation was listed as “carpenter”, and their surname was spelt “Stevens”.  (The evidence for this is held at Burra, in the District BDM records, where the birth was registered on 8th May.  This information does not seem to have been transferred to Adelaide.  He was not born on 8th June 1850, as stated in the SA Biographical Index entry, which is based on information collected by Elizabeth Simmons from other members of the Simmons family, as this person’s parents were Richard, a miner, and Hannah, nee Francis, who had been married at Redruth, Cornwall on 30th May 1837.  This Richard died at Burra on 14th October 1850, aged 4 months.)

    The first major discovery of mineral wealth in South Australia occurred at Kapunda in 1842, where copper was found by Francis Dutton.  Some small lodes of silver-lead and galena had previously been worked in the Adelaide foothills, but had never made a profit.  Cornish miners, who had emigrated to the colony and were working as farmers and agricultural  labourers, flocked to Kapunda to resume their occupations.  In 1845, a far bigger copper lode was discovered at Burra Burra, and soon 1170 miners, mostly Cornishmen, were employed in the workings.  The exodus of miners to the Victorian goldfields brought work at Burra Burra almost to a standstill from 1851 to 1855.  Some of the Cornishmen made fortunes in Victoria, but the majority of them averaged little more than wages.  Towards the end of 1855, they began to return to Burra Burra, and by the winter of 1856 the mine was again in full production, but by 1877 all the lodes had been worked out and the mine closed down.  Before that time, however, the discovery of the Wallaroo and Moonta copper deposits had made even Burra seem small.

    The first copper ore was found on “Walla-Waroo” the pastoral property of Captain W W Hughes in 1861.  This name was later corrupted to Wallaroo.  In the same year, discoveries were also made at Moonta, and by the end of the year both lodes were being extensively worked.  A number of Cornish miners, accompanied by their wives, families and household goods, came to the field from Burra Burra and Kapunda, and it is probable that the Stephens family was among this group.

    On 19th May 1872, Richard, aged 21, married Elizabeth Ann Northey at his residence at Moonta Mines.  Elizabeth had arrived in Port Adelaide in 1855 on the emigrant ship “Hooghly” (Captain H R Rich), as an infant less than one year old.  Her parents were Robert, then aged 23, a miner from Glamorgan, Wales, and Ann (nee Pearce), aged 21, and at that time she was their only child.  Their ship had departed from Plymouth on 3rd January 1855, and arrived at Port Adelaide on 19th April.

    The Yorke Peninsula Advertiser and Miners’ News of Friday 17th September 1875 reported an inquest held the previous day, at which Elizabeth Ann Stephens and her mother were both witnesses :
    “Coroner’s inquest – On Thursday, at the residence of Mr Spender, near North Yelta, an inquest was held before Mr G F Wyatt JP, on the body of a child twenty three months’ old, named Thomas Job Spender, who had been drowned on the previous day in a tank.
    “The following jury were sworn :- Thomas Woolcock [later murdered by his wife], James Jolly, John Williams, James Trezona, John Dodge, W H Williams, W H M Williams, C Nankervis, R Vivian, R Maddern, S Jury, James Dunn.  Mr James Jolly having been elected foreman, and the jury having viewed the body of the deceased, the following evidence was taken :-
    “Wilhelmina Louisa Spender, mother of the deceased stated – Yesterday  afternoon, at ten minutes to four, the deceased left my side, and asked me for a little pannikin.  He took some grain and flung it to the fowls at the door.  After six or ten minutes I saw him in the tank, and picked him out.  He was then quite dead.  Did my best to restore animation.  Stripped the child, and put him in a blanket.  Had had no experience of the sort before.  Screeched when I took him out of the tank, and Mrs Northey, a neighbour, came directly.  She rubbed him with hot salt, and by this time the doctor had arrived.  He had been sent for immediately after the accident occurred.
    “By Constable Burchell - There were no children playing about the place.  The child was alone when he left my side.
    “Dr Archer stated – About half-past four yesterday afternoon a messenger came and told me a child had fallen down a tank.  I came immediately.  When I arrived the child was lying on the bed on his back, covered with blankets, almost cold, some parts retaining a little warmth.  Although I could discover no signs of life, I tried the ordinary means to restore persons after drowning, and continued for about an hour and a half, but ineffectually.  There were the usual signs of death from drowning, and I believe death resulted from that cause.
    “Ann Northey deposed – About four yesterday afternoon, my little girl came and told me Mrs Spender was screaming.  My son told me little Tommy Spender was drowned.  Came over and took the child out of Mrs Spender’s hands.  We got some salt and rubbed the child’s stomach.  I had heard it was a good thing.  Dr Archer came and, I believe, did his best to restore animation.
    “Elizabeth Ann Stephens corroborated the evidence of her mother, the previous witness.
    “By the Jury – Never saw the child playing near the tank.  I believe Mrs Spender always took great care to keep her child and other children away from the tank, which was an open one.
    “Verdict – Accidental death by drowning in a tank.”

    Richard Stephens died on 22nd February 1913, and an obituary appeared in the Kadina and Wallaroo Times of Saturday 1st March:
    “In the death of Mr Richard Stephens, which occurred at his residence at Yelta on Saturday last in his 62nd year, the district has lost an old, widely known and highly respected resident.  He was born at the Burra, and as a youth in his teens came to Moonta Mines with his parents 47 years ago [1865/6].  He served an apprenticeship under the late Mr William Chappell, bootmaker, of George Street Moonta, but, finding the business uncongenial, decided to follow in the footsteps of his several brothers, and engaged in underground work at Moonta Mines.  By keen application he soon became a proficient miner, and when the rock-drilling machine was introduced at the mines many years ago [just before 1890] he was selected as one of the first pare [working party] of men for duty in that branch of work, in which he gave the utmost satisfaction.  He was a much-travelled man, having worked in the far north (ie Blinman to Hergott [Marree] to Farina), Victoria, Western Australia, and British South Africa.  From the latter country he returned to Moonta some two or three years ago in impaired health.  Besides a widow (second marriage) he leaves a family of two sons and three daughters, namely - John H Stephens of West Australia, W B Stephens, of Petersburg, Mrs C Simmons, of the West Coast, Mrs T Waldron, of West Austra-lia, and Mrs W H Donaldson, of Kadina.  His first wife predeceased him by about 15 years.  The funeral on Sunday last was attended by a large number of relatives and friends.  The graveside service was conducted by the Rev W Shaw, assisted by the Yelta Methodist Choir.”

    A similar obituary appeared the Peoples’ Weekly of Saturday 1st March 1913 :
    “Mr Richard Stephens, an old resident of this district, died at his home, Yelta, on Saturday last.  The deceased was widely known, having worked in Victoria, West Australia, South Africa, Broken Hill, and northern parts of South Australia, as well as at Moonta.  He was born at the Burra 62 years ago, and came to Moonta with his parents in 1866.  He was a bootmaker by trade, having been apprenticed to the late Mr William Chappell of George Street, but eventually forsook the business and obtained employment underground at the mines.  Subsequently he was selected as one of the first to work on the rock drills when introduced here, in the use of which he became most efficient.  About two years ago he returned to Moonta from South Africa in failing health.  He leaves a widow (second marriage), two sons (John H, Western Australia and W B, Petersburg) and three daughters, (Mesdames C Simmons, West Coast, T Waldron, WA, and W H Donaldson, Kadina).  His first wife predeceased him by about 15 years.  The funeral on Sunday last was very largely attended by relatives and friends.  The graveside service was conducted by the Rev W Shaw, assisted by the Yelta Methodist Choir.  The undertaking arrangements were in the hands of Mr W Cowling.”

    Angus Donaldson said that Richard threw up his apprenticeship because he wanted to marry Elizabeth, and joined his brothers in the mines to make more money.  Richard’s marriage certificate states that he was a bachelor, 21 years old, a miner residing at Moonta Mines, and that his father was John Stephens.  The marriage was celebrated by Joseph Warner, at Richard’s “dwelling house”.  Witnesses were James and Elizabeth Ann Mullen of Wallaroo Mines.  In all, Richard and Elizabeth had eight children before Elizabeth died on 19th July 1898 at Yelta.  She was aged 44, and is buried at Moonta.  Her gravestone carries the verse :
        Brighter, fairer far than living,
        Gone from a world of care and pain,
        Robed in everlasting beauty,
        We shall see thee once again.

Richard and Elizabeth’s children were:
Adelaide Observer 1 March 1884  -  “Yelta and North Yelta Mines - We understand that one or both of these Yorkes Peninsula mines, which have been abandoned for some years, will be worked again shortly.”

    In 1884 a Memorial was presented to the Commissioner of Crown Lands, signed by a large number of the “residents of the District of Wallaroo”.  The Memorial requested the Government not to sell significant areas of Crown Lands lying in the Copper Triangle between the towns of Kadina, Moonta and Wallaroo, as these lands were used as common grazing lands, for gathering firewood, and because they might cover as yet undiscovered copper lodes.  Three of the signatories, signing consecutively, were :
Richard Stephens      Miner        Yelta
James H Northey      Miner        Yelta    (Richard’s brother-in-law)
Robt Northey            Miner        Yelta    (Richard’s father-in-law)

    Other signatories were :
William Nothey (sic)    Sawyer    Yelta    (Richard’s brother-in-law?)
J Vael (sic)                  Miner       Yelta    (Father of Joseph Northey’s
                                                                                Wife Caroline?)
W Stephens                Miner        East Moonta
W J Stephens              Miner       East Moonta
Thomas Stephens        Miner       Moonta
James Stephens           Miner       Moonta Mines
J Northey                    Miner       Moonta Mines
Thomas Woolcock      Miner       Hamley (murdered by his wife)

    A Richard Stephens, miner of Yelta or Poison Flat, is listed in the Electoral Roll for the House of Assembly between 1884 and 1891.  Richard would have travelled in search of work as the Moonta and Wallaroo mines began to be worked out in the 1890’s, and it is believed that the entire family went to South Africa with him (possibly twice, as it is believed that he went with his first wife, and his obituary also mentions a trip in about 1910). The family may have lived at Modenfontein(? Modderfontein), near Fordsburg (now a suburb of Johannesburg), during one of the trips.

    However, conditions in South Africa were not necessarily any better than those at home, as the following newspaper articles attest :-
Quiz 1 September 1893  -  “Times are very bad at Cape Town, and many who went fortune-seeking to Natal and the goldfields are returning.  Private letters are full of miserable accounts of the distress prevailing in South Africa generally.”
Adelaide Observer 9 October 1897  -  “Returned Miners from South Africa – Among the passengers on the steamer Narrung, which has arrived at Port Adelaide from London, are a number of miners who joined the steamer at South Africa.  The majority of them are Australians, who in some instances, for a number of years, have been engaged in the Transvaal, and were personally concerned in the Rand trouble, and particiated in the fighting with the Boers and Zulus.  One man in particular was engaged in no fewer than twenty-two engagements, and among the trophies of war he obtained is a costume of a Zulu warior whom he killed in battle.  Speaking of the goldfields, an experienced miner said the boom at Johannesburg was practically over, and the period of depression which had set in was, in his opinion, likely to remain for a considerable time.  He scathingly criticised the management of many of the mines in which enormous sums of money had been wasted in surface development.  A number had been compelled to shut down, and the number of unemployed was increasing, but in spite of this building in Johannesberg was being pushed forward far in excess of the requrements of the population.  The railway to Buluwayo will be finished at the end of the year, and a rush is expected to take place in that direction, particularly if the concessions demanded by the Mines Commission are not conceded in the Transvaal.  All the returning miners strongly advise Australians not on any account to go to South Africa.”
Jamestown Star 15 October 1903  -  “Those Distant Fields - A steamer has just brought back 56 of the fool Australians who joined in the rush to South Africa some months ago.  The expected pile didn’t materialise; the hardly acquired nest-egg evaporated instead in the quest of a mare’s nest. ...... Crowds of penniless Australians watched the departure of the vessel from Durban; all of them would have come too if they had had the means.  In Capetown and Johannesburg there are hundreds of mechanics and artisans unemployed and hopeless.”

    A Richard Stephens (miner, aged 54) and a Wesley Stephens (miner, aged 21) are shown as third class passengers on the Passenger List of the ship Persic (7820 tons, Master Edward Roach), which arrived in Adelaide on 15th August 1908.  The Passenger List indicates by default that they boarded at Liverpool, but is open to interpretation, as the List states that ship also took on passengers at Cape Town, although none have this port noted against their name.  Richard’s stated age is low (should be 57), but Wesley’s tallies.

    Many miners were also attracted to the Coolgardie goldfield in 1892, and to other Western Australian goldfields which were opened during periods of low copper prices and much unemployment in Wallaroo and Moonta.  One boom period occurred in the second half of 1895 and the early months of 1896, when the price of shares in WA goldmines rose to ridiculous heights, causing a stampede of prospectors to the fields.

    J J Pascoe, in his “History of Adelaide and Vicinity”, published in 1901, noted the role of the Western Australian goldfields in relieving the depression in South Australia:
    “From one point of view the migration of people from this Province was a distinct loss; from another it was a most fortunate circumstance.  The glut in the labor market was quickly relieved, and men whose outlook had been extremely discouraging were enabled to obtain good wages.  The Western Australian goldfields worked for good in South Australia in yet other respects.  Local producers found a high-priced market for hay and butter, local manufacturers for every class of mining machinery, local merchants for their goods, and local capital for investment.  The best of the Western Australian groups of mines was originally owned by an Adelaide syndicate, and the local men who took up their residence in the West invariably left their families in this Province, and despatched, through the money order office, substantial sums of money in the aggregate to their relatives.  In truth, the Western Australian goldfields afforded great relief to all Australia at an awkward period.”

    School records show that the children attended the Moonta Mines Primary School, Linda commencing on 3rd February 1891, Wesley in 1893 and Pearl on 22nd January 1894.  These enrolments listed the children’s father as the registering parent.  In 1894/5 Pearl was re-registered by her mother, Elizabeth (occupation “housekeeper”), which indicated a break in her schooling, and possibly the fact that Richard was not in Moonta at this time.  Ann was registered for the first time by her mother, starting school on 2nd March 1896.

    One source claims that Richard and Elizabeth were living at Broken Hill during the miners strike in 1892, and that because there was no income from wages, Elizabeth acquired a hotel in Argent Street and operated it as a boarding house, with 25 permanent boarders.  She engaged a girl from Melbourne to help with the work, and it was this girl, Emily (Mil) Payne, who later married Elizabeth’s brother Robert.

    Laura believed that the Stephens were relatively well-off compared to other miners, because Richard worked at Wallaroo in a managerial capacity during the ‘90s.  Richard and Elizabeth lived at Wallaroo during the week, leaving the children at Moonta.  Elizabeth had a stroke at Wallaroo, and Richard brought her back to Moonta where she died.

    After the death of his first wife Elizabeth, Richard married again, on 12th March 1899, to Mary Trenwith, at a ceremony conducted at the Bible Christian Manse, Kadina, by George Henry Paynter.  Mary Trenwith was the widow of George Peter Trenwith, and had been born Mary Langmead in 1853.  Her parents were Elkanah Langmead and Mary Ann Cock, who were married on 1st May 1852.  (Between April and May 1852 three marriages were registered between members of the Langmead and Cock families.)  Peter Trenwith possibly died on 11th June 1895.  On 16th October 1900, Audrey May Langmead (born 14th May 1893) commenced school at Moonta Mines, being registered by her guardian, Richard Stephens.  Audrey was the daughter of Mary’s brother Edward.  (Elkanah is a name which came into use in England in the time of the Puritans, when Biblical names became fashionable, and remained in use in strict Methodist families.  Several men mentioned in the Old Testament bear this Hebrew name, which possibly means “God has created”.)

    George Henry Paynter, from Hick’s Mill, Gwennap, Cornwall, had been a Bible Christian minister in the area since at least 1873, and was the first minister to hold services and build churches in the towns and neighbourhoods in that part of the State, being Secretary of the South Australian Bush Mission for 40 years.

    According to Laura, Richard Stephens was a very hard man, and always well-dressed (she had to polish his shoes).  She did not like her father, but his remarriage freed her from management of the family to go to Western Australia to marry Charles Simmons.  Ann, the youngest child, liked her father, saying “He was a wonderful man, my father, he was so correct, so correct in his speech.”  She grew up very like her father in character - a stern, autocratic lady, very careful in her speech and the way she dressed, and everything had to be “just so”.  Wesley was also very similar in character.  Ann inherited Richard’s walking stick, which now belongs to Stephen Simmons.  Eileen Mazzarol, daughter of James Northey, did not seem to like the Stephens family - she believed that they thought that they were better than they really were.  In the Stephens family photo Richard is wearing on his watch-chain a Lodge medal, a star of which he was very proud.

    Pearl Hopping remembers that Richard’s children called his second wife “Mrs”, rather than “Mother”.  Wesley, who was aged 11 when his father remarried, was sent to live with two of his sisters at Port Lincoln, who “spoilt him”.  Richard is buried with Elizabeth in Moonta Cemetery, and when Jean and I visited it in September 1993, we found a vase and dead flowers on their grave.  When Richard died, he left each of his daughters a locket, containing a photo of himself as a young man on one side (“a very handsome young man, extremely handsome” according to Margaret Tilsner), and a photo of Elizabeth on the other, surrounded by a ring of rubies.

    The early success of the mines in the Copper Triangle of Kadina, Moonta and Wallaroo, dubbed “Copperopolis” by one newspaper in the 1870’s, was due to favourable world prices for copper, which stood at about £110 per ton in the early 1860’s.  By the mid-1880’s, however, the price had tumbled to less than £40 per ton, and the mine direct-ors cut wages to keep the operations profitable.  In early years they were able to do this because the Cornish miners had very little experience with collective wage bargaining.  Accustomed as they were to individuals bargaining for contracts in their work, they were also used to fending for themselves and thus they seldom presented a united front to make demands on the management.  Eventually, however, unionism came to the mining work-force in the form of the Amalgamated Miners’ Association (AMA) when a branch was established at Moonta Mines in 1889.

    At the end of September 1891, agitators in the union organised a strike for better wages and better working conditions.  They thought that the management would capitu-late in a few days, but, as a few perceptive writers then noted in the newspapers, the strike was doomed to failure from the outset because of its very bad start.  The decision to strike was in defiance of the wishes of the Chief Council of the AMA who had been investigating the working conditions of the miners and surface men.  And, more critically, the work-force at Wallaroo mines did not adopt “common cause” with their Moonta counterparts.  They continued to work and so did the Wallaroo smelters.  Thus the Wallaroo and Moonta Mining and Smelting Company was only partially affected by the strike and it limped along for the rest of 1891 without catastrophic losses.

    The men on strike at Moonta suffered great hardships.  Throughout October, November, December and January they received only two issues of strike pay at £1 each.  Many of them left the district to look for work, but very few were successful.  Eventually the strike was broken in February 1892, by dozens of men calling at the mines office asking for work.  They went back at reduced wages because the world price of copper had fallen further during the strike.

    The Yelta, near Moonta, was the only really good mine outside the Moonta leases, and at one time it employed more than 300 hands.  It was worked from 1861 to 1878, closing down when the price of copper slumped.  Captain Henry Hancock was for some time superintendent at the Yelta mine, before he rose to become the Superintendent of both the Moonta and Wallaroo mines.  Yelta boasted three chapels (Wesleyan, Primitive and Bible Christian).  The miners’ cottages were very like those of Cornwall but with some modifications to suit local materials and conditions.  They commenced as two-roomed huts, built of local limestone rubble plastered over and whitewashed once a year at Christmas.  They had earth floors, and the roofs were made of boughs, thatching and old pieces of board, laid as shingles.  Cooking was done out of doors, and mobs of goats, living where other domestic animals would have starved, provided milk and meat.  Over time, the huts were extended, and galvanised iron replaced the original roofs, while some had verandahs as protection from the hot Australian sun.

    The greatest hardship in the early days was the lack of water.  Only salt water had been struck in the mine workings, and whenever there was a shower of rain, the water which ran from the roofs of the miners’ pannikins to dip up the water that had collected in the wheel-ruts in the road.  The miners dug underground tanks and lined them with masonry, made watertight with a mixture of tallow and sand, applied hot as plaster.  As these were filled by surface drainage there were inevitable epidemics of typhoid, 110 deaths being registered in one week.  The heaviest mortality was, of course, among the children.  To meet the desperate need for drinking water, the mining company erected a still and sold condensed water at “tuppence a bucket and fetch it yourself”.  The miners’ cottages were built without regard for any streets, and blocks were fenced off at any angle to include any size and shape.  There were no footpaths, no properly made roads and no lights at night.  Dotted around were dumps, slimy dams, and open shafts, making it hazardous to venture out at night.  The wandering herds of goats and other stray domestic animals, particularly fowls, added to the general confusion.  There were no proper sanitary arrangements and, with rapid increases in the population during times of high copper prices, the settlement became very unhealthy.  The Moonta Mining Company eventually had to police the spacing of cottages in the immediate vicinity of some shafts in the face of growing health risks.  The unhealthy nature of much of Moonta Mines, particularly in the area colourfully dubbed “Cemetery Flat”, was responsible for an outbreak of typhoid fever in 1870, during which dozens of people died.

    When the first miners arrived, the area was covered with a dense growth of mallee and native pine (Callitris), but the demand for domestic firewood, fuel for the boilers, and pit-props for the mines, as well as the ravages of the goats, made such inroads into this that within thirty years the area became a treeless plain.

    William Richard Stephens

    According to Mrs Jean Martin of Port Lincoln (a daughter of Laura Simmons), William’s girlfriend became pregnant when he was about 19, and when their parents found out, they marched the couple to the local Methodist Minister for an immediate marriage.  After the ceremony the two luckless celebrants were taken back to their respective homes, and were never allowed to live together.  He died of typhoid fever aged 23 on 30th May 1896 and is buried at Moonta with his parents.  His wife bore a son, who lived with his mother and regularly visited his father (grandparents ?).  Returning from one visit, he fell into some water and drowned.

    William Richard Stephens married Hagar Mellow on 13th May 1892 at the residence of Richard Stephens, Yelta, and they had two children, so one must assume that their parents relented, and eventually allowed the couple to live together. Their children were :
    Hagar Mellow was one of possibly twelve children of William Henry Mellow and Ellen Nicholls.  Their birthplaces reflect the family’s movements in search of work :
    William Richard Stephens was buried at Moonta Cemetery, in the same plot later used by his mother and father.  On his gravestone is inscribed the verse :
    Farewell our dearest son farewell,
    Thy earthly race is run.
    Though crushed with grief we strive to say,
    Oh God thy will be done.

William Mellow died on 24th February 1898 at Yelta, aged 55.

    After her husband’s death, Hagar Stephens remarried.  On 11th March 1899, aged 25, she married Arthur Atwell (father Henry Atwell) at the residence of Ellen Mellow, Yelta.  Arthur was aged 34, and had also lost his first wife, Amelia Simmons (father Henry Simmons), whom he had married on 28th September 1889, and who died on 12th February 1897 at Moonta, aged 29.  Arthur and Hagar had at least one child :

    John Henry Stephens

    John (Jack) was living in South Africa during the period of the Boer War, and enlisted in an unidentified unit, possibly a local volunteer unit.  He died in Western Australia on 18th August 1917, aged 42.  He returned to Adelaide on the ship Persic (age given as 35 on the passenger list), arriving from Cape Town on 24th March 1908.  He married Emily Ann Rule (aged 27, father John Henry Rule) on 15th April 1908, at the residence of Mrs Rule, Moonta, and they had a son, Richard, who died recently [1990’s] in Albany, WA, leaving a son and two daughters; and a daughter, Delilah Pearl, who married Arthur Farrow, and had two daughters.  The Western Australian BDM records list a Richard J Stephens born at Boulder in 1910, and a Delilah E Stephens, born at Boulder in 1911.  Neither the father or mother of these two is recorded.

    Laura Leith Jane Stephens

    Laura was apprenticed to a dress-maker, but when her mother died she had to give up the trade to keep house for her father and to look after the younger children.  She became engaged to Charles Simmons about this time, but he moved to Western Australia shortly afterwards.  When Richard Stephens remarried, Laura was allowed to follow him, on the strict understanding that she would marry him on the day that she arrived.  This she duly did, in the house of Mr and Mrs Searle, family friends from Moonta.  Soon after this, the Stephens family travelled to WA for a time.  Charles Simmons, a miner, was born in 1877; his father was Henry Symons, a miner of Moonta, who changed his name to Simmons to avoid confusion with a number of other Symons working at the mines at that time.  He and Laura were married in Boulder, WA, in 1899 and eventually settled at Port Lincoln, where Charles died on 21st March 1949, and Laura died on 26th October 1973.  Her obituary appeared in the Port Lincoln Times of 22nd November 1973.

    Their children were:
    The Port Lincoln Times of 24th March 1949 printed an obituary of Charles Simmons:
DEATH OF MR CHARLES SIMMONS
    “The death occurred at Port Lincoln last Monday of Mr Charles Simmons, aged 73, a retired railway employee and well-known local identity.  The funeral left for Happy Valley cemetery yesterday.  The Rev W J H Brasher officiated at the graveside.
    Mr Simmons spent part of his early years in South Africa and Western Australia, the later years at Wallaroo and Moonta, and at various centres on Eyre Peninsula in the employment of the railways.
    Mr Simmons is survived by a widow, three sons and six daughters, Messrs S C and W C Simmons, Mrs Ivy Dennis, Mrs Bessie Anderson, Mrs Pearl Hopping, Miss Laurie Simmons, all of Port Lincoln, Mr R M Simmons, Mrs Phyllis Donaldson and Mrs Jean Martin, all of Adelaide.”

    His death notice gave his residence as Edinburgh Street, Port Lincoln, and his children’s names as Stewart, Claude, Ivy, Phyllippa, Elizabeth, Pearl, Laurie, Steve and Jean.

    While in South Africa, Charles was in charge of a gang of Chinese mine workers, who once left him food on his front veranda - when Laura was asked if they ate it, she replied “Certainly not!”.

    Laura Simmons’ obituary gave some tantalising details of the family’s life:
ADVENTUROUS LIFE ENDS AT 95 YEARS
    “The late Mrs Laura Simmons of Port Lincoln who passed away on October 26 aged 95 years, lived a varied and adventurous life.
    Born Laura Leith Jane Stephens at Moonta in the year 1878, she became strongly identified with the Cornish way of life, although her mother was Welsh born, and her father, born at Burra, was thought to be of Yorkshire ancestry.
    The eldest of seven children, her wanderings began at an early age when the family moved to Broken Hill.  They soon returned however to Moonta.
    When she was 12 her mother passed away, leaving her to care for her brothers and sisters.  In her teens she learned to become a seamstress, at which she excelled.
    She met and became engaged to Mr Charles Simmons, son of a well-known Cornish family who had migrated to Moonta from Penzance.  Mr Simmons’ father is mentioned in the book “Cornish Pasty”, and a sketch of him is entitled “Uncle Ar”.
    When she was aged 22 she sailed for Boulder City in Western Australia, to marry her fiancé who had taken up mining there.  Within a few months of marriage the couple sailed for Johannesburg in South Africa, where Cornish miners were in great demand.
    After staying there a short time the couple returned to Moonta where their first child Stewart was born.  They later returned to the goldfields of Boulder City.  Here they purchased a house, in which their second son, Claude, was born.
    Life in the Boulder was not easy for housewives.  Water was very expensive, and heat, dust and flies made life unpleasant.
    On the move once more, they returned to Moonta, where daughter Ivy was born, and then to Africa again.
    The anecdotes told of life in Africa are many, for practically every race in the world was represented at the goldfields.
    The local doctor advised Mrs Simmons to obtain home help.  She was not much in favour of the idea, but the doctor went ahead with arrangements.  Charlie was the result.  He was a huge Kaffir “boy”, who soon became loved by the family.
    When the family left Africa, Charlie was asked what he would then do.  With tears rolling down his cheeks he replied that he would walk home to the Kraal to see his mother, a distance of some 100 miles.
    Mrs Simmons was a woman of great courage.  When son Claude contracted smallpox at three years of age, she insisted on accompanying him to the Lazaret some miles distant, where smallpox sufferers were sent.
    Disregarding the danger to herself she stayed with him and nursed him back to health.  This was something of a miracle, as few people left this building alive.
    On their return to Australia they stayed in Moonta for a time before taking up land at the Hundred of Verran.
    Times became hard for farmers, and each day was a challenge, but with courage, fortitude and faith Mrs Simmons won through.  Until the time of her death, Mrs Simmons was the last survivor of the original pioneer women of the Verran district.
    The family made its last move, this time to Port Lincoln, where they purchased the then beautiful property of Mallee Park.  This home, surrounded as it was then by gums and pines, with its coach house and cellar, was a gracious reminder of times past.
    Following daughter Laurie’s death, Mrs Simmons lived alone for some years, till it became necessary for her to be cared for.  She divided her time between daughters Mrs Bessie Anderson of Adelaide, and Mrs Pearl Hopping of Port Lincoln.
    Wherever Mrs Simmons’ travels took her, she and her husband practiced christianity, and were devoted Methodists.
    After a beautiful service conducted by the Rev J Maddern, a testimony to a  true christian, she was laid to rest with her husband at the Port Lincoln cemetery.
    Mrs Simmons is survived by seven of her nine children, 28 grandchildren, and 49 of her 51 great-grandchildren.  She loved and was loved by them all.”

    An article in the book “South Australian Scrapbook” gives a colourful account of the Kangaroo Express, the train which plied between Port Lincoln and Thevenard, and Claude Simmons, an employee of the South Australian Railways, contributed many anecdotes for the article.  He is also quoted numerous times in Patsy Adam-Smith’s book “Folklore of the Australian Railwaymen”.  Claude had vague recollections of living in South Africa when he was about five years old, and he went to school there for some time.  He died on 3rd October 1988.

    Ethel Linda Owen Stephens

    Ethel Linda Owen Stephens married Thomas James Waldron on 8th April 1903 in the house of Mr J Simmons, Forrest Street, Boulder, Western Australia, according to the rites of the Methodist Church.  Her place of birth was given as Boulder, but I believe that this is incorrect.  One of the witnesses to the marriage was her sister, Delilah Pearl Stephens.

    Thomas Waldron was born at Rutherglen, Victoria, on 27th July 1879, the son of John Waldron, a miner, and Mary (Minnie) Goldsworthy.  He was the fourth child and third son of thirteen children.  The family left Victoria for the lure of the Westralian goldfields when Thomas was a young boy, and he became a miner like his father.

    Thomas and Linda’s children were :
    The family travelled to South Africa with the rest of the Stephens family for one of their two visits, but returned to Western Australia.

    Thomas Waldron died in 1921 in Boulder.  Linda was in hospital, and was wheeled to the window to watch his funeral pass.  She died within a week of him, on 3rd October 1921, and young Jimmy was left at the age of 14 as head of the family, while Elizabeth cared for the younger children.

    Delilah Pearl Stephens

    Delilah Pearl married Harvey Elmore (or Elmer) Fouse in the Lilian Street Methodist Church, Fordsburg (now a suburb of Johannesburg), South Africa, on 5th September 1905.  He was an American who had travelled to South Africa for his health.  He was the son of Reuben Fouse and Anna Collins, whose other children were Orville, Alfred and Lola.  One source states that Anna Fouse died on 27th December 1893 at the age of 44 (does not tally with Census age), and was buried in the Carson Valley cemetery, Duncansville, Blair County, Pennsylvania, but another source says that she died in 1900.

    The 1880 US Census lists the family :
Residence : Catherine, Blair Co, Pennsylvania
       Name                                            Age            Born        Occupation                F birth        M birth
    Reuben Fouse            H        M     28                PA            Farmer                           PA            PA
    Anna                           W       M     27                PA            Keeping house        England    England
    Hervey E                     S         U        1                PA            ---                                    PA           PA
    Lolu B                          D        U      3m               PA            ---                                    PA           PA
    Daniel Otto              Other    U      21                PA            Farm labourer                PA           PA

and Reuben’s parents and siblings :
Residence : Huston, Blair Co, Pennsylvania
    William A Fouse        H        M     54                PA            Farmer                            PA           PA
    Catharine                    W       M     52              Hesse         Keeping house           Hesse      Hesse
                                                                            Darmstadt                                       Darmstadt  Darmstadt
    Calvin                           S        U      24                PA            At home   
    Margaret                      D       U      22                PA            At home
    Samuel                          S       U       21                PA           At home
    Elizabeth                      D       U       19                PA           At home
    Jane                              D       U       16                PA           At home
    William                         S       U       10                PA           At home


Residence : Huston, Blair Co, Pennsylvania
    Henry C Rhodes         H      M      40                PA            Fence maker                  PA           PA
    Susannah                    W     M       31                PA            Keeping house             PA        Hesse
                                                                                                                                                       Darmstadt
    Netty May                   D      U         4                 PA            ---
    Calvin W                      S      U          2                PA            ---


    Harvey and Delilah returned to Kalgoorlie, then Moonta, and eventually returned to America, first to Duncansville, Pennsylvania and later to Muskogee, Oklahoma.  Their children were :
    The family was planning to visit their relatives in Australia after the birth of their third child, but unfortunately this birth resulted in the death of Delilah Pearl.  Harvey died shortly afterwards, and the children were raised by his sister Lola Schultz, who lived at Duncansville.  The children had only a few mementos of their parents, including their wedding photograph, in a sea chest, and were unable to trace their Australian relatives.  Lola wrote a few times, but contact was then lost.  The Stephens thought that Ann Donaldson should have made an effort to bring the children back to Australia, as she was quite well-off, and the best-placed to look after them.  Seventy five years elapsed before Margaret Tilsner, chasing up a slender lead provided by Angus Donaldson, wrote to the Methodist Minister in Duncansville, and re-established the link.

    No trace of Stephen Fouse’s son Eric could be found.  Claude Simmons remembered Stephen as a child, as the Fouse family came to Australia for six weeks before moving back to America.

    Reuben Fouse was born on 5th April 1852, and Anna Collins was born on 21st September 1852.  They both died at Duncansville, Blair County, PA.  They were married on 15th January 1878, and their children were :
In 1900 Lola, William and Pearl were living in Duncansville with Lola’s father, Reuben Fouse.  The family was residing separately in Duncansville for the 1920 and 1930 Censuses.
    The early history of the Fouse family is expanded at the end of this chapter.

    Anne Northey Stephens

    Anne Northey Stephens married William Henry Donaldson (aged 41, father Ebenezer Donaldson) on 1st February 1911, at the residence of the groom’s father, Penang (Moonta).  Their children were :
    Angus died about nine months after his mother.  Colin married and had a son, James, but died before his mother.

    Wesley Barrett Stephens

    Wesley Barrett Stephens married Honorah Mary Wall on 19th January 1914 at St Anacletus’ Catholic Church, Peterborough, and their children were:
    Wesley’s father, Richard, was a very strong Methodist, and when Wesley married a Catholic, he was banished from the family circle, which caused him to hold a lifelong bitterness against his father.  His sister Ann was considered a ringleader of the trouble which banished Wesley.  Family history was never mentioned, and no photographs or other information was ever passed to the children, who could contribute very little to my family research.  Laura Simmons visited Wesley and Norah once when they lived at Reid Avenue, Hectorville (late 50’s), and it was a very special occasion.  Lily Stephens thought that Wesley went to South Africa at one time, and returned with a “Zulu stick”, which all the children remembered with fear.  There was a rumour that he had been involved in the death of two black men there.

SA Police Gazette 16 November 1921  -  “Apprehensions – Wesley Barrett Stephens, on an information, charged with embezzlement on His Majesty’s Government (Railways Department), at Crystal Brook; released on entering into a bond to come up for sentence when called upon within three years, and to abstain from intoxicating liquor.”

    Richard John Stephens

    Richard Stephens grew up in Port Pirie, where the family had moved when his father got work at the Port Pirie Smelters.  Although he did well at school, he had to leave at an early age to help supprt the large family.  He held a number of jobs before the War started, but when it did, he saw it as an opportunity to escape, and immediately joined up.  His service number, SX473, indicates how early he was when he enlisted in the Army in Adelaide on 20th October 1939.  He was posted to the 2/10 Battalion, and left Australia by ship for England on 5th May 1940.  During the voyage he broke his humerus, and on arrival in Greenock was admitted to the Hairmyres Hospital, south of Glasgow, on 7th June 1940.  He was discharged from hospital on 9th August, and sent to Bulford Camp and Lopcombe Corner on Salisbury Plain for training.

    On 17th November 1940 the battalion embarked from Glasgow for the Middle East, where it disembarked on 31st December.  Richard Stephens served with the battalion throughout 1941, including the famous siege of Tobruk.  On 11th February 1942 he was returned to Adelaide, but arrived with an injured ankle.  To his disgust, he was not allowed leave, but was transferred straight from the troopship to hospital.  In anger, he absconded from the hospital, caught a train to Port Pirie at the Adelaide Railway Station, and arrived home still wearing his pyjamas, only partly covered by his Army greatcoat.  He was absent without leave for 13 days, before the military police arrived to take him back to Adelaide.  He was fined £5 and his pay was stopped to make good the sum of 17/- to pay for lost clothing.  He was discharged from hospital on 16th May 1942, and rejoined his battalion.

    On 22nd July 1942 he was promoted to Acting Corporal, and on 6th August the battalion salied from Brisbane to New Guinea.  His rank as Corporal was confirmed on 6th January 1943, but he was then to suffer many recurring bouts of severe malaria, and he returned to Australia in March.  The attacks continued until September 1944.  In November 1943 he was classified "medically fit to carry out certain duties which require only restricted medical fitness", and between attacks he worked in the Kit Store at Townsville.

    On 16th September 1944 he was classified A1 fit and transferred back to the 2/10 Battalion.  On 17th November he reverted back to the rank of private, at his own request.  With the battalion he fought at Morotai and Balikpapan in 1945.  In November 1945 he was selected for early discharge due to his long service, and returned toAdelaide, where he was discharged on 4th December.

    The 2/10th Battalion was the first South Australian battalion formed for the Second AIF.  It formally came into being with the appointment of its first commanding officer, Lieutenant Colonel Arthur Verrier, on 13th October 1939 but over a week would elapse before the battalion began to take shape at Adelaide’s Wayville Showgrounds.  It trained first at Woodside in the Adelaide hills, and then at Greta and Ingleburn in New South Wales.  The 2/10th embarked for the Middle East on 5th May 1940 as part of the 18th Brigade, of the 6th Australian Division.

    En route to the Middle East, the 18th Brigade was diverted to the United Kingdom to bolster its defences following the fall of France.  The 2/10th disembarked at Gourock in Scotland on 18 June and was subsequently based at Lopcombe Corner, near Salisbury, in England.  On 8 July the 2/10th suffered the Second AIF’s first casualty due to enemy action - Private Albert Webb, who was wounded in a strafing attack by a German aircraft. The battalion relocated to Colchester in October and left the United Kingdom on 17th November.    
    The 2/10th arrived in Egypt on 31st December 1940.  In the United Kingdom the 18th Brigade had become part of the newly-formed 9th Australian Division, but in Egypt, in February 1941, it was transferred to the 7th Division.  D Company of the 2/10th reinforced the 2/9th Battalion for its attack on Giarabub on 21st March 1941, but the whole battalion was not committed to active operations until it moved, with the rest of the brigade, to Tobruk in the first week of April.  The 18th Brigade took part in the defence of Tobruk until it was withdrawn at the end of August.  After Tobruk, the 2/10th trained in Palestine and between late September 1941 and early January 1942 formed part of the force garrisoning Syria.  It sailed for Australia on 11 February, disembarking in Adelaide on 29th March.

    Papua was the 2/10th’s next battleground and the battles it fought there were its most bitter and costly.  It arrived at Milne Bay on 12th August and on the night of 27th August was overwhelmed by Japanese marines in a confused battle.  The battalion fared even worse in its next engagement - Buna.  Between 23rd December and 2nd January the 2/10th lost 113 men killed and 205 wounded in often ill-conceived attacks against Japanese bunkers around the old airstrip.  The 2/10th’s final engagement in Papua was at Sanananda between 9th and 24th January 1943.  It returned home on 12th March 1943.

    The 2/10th returned to Papua in early August 1943.  It trained around Port Moresby until deployed to the Finisterre Mountains in New Guinea on 31st December, where it participated in the operations to secure Shaggy Ridge between 4th January and 1st February 1944.  Arriving back in Australia on 8th May, the 2/10th spent a year training before undertaking its final operation of the war.  On 1st July 1945 the battalion landed at Balikpapan in Borneo and stormed the heights of Parramatta Ridge.  In ensuing days it cleared the Japanese from in and around Balikpapan town, and was withdrawn into reserve on 6 July.  It did not carry out another active role before the war ended on 15th August 1945.  2/10th personnel were progressively returned to Australia for discharge and with a cadre of only 42 remaining, the battalion disbanded at Balikpapan on 29th December 1945.

    During the war the Australian War Memorial published an annual series of books which covered the events of the past year.  Some paragraphs in Richard Stephens’ copies are marked, as having special significance to him.  In the first book, “Active Service”, covering the events to the end of 1941, the relevant paragraphs describe the capture of the oasis of Giarabub on the eastern border of Libya, and the siege of Tobruk.

GIARABUB

    THE oasis of Giarabub, remote from the coastal areas where the main actions and rapid movements of our forces in Libya took place, was for three months the centre of minor operations.  These, and their setting, differed greatly from the rest of the campaign.

    Giarabub lies in Libya about 160 miles south of Sollum, and close to the Egyptian frontier.  It is the religious focal point for the followers of Mohamed Ben Ali el Senussi, whose teachings were propounded here and whose asceticism has its memorial in a fine mosque containing Senussi's tomb.  The oasis area was ceded by Egypt to Italy in 1925, as a means of enabling the Italian administration to exercise better control of the Senussi tribesmen.

    The surrounding country is sheer desert.  An escarpment rises above Giarabub on the north.  On other sides the oasis area, which is thirty feet below sea level, is cupped within sand hills and eroded crags and knolls and “marsh” patches of dark, impassable sand.  On the south, the Great Sand Sea extends its shimmering waves as outposts of the Sahara.

    Across the frontier in Egypt is Siwa, a larger and more fertile oasis area, of greater antiquity.

    After the Italians advanced to Sidi Barrani, it was thought possible that they would attack Siwa from Giarabub.  Only a small Anglo-Egyptian outpost was at that time based on Siwa.

    Much enemy activity across the frontier was noticed.  Further north, beside the frontier wire running to Fort Capuzzo, the Italians had a post at Maddalena.  Their lines of communication were by desert tracks, the main one going north-west to Derna.

    Late in November 1940, it was decided to relieve the British infantry detachment by a squadron of Sixth Australian Division's cavalry regiment.  “B” Squadron was detailed for the task, moving to the pleasant springs and date palm groves of Siwa early in December.

    On the 11th, the Squadron made the A.I.F.'s first raid against enemy lines in Libya, cutting telephone wires near the Maddalena post, and returning with informa-tion about the defences.

    The British front in Egypt was now taking the offensive.  On 17th December, our cavalry regiment's headquarters, with portion of Headquarters Squadron and “C” Squadron, moved to Siwa.  Three days later, the regiment began to put out patrols north-west of Giarabub.  The role was now changing from that of defending Siwa to cutting off Giarabub.  A number of successful raids on convoys and outposts were made.  On 18th December, it was reported that the enemy was evacuating Maddalena.

    At Giarabub, however, his forces sat tight.  At this stage they probably comprised some1,200 Italian and 700 Libyan troops.  Their artillery was limited, but well sited, and the country favoured an obstinate defence.  There was a central walled fort, heavily wired.  Approaches were guarded by strong posts, those facing north being particularly strong.  The whole area was enclosed with a twelve foot thickness of barbed wire.  Our patrols of mechanised cavalry could harass convoys entering or leaving, but were not strong enough to achieve more.  Any approach to the escarpment edge on the north side drew accurate fire, the flanks were commanded by knolls and guarded by a wilderness of sand bogs, and the Great Sand Sea to the south was impassable to guns and heavy vehicles.

    Action to capture Giarabub was considered when the British offensive moved into Libya.  It, was decided to use troops of the 18th Australian Infantry Brigade, who had just arrived from England, and were well advanced in training and equipment.  Brigadier L.  J. Morshead, who then commanded this brigade, made a reconnaissance of the Giarabub front immediately after the fall of Bardia.  He reported to the Com-mander-in-Chief, British Forces in Egypt, in favour of a plan “to deny the enemy supplies and so starve them into submission.” This policy was, for the time being, accepted.

    So the situation rested, while the main tide of battle moved westward across coastal Libya.  The cavalry regiment and the few British guns operating with it contained an enemy whose capture appeared more or less inevitable.

    The siege was tightened with an occasional raid by the Long Range Desert Group.  Comprising New Zealanders and some British troops, this motorised force had been created for long range raiding and reconnaissance between Italian posts in Libya.  Its journeys included trans-desert raids into Tripolitania, contact with Free French in their advance to Kufra oasis, and a crossing of the Great Sand Sea.  A picturesque unit of bearded men, this unit ranged far and wide, setting its course by the stars on long desert voyages.

    In March, the plan for an attack on Giarabub was revived.  Units of the 18th Australian Infantry Brigade filled the infantry role.

    The troops allotted to the capture of Giarabub, in addition to the Sixth Australian Division Cavalry unit, were the 2/9th Battalion and “D” Company of the 2/10th Battalion, with the 2/10th Battalion mortar and anti-tank platoons and a section of the medium machine guns drawn from the 2/10th and 2/12th Battalions as a reserve of infantry support fire power; a battery of British artillery, a company of Royal Engineers, signallers, an Indian motor transport company and two Lysander aircraft.

    The Long Range Desert Group co-operated by watching the country west of Giarabub.

    The commander, 18th Australian Infantry Brigade, took charge of operations, and on 18th March set up his headquarters at a gap in a rocky hill several miles east of Giarabub.

    It was believed that the oasis was then held by 1,000 Italians and about 30 Libyans.  (Practically all of the enemy's native troops had, by now, deserted.) Enemy posts and patrols were widely spread.  It was desired to complete our operations so that Australian troops would be back at Mersa Matruh by the 25th.

    On the 18th, two platoons of the 2/9th Battalion moved to reconnoitre an approach to Giarabub from the south-east.  This party sighted enemy guns and vehicles at a post to the south and in rear of the proposed line of reconnaissance.  They were not strong enough to attack, and the commander did not feel justified in continuing his task across completely unknown country while an enemy detachment was at large behind him.  The reconnaissance was therefore abandoned.

    On the 19th, the Brigadier decided to send a force of two companies, plus mortar and anti-aircraft detachments, to test what appeared on the map to be a possible line of approach from the south-east.  This force was to secure a N.E.-S.W. line close to Giarabub before dawn on the 20th.  Its experience in this task would decide whether or not a main assault from the south-east was practicable.  It had appeared, from aerial photographs and such maps as existed, that the knolls on the southern sector dominated Giarabub, and that their loss by the enemy would therefore break his defence plan.

    The advance guard left the Brigade Headquarters area about noon - a long convoy of vehicles crawling and lurching deviously under the lee of rocky outcrops and escarpments.  A barely possible route for wheeled vehicles had been prospected.  Some trucks were bogged and others stopped through over-heating, but three hours of slow travel brought the head of the column to the double apron wire fence and a line of telephone poles running south-east of Giarabub.

    Crossing a gap in the wire, the vehicles turned on to a track skirting it and running north-west between stony knolls.

    These knolls were Italian observation posts.  Shelling began.  Troops debussed from the leading vehicles and pushed ahead in open order.  The enemy quickly abandoned his advanced observation posts and our troops gained ground under light shell fire.  The broken ground gave shelter from machine gun and rifle fire, and the advance was ahead of its objective by nightfall.  After dark, extensive patrolling along the enemy wire was carried out by the 2/9th Battalion.  Gaps were cut, and small posts inside the wire were raided.

    The enemy shelled the route of the advance uneasily and intermittently during the night.  He had not expected an attack from this quarter, where the approaches were through an appallingly difficult wilderness and where there had been little preliminary activity on our part to arouse his suspicions.

    By dawn on the 20th, the companies of the 2/9th Battalion held well advanced positions south-west, south and south-east of Giarabub.  The white dome of the mosque and some village buildings could be seen through a gap in the hills.

    The enemy had lost his observation posts, but his artillery and machine gun fire were brisk.

    Brigade headquarters moved up early in the morning, with the remainder of the 2/9th Battalion and one company of 2/10th Battalion.  A battery of British 25-pounders also arrived.  After a reconnaissance, plans were made for a dawn barrage and infantry attack next day.  An easterly dust storm blew all day on the 20th.  Supplies came laboriously forward through the sandy desolations.  Brigade and regimental headquarters - -groups of vehicles parked against the reverse slopes of rocky knolls - completed their preparations for one of Libya's minor but strenuous “mopping up” actions.

    At 5.30 a.m. on the 21st, the 25-pounders opened against the enemy's wire and gun positions.  Engineers, with bangalore torpedoes, were forward to blow gaps in the wire.  Our barrage was answered by only slight artillery fire.  Enemy dispositions had apparently been made on the assumption that our attack would come from the north, where most of the earlier demonstrations by the Sixth Australian Division Cavalry had been made.  These demonstrations were now renewed, and kept the enemy guns busy on the north.

    Under the barrage, the infantry seized enemy posts south of Giarabub, while the right company took a knoll which commanded the entrance to the village.  Another fierce sandstorm, this time from the north-west, made conditions uncomfortable.

    Later in the morning, the sandstorm reduced visibility to an extent which made it extremely difficult for Brigade Headquarters to plot the advance of our troops.

    In some instances there was fairly determined enemy resistance.  Before 8.30 a.m. however, he had yielded sufficient commanding ground to seal the fate of Giarabub.  Groups of prisoners were trickling out, and his artillery was silenced.  It was known that “nests” of the enemy were as yet untouched in the palm plantation on the eastern edge of the town, and plans were discussed for an artillery programme to subdue them.  This proved unnecessary, however; as the infantry pressed over the hills and sand flats, the opposition dwindled.  One enemy plane appeared to the west, about 10 a.m. and dropped bombs.  By 11 a.m., 300 prisoners had been taken, including the officer commanding the southern sector.  In the meantime, the cavalry on the north had thrust ahead briskly and broken the enemy's line of defence posts.  The final stages of mopping up the dugouts and stone-walled gun posts on the edges of the small village were without incident.  Giarabub, its truculent little lieutenant-colonel, some 1,200 white troops, 30 Libyans and a few guns were in our hands.  The mosque was undamaged.  A few calm Senussi stood about, awaiting the new masters.

    Australian casualties during the operation were fewer than 100.  As a battle, Giarabub was spectacular only in its setting of jagged wastelands and sandy mazes around a cluster of small buildings and burrows where men had lived for months.  To the 18th Australian Infantry Brigade who took the village, it may have seemed the very end of the world-a wind-swept misery in which the bodies of their dead were half covered in sand, an hour after they fell.

    To the men of the cavalry regiment who had kept patient and difficult watch on the place for more than three months, and to the services who supplied them over appalling tracks, Giarabub was journey's end.  Its fall released them for a well-earned rest and an overdue refit before the next call to action.

SIEGE OF TOBRUK

    WHEN the enemy forces first pushed through from El Agheila, a local defence scheme had been hastily improvised by the sub-area command at Tobruk, the main and much-battered port of supply for our troops in Libya.  Around this “scratch force,” a medley of detachments flowed as administrative staffs and fighting troops fell back from Derna and Mechili.  Detachments, stragglers and escaped prisoners continued to arrive for some days.

    With the appearance of Ninth Division, the defence coalesced on the line of the old Italian perimeter system.  Command of all forces in the area was assumed by General Morshead on 14th April.

    In the meantime, the Bardia road had been cut.  Tobruk again became a besieged fortress-with the difference that sea communication with Egypt was still open; a difficult, costly line of communication, harassed by the Luftwaffe, but a life-line which made Tobruk a real obstacle to the German drive.

    To our forces at Tobruk were allotted the tasks of:
(i) Maintaining their present position in order to deny the use of the port to the enemy, and to enable it to be used as a base for future operations when reinforcements became available and the situation permitted.
(ii) Taking any opportunity that might occur for local offensive action to hinder the enemy’s advance on Egypt, in so far as such operations proved possible without jeopardising the defence of Tobruk itself.

    The first defence plan was based on the fact that i8th Australian Infantry Brigade, which had been moved up from Egypt, were a fresh and well-equipped reinforcement.  With a force of tanks, including those which had managed to fall back on Tobruk, 18th Brigade were placed in reserve for counter-attack, while Ninth Division were disposed about the perimeter defences.  The preparation of other defence works in depth was pushed ahead.

    After preliminary skirmishing and probing, the enemy launched his first serious attack against Tobruk on Easter Monday, 14th April.  Panzerkampfwagen - strongly armoured 22-ton medium tanks - led the attack against a section of the perimeter held by the 2/17th Battalion.  These tanks passed through our forward defended localities in the dark, and at first light had progressed almost up to El Adem - Bardia road junction, a distance of about three miles.  Here, however, a surprise awaited them.  Intense fire from our field and anti-tank guns caused them to turn.  Seventeen were knocked out, the remainder retiring precipitately through the perimeter.

    The fire of our 25-pounders was particularly effective.  In some instances the heavy turret and 75-mm gun and mounting were blown completely off the German tanks.  Our front line infantry had held firm while the tanks passed between their posts and the perimeter.  They remained ready to deal with the enemy’s supporting infantry, and so isolate the tanks.  The situation was completely restored, with, in addition to the heavy tank casualties, the loss to the enemy of 110 dead and 250 captured.

    Perhaps the most striking tribute to the spirit of the defence was that written by the commander of a German tank regiment.  The following passage is from a document prepared by him, which subsequently fell into our hands:
“The Intelligence gave out before the attack that the enemy was exhausted, that his artillery was extremely weak, and that his morale had become very low.  Before the beginning of the third attack the regiment had not had the slightest idea of the well designed and executed defences of the enemy nor of a single battery position, or of the terrific number of anti-tank guns.  Also it was not known that he had heavy tanks.  The regiment went into battle with unbendable will, determined at all costs to break through the enemy and take Tobruk.  Only the vastly superior enemy, the frightful loss and the lack of any supporting weapons caused the regiment to fail in its task.
39 tanks went into battle.
17 tanks were shot to pieces by the enemy.
 2 officers are missing and wounded.
21 N.C.O’s and men are missing.
10 N.C.O’s and men are wounded.
This means a total loss of 50%.”

    The little garrison on the perimeter had a smile on their lips, a new con-fidence in their hearts.  They had begun to take their revenge.

    The defence was also successful in the air on this day.  Of a force of more than 40 enemy planes which came over in conjunction with the tank attack, 13 were shot down by the R.A.F.  and 4 by anti-aircraft fire.

    A number of local attacks continued to be made, as much perhaps as re-prisals for audacious raids from the fortress and to maintain Italo-German morale, as to test our defences.  However, it was clear that there was not perfect accord in the enemy camp.  On one occasion Italian infantry came into action and, on withdrawing after a severe hammering, were fired on by German tanks, which were “supporting” them.  On another, the tanks went in but the Italian infantry did not follow.  Again the tanks were driven out without loss.

    As work on strengthening our defence system progressed, the garrison developed a policy of vigorous patrols and raids.  These, coupled with strong air action against concentrations of enemy vehicles, put the besiegers on the defensive, and they began to dig in.

    All arms and services within the Tobruk line added something to the tradition of aggressive defence that was being built up here.  The British character and the Australian found in this tight corner an atmosphere that drew out and blended their particular qualities.  Stubborn, ironic in humour, inventive, cunning, fundamentally sure of themselves, they grew into a compact community.  If in this narrative the emphasis is given to the work of the infantry, it is because there is much in the work of other arms and services at Tobruk which cannot yet be revealed.  The “spirit of the bayonet” can be taken as typical of the whole garrison.

    One of the early fighting patrol episodes, which illustrates this spirit, was carried out by a company of the 2/23rd Battalion on 22nd April.  The purpose was to discover the locations of enemy positions astride the Derna road on the western sector, to comb wadis in the area and to take prisoners.  The company went out in two parties before dawn.

    The first party, under intensive artillery, mortar, and machine gun fire, proceeded for about two miles, when they were unable to go further.  The party then retired, driving before them one captured officer and 18 men, in addition to a previous batch of prisoners captured on the way out and sent back.

    The second party were quickly sent to ground by heavy machine gun and artillery fire, but they engaged enemy infantry positions and caused heavy casualties at short range.  Later they seized the positions and took prisoners.  One of these prisoners indicated that he and nine others were all that were left of their company after the fight.

    The party continued their advance, still under heavy fire, and came within point blank range of at least two batteries.  This patrol was now about 22 miles from the starting point.  At this stage carriers moved forward and gave supporting fire as the party charged the batteries.

    After a hot action, the little force began to fight their way back under intense fire of every description.  One carrier returned to the perimeter with wounded and then went forward again for more.  Three carriers were extricated, two were destroyed by direct hits, and two broke down, their crews dismounting and taking up positions supporting the party.  Very heavy casualties were inflicted, and prisoners were taken who moved back with the party (prisoners captured in earlier stages had already been returned under escort).  The fight lasted over five hours, and we were extremely fortunate to extricate the bulk of our forces.

    This action was typical.  Time after time, our raiding parties and patrols sallied forth from the perimeter, gaining information, inflicting heavy casualties, capturing prisoners, and generally forcing the besieging force to adopt a defensive role.

    Before either side had consolidated its position, there was a slight outbreak of “warfare of words,” the enemy taking the offensive by dropping pamphlets which read :

 “The General Officer Commanding German forces in Libya hereby requests that British troops occupying Tobruk surrender their arms.  Single soldiers waving white handkerchiefs are not fired on.  Strong German forces have already surrounded Tobruk and it is useless to try and escape.  Remember Mechili.  Our dive bombers and Stukas are awaiting your ships which are lying in Tobruk.”

To this we replied with the following leaflet, using a rather more cajoling tone:

“Soldiers of Italy!
“For you and your companions the day of peace and happiness is close at hand.  In all Africa your comrades have given up the battle - in Abyssinia the war is over; the Ambassador from the Duke d’Aosta has already made prelimi-nary peace terms with British General Headquarters.
“Yesterday thousands of your countrymen were taken prisoner at Tobruk.  It is quite useless to make any further sacrifices of this kind.  All Italian soldiers who have been captured by the British have been treated in the finest manner.
“So make an end of this before your losses become considerably larger.”

    Where victory lay in this verbal skirmish is not clear, but at least the number of Italian prisoners in our hands continued to mount.

    By the end of April the provision of direct air protection for Tobruk by fighter aircraft had become most difficult.  The Air Force, however, was striking powerful blows in aid of the defence by its bombing attacks on enemy posts and supply lines.

    Enemy air-raids increased in number and intensity.  Although many machines had been shot down by our fighters and anti-aircraft defences, the scale of attack was maintained.  The main objective, of course, was to make the port of Tobruk unwork-able.  The extent of the enemy air-raids can be gauged from the fact that, between 9th April and 31st May no less than 1,431 enemy planes were over Tobruk.  Forty-nine of these were shot down by anti-aircraft fire, and at least 42 were severely damaged but were not seen to fall.  The continuous programme of bombing raids naturally took toll of our shipping, but it did not succeed in closing the port.

    For the sake of Axis solidarity the Germans had intended to allot a share of success to the Italians in the re-conquest of Cirenaica.  The first infantry support in the April attempts to take Tobruk had been Italian.  But the Germans soon recognised that Italian infantry morale was chronically low.  It was not surprising, therefore, that a primarily German force was used when the enemy made a determined drive against the Medauuar sector on the morning of 1st May.  This time he meant to overwhelm finally the Tobruk defenders.

    The attack was led by about 60 tanks, including the heaviest and best vehicles which the Germans had at their disposal.  These were followed by newly arrived German infantry, short of desert experience but accustomed to victory in France.  By dusk, the enemy held about 4000 yards of the perimeter defence frontage.  But he failed completely against the secondary line, and his losses were heavy.  In this assault, enemy tanks “sat down” on some of our forward posts and pinned down the garrisons while German infantry enveloped the positions.

    During this operation the enemy used flame throwing apparatus.  He had thrown his most formidable resources into the attack, and had gained ground which included a hillock useful for observation.  In his wider purposes he had failed.

    Toward the end of May, the enemy was settling down to a plan for economically containing the garrison of Tobruk.  Attacks by tanks were discontinued.  The German armoured formations in Cirenaica now seemed to be reserved for holding off British forces on the Sollum front, and for probing south-eastward on the escarpment edge in the Halfya Pass area.  Italo-German reinforcement plans were seriously upset by the interception of convoys between Sicily and Tripoli, and by the regular air attacks on Benghazi.  This probably influenced the adoption of “defensive siege” tactics by the Germans and Italians outside Tobruk.

    The machine gun was the most important weapon used in these tactics.  The Ger-man posts were well armed with machine guns sited to operate on fixed lines of fire against our positions.  The enemy policy was to pin down our forward section posts and to become master of the perimeter through fire superiority.  Part of his artillery support for this plan was Italian.  It produced prompt and accurate shelling whenever move-ment was detected in our advanced positions.  The high ground which the enemy had taken on 1st May in the Medauuar sector aided his fire plan.  But against this observation point the frequent dust storms gave some protection to movement within our lines.

    Night patrols were active on our front.  The use of bangalore torpedoes, which had aided us in our attacks on Bardia and Tobruk in January, was now an enemy means of blowing our wire.  At night he also dug cover close to the wire, and this was used by the probing forces sent out in daylight to test and draw fire from our outposts.  In general, sporadic duels of automatic weapon fire, with artillery on both sides sensitively responding to local movements, marked a phase of watchfulness along the perimeter.

    In the air, the “Stuka parade” of German bombers continued unabated over Tobruk.  Their raids were primarily directed against harbour shipping, where even old wrecks were subject to determined attack.  It was common for 50 bombing planes to take part in the attacks, which were of daily occurrence.  The town grew more and more untidy in appearance, but the working of the port continued.  The spirit of aggressive defence, which had given early proof of its quality against tank attacks, remained throughout May.  On the perimeter it found a cautious expression as the use of sorties became restricted by the accuracy and strength of enemy machine gun fire.

    The defenders had learned the weaknesses in the Italian-built lines which they now held.  Some of the concrete pillboxes had proved to be traps.  In one attack, enemy tanks which had been immobilised but not abandoned had been able to keep the wide apertures of these pillboxes under such punishing fire that the garrisons were unable to use their weapons.  These blinded posts were then approached by the enemy, who killed or drove out our men with grenades.  The countering of such defects formed part of the extensive re-planning and supplementing of the defence lines.

    The immediate aim, in the long-drawn fire duel of the perimeter, was to retain observation of the enemy.  In a bare, hard landscape that lacked minor cover, the possession of a wadi bank or precedence in setting up a machine gun to command a thousand yards of featureless plateau, meant the suppressing of all daylight movement among the troops opposite.  In this ground stalking the Australians supplemented their own automatic weapons with captured Breda and other enemy guns.  Huge quantities of Italian ammunition had been taken when the town fell in January.  Some of this was now used against the enemy.  Our regular artillery support was mainly British.  Its value, like that of the infantry defence, depended on observation.  Courage and enterprise by the artillery observation officers, and a typically informal and effective co-operation between the guns and infantry posts, enabled our resources to be used very effectively.

    Unrelieved service, heat and dust in a Libyan summer affect the quality of machines and weapons.  The outward bearing of men, also, changes under the abrasives of desert warfare.  Among troops with the general high calibre of the garrison of Tobruk there remained a will to hold on and a readiness to challenge the enemy at any time.  But in manner the A.I.F. in Tobruk were very different from the men who had ridden through Cirenaica in February and March to occupy a province abandoned with so inept a resistance by the Italians.

    These men were tempered in a steadier heat of war.  They kept watch on horizons of dust storm and sun haze, and wind and sun burnt their bodies to a mahogany brown.  They lived harder than the simplest drover “back o’ Bourke” - and disliked it.  There were fleas and flies to disturb their sleep.  There were patrolling and digging and - quite as exacting in its way - hours of motionless watching.  The men of the perimeter lived in a world of dust and aridity in which Nature had left not one soft, redeeming feature.

    Some of them were sardonic, and all of them were tired before the summer ended.  After the first phase of boredom came a reaction.  The love of record-breaking is strong in Australians.  Perhaps there was a new record to be made by holding this wilderness and driving the enemy to despair and defeat.  Men who had reflected on the pleasant possibilities of being transferred away from Tobruk were now inclined to qualify the thought.  Having endured so much for so long, there was something to be said for “seeing it through” to the end.

    Of themselves as men and soldiers they remained confident.  They had found that whenever the odds were approximately level, they could out-fight the German.

    The enemy knew the qualities of our men.  Some interesting observations were found in a captured German document, prepared by the O.C. of a Lorried Infantry battalion.

“The Australians, who are the men our troops have had opposite them so far, are extraordinarily tough fighters,” wrote the O.C.  “The German is more active in the attack but the enemy stakes his life in the defence and fights to the last and with extreme cunning.  Our men, usually easy-going and unsuspecting, fall easily into his traps.

“Enemy snipers have astounding results.  They shoot at anything they recognise.  Several N.C.O’s of the Battalion have been shot through the head with the first shot while making observation in the front line.  Protruding sights in gun-directors have been shot off, observation slits and loopholes have been fired on and hit as soon as they were seen to be in use.”

    Behind the front, another phase of the struggle went doggedly on.  Anti-aircraft defences, hospitals, workshops and a whole series of administrative and supply services had to function as part of the defence of Tobruk.  Men working in or near the town were apt to talk with sober respect of the dangers “up forward” in some exposed sector of the perimeter.  In the forward posts, on the other hand, the uncertainty of existence in the bomb target areas further back was stressed.  It is part of the saving philosophy of troops in a war zone that the accustomed dangers of their own sector are measured more lightly than those under which they see other units living.

    Along Tobruk’s lines of communication, the essential services functioned under air blitz and long-range bombardment.  Bits of the town crumbled away.  Men who had to live there made themselves as safe and comfortable as possible, and got on with their jobs.  The harbour was wreck-strewn.  Lighters still plied upon its waters, men still worked the ships.  Tobruk’s news sheet, “The Dinkum Oil” (its name conjuring up memories of another Australian production on Gallipoli, in 1915), lived up to its motto of “always appears,” by reproducing the B.B.C. news bulletins daily, with an occasional cartoon and local supplement.  The whole area, in fact, lived up to the spirit of a slogan lettered on one water front office - ”Business as Usual During Air Raids.”

    One thing sustained that spirit and gave it reality - the unfailing efficiency and hard work of the Navy.  British and Australian destroyers made it possible, month after dangerous month, for reinforcements and supplies to reach Tobruk, for sick and wounded men and small parties to go out.  The Navy bore its drudging share in the defence of Tobruk not only with skill and courage, but with a cheerful courtesy which the men of the garrison will always remember.

    Tobruk has become a tradition.  In history it will surely stand as starkly and poignantly as a cenotaph of stone.  On a hillside near the Mediterranean is the cemetery with the graves of those who died to take and hold Tobruk.  Nearby is a harbour of wrecked ships and the white shell of a wrecked town.  Beyond, the fantastic litter of war spreads over a stony waste.  Desolation could hardly be more complete.  But men have endowed the vista with an inner meaning, and the escarpment of Tobruk has become a monument to their endurance.

    The third volume published by the Australian War Memorial at the end of 1943, entitled “Khaki And Green”, covered the war in New Guinea and the Pacific.  Actions that the 2/10th Battalion were engaged in included Milne Bay, Buna and Sanananda.

PLAN TO TAKE MORESBY.

    To recount this slight history of the campaign as concisely as possible, it is necessary to recapitulate, briefly, facts relevant to the commencement of hostilities.  The enemy planned to capture Port Moresby by the third or fourth week in September 1942 with a triple offensive movement - from Milne Bay along the south-west-ern coast, by naval assault of the south coast, and through the Owen Stanley Ranges.

    Australians smashed the Japanese landing forces at Milne Bay, American naval forces had a decisive victory in the Coral Sea in May 1942, and the battle of the Owen Stanley Ranges followed by the battle of the beach-heads completed the enemy debacle in Papua.

    On the 24th of August 1941 the Milne Bay garrison consisted of two infantry brigades, one C.M.F. and the other, which had just arrived, A.I.F.  In addition there were a few base units, two squadrons of R.A.A.F. fighters and a detachment of R.A.A.F. bombers.

    The garrison was commanded by Major-General C. A. Clowes, who had assumed command on the 21st of August.

    On the afternoon of the 24th of August, coast-watchers sighted seven Jap barges mov-ing west of Porlock Harbour and on the morning of the 25th of August they were re-ported to have landed troops on the south-west coast of Goodenough Island.  Our fighters took off in bad weather and during the after-noon destroyed all the barges drawn up on the beach.  This left a party of about three or four hundred enemy marooned on the island to be dealt with later.

    However, this was only portion of the enemy’s force, for on the morning of the 25th of August a reconnaissance aircraft had sighted a fleet of nine vessels including war-ships steaming at full speed southwards.  It soon became evident that the fleet was head-ing for Milne Bay and final preparations were made to defeat the attack.

JAPS LAND.  The enemy landed by barges on the north shore of Milne Bay near KB Mission in the early hours of the 26th of August.  Our bombers attacked the enemy force during the landing operations and although they sank one ship and inflicted other damage, the majority of the Japs got ashore.

    Two platoons of the 61st Battalion who were returning by ketch to Gili Gili from the north-east coast of Milne Bay, ran into a concentration of enemy landing barges about this time.  Troops on the leading ketch opened fire and inflicted casualties on the enemy but their craft was soon sunk.  The second ketch was able to escape in the darkness.

    One company of the 61st Battalion at KB Mission was in action soon after the initial Jap landing and at dawn was still holding the enemy east of the Mission.  The Japs had landed light tanks and one of these broke through our position during the night.  It was immediately attacked with hand grenades and was forced to withdraw.

    Next day another company of the 61st Bat-talion moved forward, and in the afternoon an attack by both companies, supported by artillery and aircraft, was launched.  The at-tack made some progress but was eventually halted.

FIGHTERS ATTACK.  From dawn on the 26th of August and thereafter, our fighter aircraft were busy, ground strafing enemy concentrations, destroying enemy dumps and supporting our forward troops.  The thick jungle prevented the pilots from observing enemy movements but it was evident that their attacks were both costly and demoralizing to the Japs.

    A further enemy convoy of about six ships landed more troops and supplies on the night of the 26th/27th of August and towards dawn our troops were pushed back to Rabi, about one and a half miles west of KB Mission.  At dawn, however, the enemy withdrew eastward and the 2/10th Battalion moved forward to KB Mission which was reached late that afternoon without opposition.

    The enemy heavily attacked the 2/10th Battalion with tanks, equipped with brilliant headlamps, on the night of the 27th/28th of August.  The Battalion held for about two hours until the Japanese, using their tanks as a spearhead, forced their way down the track, cutting the battalion in two.  Our troops withdrew to the rear of No.  3 Strip, where Brigadier J. Field, with the 25th and 61st Battalions, had organized a strong defensive position.  Driving on to this strip the Japs were halted by the murderous belt of fire put down by the two battalions.  Several attacks were made on our position, but all were held at great cost to the enemy, and by nightfall of the 28th of August, the position remained unchanged.  Great credit is due to the 25th and 61st Battalions for their steadiness and coolness in their first action.  At no time did the enemy appear to get the better of them.

    A third enemy naval force arrived in Milne Bay on the night of the 29th/30th of August.  Although some of our positions were shelled it is not clear whether more troops were landed.  On the 30th of August, patrols from the 61st Battalion moved forward from No. 3 Strip, reaching KB Mission.  During that night the enemy again attacked No. 3 Strip, again without success.

WE ADVANCE.  Brigadier G. F. Wootten now commenced our advance by pushing the 2/12th Battalion east towards KB Mission on the morning of the 31st of August.  Overcoming considerable opposition with much hand-to-hand fighting, the battalion surged forward and reached KB Mission by afternoon and took up positions for the night.  A strong enemy counter-attack on the rear companies of the 2/12th Battalion which had been reinforced by a company of the 2/9th Battalion, was driven off in the early hours of the following morning and during that day our forces consolidated their positions.  The advance continued against stiffening opposition on the 2nd of September and about one thousand yards were gained.  That night more enemy warships arrived in Milne Bay but they took no apparent offensive action.  During the night the 2/12th Battalion repulsed further strong counter attacks.

    The 2/9th Battalion now moved forward through the 2/12th Battalion and on the 3rd of September launched a strong attack with artillery and air support.  The opposition held until late afternoon, when our troops smashed through to gain a further six hundred yards, and on the following day fought their way past Goroni, two miles east of KB Mission.  On the 5th of September Waga Waga was reached and the main enemy opposition encountered.  Our attack was held.

    Enemy warships were in Milne Bay during the night of the 3rd/4th of September, and again on the night of the 5th/6th of September when, it is believed, elements of the Jap force were embarked.  From this time all strong enemy resistance ceased, and on the 6th of September the 2/9th Battalion pushed forward, capturing considerable enemy store dumps but striking no organized opposition.

    One of our supply ships was sunk at Gili Gili wharf, and our positions shelled by enemy naval forces in Milne Bay on the night of the 7th/8th of September.  This was, however, the last appearance of the Jap Navy in the area and was probably intended as a parting gesture.

END OF CAMPAIGN.  For weeks afterwards scattered parties of Japs roamed the hills on the north arm of Milne Bay, living on the country and attempting to avoid our patrols.  These parties were apparently trying to reach their forces at Buna, but the majority was either killed or captured by our patrols, or died of starvation and exposure.

    It is difficult to estimate the enemy casualties in this campaign but at a conservative figure more than seven hundred Japs were killed by our ground action.  To this must be added the wounded who apparently embarked on the night of the 5th/6th of September and the casualties, reported to exceed three hundred, inflicted in the sinking of the Jap troopship by air action on the 26th of August.

    What was far more important was that the enemy attack on Milne Bay, first phase of the plan to take Papua, was utterly smashed, and left the enemy without the convenient air base from which he could support his attack on Port Moresby.

THE BATTLES FOR THE BEACH-HEADS

    It has been convenient to divide the Papuan campaign into three phases.  The first phase ended when the enemy was smashed in Milne Bay.  The second ended when the Japanese advance over the Owen Stanley Ranges was stopped forty miles from Moresby, and an A.I.F. division com-prising two A.I.F. infantry brigades and two C.M.F. battalions drove the enemy from the ranges, overcame country that must be seen to be believed, forced him from seemingly secure positions along Eora Creek, smashed him at Oivi and Gorari, and drove him in confusion toward the coast.

BUNA-SANANANDA-GONA.  The third and final phase covered the fighting for the enemy beach-heads at Buna, Sanananda and Gona.  This phase began on the 20th of November 1942 and continued until the 22nd of January 1943.  It called for the highest qualities of leadership, for courage to equal the fanatical ardour of the Japanese, for complete Allied co-operation on land and in the air, and for a strategy which aimed a direct blow at the heart of the Japanese resistance.

    General Sir Thomas Blarney had realized all these things.  He personally surveyed the country over which Allied troops must fight.  He had evolved a comprehensive, far-seeing, forceful plan, which embraced full use of American troops, and the transport, by air and with the utmost secrecy, of Australian troops for the first time in Australian military history.  He provided for the use of carriers and tanks and for increased artillery fire-power.  He charged Lieut.-General E. F. Herring with the responsibility to carry out the plan.  To this plan General MacArthur had given his blessing.

THE BATTLE FOR BUNA

U.S. FORCES IN ACTION.  The battle for Buna commenced when U.S. troops made con-tact on the left near Ango and on the right about four thousand yards south of Cape En-daiadere.  This was the first time these troops had been in action.  The troops on the right later became known as the Warren Force, those on the left as the Urbana Force.

    Two battalions attacked with artillery sup-port on the 24th of November, but were held by heavy machine-gun fire and wire.  During the next few days further attacks were launched with some success until on the 6th of December a detachment of one of the U.S. battalions reached the coast east of Buna village and successfully repulsed several subsequent counter-attacks.  The other U.S. battalion by this time had reached Entrance Creek.  Here U.S. troops were finally halted and could make no further advance against the strong enemy opposition.

    On the east, U.S. troops pushed forward until they were halted on the southern edge of the New Strip, a dummy aerodrome which had been constructed by the Japs some time previously.

    Many attacks were launched by our troops but the enemy held his strongly-constructed bunker positions and no further gain was made.

    At this stage Lieut.-General Eichelberger, a U.S. Commander, arrived in the area with his staff and took over command of the forces east of the Girua River, under Lieut.-General Herring.  Brigadier-General Waldron took over command of the U.S. troops but he was wounded almost immediately and his successor, Brigadier-General Byers, suffered the same fate a few days later.  From then on Lieut.-General Eichelberger personally controlled the U.S. forces.

    It was now apparent that a deadlock had been reached, and General Sir Thomas Blamey decided to concentrate his reserves on the Buna-Cape Endaiadere front, and to strike strongly at the enemy in that sector, while holding the Jap with minimum forces in the Sanananda track area.

    An A.I.F. brigade was brought by sea from Milne Bay and together with tanks was landed in the Oro Bay-Hariko area, while a fresh U.S. regiment was flown from Port Moresby to Popondetta and Dobodura airfields.

    On the 11th of December a battalion of a new U.S. regiment commenced to relieve other U.S. troops, and on the 14th of December launched a strong attack against Buna village.  The attack was pressed with great vigour, and by nightfall the village was in our hands with the surviving enemy retreating to Buna Mission.

    Meanwhile the fresh A.I.F. brigade was landing on the east coast and its commander, Brigadier G. F. Wootten, was given com-mand of Warren Force on the 17th December.

CAPE ENDAIADERE FALLS.  On the 18th of December the 2/9th Battalion with eight tanks of the 2/6th Armoured Regiment began the attack against the enemy positions north of Cape Endaiadere.  Moving forward with the greatest risk on a limited front they smashed through the enemy resistance, which had held up all attempts to advance for several weeks, and by noon had reached Cape Endaiadere.  Here the 2/9th Battalion turned west towards Buna Mission.  Casualties both to men and tanks were heavy, but despite this, the initial momentum of the attack was never lost.  The advance made on this day was a magnificent piece of work, overcoming as it did strong enemy pillboxes mutually supporting and carefully concealed.

    American troops followed up the attack, mopping up as they went, and in the latter stages, when a nest of bunkers at the east end of the New Strip held them up, the tanks turned back to help in overcoming this resis-tance.

    The 2/9th Battalion fought magnificently during the next three days, moving west from Cape Endaiadere.  By the evening of the fourth day it had cleared the whole area north and east of Simemi Creek, a poisonous stream little better than a brackish swamp and varying in depth with the tides and the inland rainfall.

    Meanwhile our forces following on were by the 20th of December attempting to cross Simemi Creek in the face of stubborn resistance from the far bank.

    On the night of the 21st of December the 2/10th Battalion, under cover of a feint attack at the creek mouth, managed to establish a bridgehead, pushing a strong patrol across through thick undergrowth and nine feet of water.

    The bridgehead thus established had the most important bearing on movement across the bridge connecting the Old and New Strips.  Enemy pillboxes covered the approaches to this bridge and had been holding up all forward movement.  But with the establishment of the bridgehead in rear of this enemy position, the Japs vacated their pillboxes without further fighting and the lower end of the Old Strip was occupied by the 2/10th Bat-talion and a U.S. unit.  The bridge was quickly repaired and strengthened and the four remaining tanks were brought across.

    The 2/10th Battalion with one U.S. bat-talion, and later a second U.S. battalion, and artillery support, continued to fight over open ground up the Old Strip against a withering fire from pillboxes and numerous tank attack guns sighted down the clear ground.  The infantry worked their way for-ward despite the opposition.  The tanks had been knocked out early, and the only support to the infantry was a 25-pounder which was brought up near the bridge over Simemi Creek and fired at enemy positions at point-blank range.

NORTH COAST REACHED.  Further advance was again held up at the end of the Old Strip where dispersal bays afforded very adequate defensive positions for the enemy.  But towards the end of December the 2/12th Battalion was brought in.

    On New Year’s Day this fresh battalion, with two tanks, attacked towards the coast on a narrow front.  The fighting was again hard and casualties heavy, but by evening the coast had been reached and the area thus gained consolidated.  The following day scattered remnants of the enemy were mopped up and contact was made with Urbana Force, which had been operating further west.

BUNA MISSION FALLS.  Urbana Force, which had already taken Buna village on the 14th of December, had as its next objective Buna Mission further to the east.  But a very strongly defended locality known as the Triangle, south of Buna Mission, resisted all attempts to overrun it.  Eventually, how-ver, it was by-passed by one U.S. battalion which crossed Entrance Creek and formed a bridgehead while another U.S. battalion moved over.  Some heavy fighting followed and the line was pushed forward inch by inch.

    The Triangle fell to U.S. troops on the 28th of December, and on the following day more U.S. forces drove northwards to the sea, isolating Buna Mission.

    On the 2nd of January the final attack on Buna Mission began from the south-east.  Companies from two U.S. regiments pushed forward slowly, suffering severely from cross-fire from enemy bunkers but making steady progress.  The Jap resistance was overrun in the final assault, and one U.S. battalion turned west and drove through to Giropa Point where contact was made with the 2/12th Battalion.

    All enemy resistance east of Buna was now at an end and the stage was set for the capture of Sanananda.  The U.S. battalions had fought hard and well in their first encounter, and while some commenced to garrison the newly captured area, others moved westward along the coast from Buna to eliminate the enemy forces still left between Buna and Sanananda.

    For the A.I.F. battalions and the tanks of the 2/6th Armoured Regiment there was a new task, the fight for Sanananda.

COMPLETION OF OPERATIONS.  Following our partially successful attack on the 7th of December our patrols continually harassed and pressed the enemy but no material progress resulted.  However an easier and more secure route was found to the road block-now named Huggens after the American commander who originally established it.  About the middle of December the 2/7th Australian Cavalry Regiment and the 36th Battalion were flown in to strengthen our attacking forces.

    On the 18th of December the 2/7th Cavalry Regiment moved up to the Huggens road block, and then attacked northwards along the Sanananda track.  It was the regiment’s first battle action and, fighting as infantry, it pushed forward some distance before it was finally halted by more strong enemy positions.  Further south a determined attack by the 36th Battalion was also repulsed and the position was once again static.

    By the 22nd of December, the 39th Battalion, fresh from its successes in the Amboga River mouth area arrived at the Sanananda track together with the brigade headquarters f rom Gona, and moved to reinforce Huggens road block.

    At this stage our own and enemy forces were disposed along either side of the Sanananda track with our southern brigade about three miles north of Soputa.  Immediately north of these troops was a strong enemy defensive area and north again of the Japs was our road block position.  Further enemy positions stretched from north of the road block to the coast.  Offensive action by the southern brigade now cleared the east side of the track as far north as the road block but the main Jap positions still remained.

    By late December it became apparent that the battle for Buna was nearly won and preparations to finish the Sanananda operations were commenced.  A fresh U.S. regiment arrived on the 1st of January and a regrouping of our forces then took place.  This U.S. regiment took over the Huggens road block position from 2/7th Cavalry Regiment and 39th Battalion who moved back to relieve the 36th and 55/53rd Battalions who in turn were despatched to Gona to relieve the A.I.F. bri-gade which had taken Gona on the 8th of December.

T    he A.I.F. brigade which had taken a prominent part in the Buna operations also moved overland with four tanks of the 2/6th Armoured Regiment.

    Our plan was for the A.I.F. brigade to smash the enemy locality south of the road block by a direct assault supported by aerial bombardment, artillery and tanks, and then to push northwards up the Cape Killerton track and attack the rear enemy positions of Sanananda Point from the west flank.  The U.S. regiment was to push forward along the Sanananda track from the road block and eventually link up with the A.I.F. brigade.

    On the 12th of January 1943, after a heavy artillery programme, the A.I.F. brigade commenced its attack.  The thick jungle and soggy ground limited the movement of the tanks to the track, where they were subjected to heavy fire, and were all eventually knocked out.

    Our infantry was held by the stubborn Jap defence and by nightfall a few enemy posi-tions had been captured.  We had, however, succeeded in almost encircling the enemy south of the road block, and next day we subjected this locality to an extremely heavy artillery and mortar bombardment.

    The scale of the bombardment was too much for the Jap and he made an abortive attempt to evacuate his position on the night of the 13th/14th of January, an attempt which resulted in the destruction of the greater part of the withdrawing force.

    At the same time a composite U.S. force was advancing westward from Buna to seize Giruwa which was believed to be the eastern flank of the Japs’ main defensive system.
Following the capture of Buna, General MacArthur and General Sir Thomas Blamey returned to Australia and Lieut.-General Herring returned to Port Moresby, leaving Lieut.-General Eichelberger to conduct operations in the forward area with Major-General Berryman as his chief of staff.  Major-General Vasey retained immediate command of the force operating along the Sanananda road.

    On the 14th of January the brigade drove north to the coast.  The 2/10th Battalion reached the coast east of Cape Killerton and then pushed east until it was halted near Wye Point, midway between Cape Killerton and Sanananda Point.  The 2/12th Battalion cut across country reaching the main Sanananda track about one thousand yards south of the coast.  It then turned north and attacked strongly up the track, taking locality after locality.

    Meanwhile the 2/9th Battalion moved east towards the main track, and then north towards the coast on a line parallel to the main Sanananda track.  Despite this difficult and arduous approach made through swamp, jungle and kunai, the battalion had driven in and taken Sanananda before noon, a magnificent achievement.  Part of the battalion then moved west to assist the 2/10th Battalion coming down towards Wye Point, and part attacked south along the track to meet the 2/12th Battalion which was coming up the main Sanananda track towards the sea.  Patrols of the 2/9th Battalion also moved east to-wards Giruwa to make contact with the U.S. forces.

    At the same time U.S. forces were heavily engaging the enemy, attacking northwards from the road block, while other U.S. troops completed mopping up south of that position.  The whole force then concentrated its strength on the main enemy positions north of the road block and moved forward slowly and methodically, dealing heavy blows at the Jap defences and smashing pillbox after pillbox.

    Another composite U.S. force was advancing westward from Buna.  Enemy positions at Tarakena retarded it for a time but Colonel Howe, the commander, who had now assumed personal command, brought up 37-mm guns loaded with canister shot and blasted the Japs from his front.  Further opposition was eliminated south of Giruwa and on the 21st of January contact was made with patrols of the 2/9th Battalion at Giruwa.

    There now remained only isolated bands of enemy, either attempting to escape or sur-rounded and fighting for their lives.

    All organized resistance ceased on the 22nd of January and the battle of the beach-heads was at an end.

    It must not be thought that victory was won by other than hard, sustained fighting.  The record of the 18th Australian Infantry Brigade, 2/9th, 2/10th, and 2/12th Battalions, is typical of other brigades.  The Buna and Sanananda fronts had been relatively static, but the arrival of this brigade imparted such an impetus to the attack and unleashed such pressure that enemy resistance was crushed.  In five weeks’ continuous fighting in swamp and fetid jungle this brigade lost ninety-six per cent of its strength through sickness, hard-ship and battle, absorbed one thousand reinforcements, and maintained continuous offen-sive power culminating in the brilliant cap-ture of Sanananda.  To achieve such results after losing practically one hundred per cent of its original strength is a record worthy of both the First and Second A.I.F. and one unsurpassed in the annals of war.

    Jean Annett had met Richard Stephens briefly in England before he was sent to North Africa, but they felt so strongly attracted to each other that, after the war, when Richard had returned to Adelaide, he asked her to marry him, and she did, arriving in Adelaide early in 1947.  They were married on 25th April 1947, and lived in a small flat at 100 O’Connell Street, North Adelaide.  On 10th February 1948 Jean gave birth to a daughter at the Memorial Hospital after a long and difficult labour.  The struggle proved too much, and she died the next day.  She had been in Australia only 11 months.  Richard called his new daughter Jean.

    A few years after the war the Stephens family moved from Port Pirie to the suburb of Kirkcaldy, in Adelaide, and Richard and Jean lived with them.  His sisters all doted on Jean, and helped his mother care for her.  Richard Stephens worked at the Taxation Office until he retired.  In 1953 he married Mary Margaret MacDonald, and they had one daughter, Anne.  Mary Stephens died on 14th February 1975 and Richard died on 5th March 1991.

    Mary MacDonald was born on 30th November 1918 at Naracoorte, to Clarence Gordon MacDonald and Jessie Emily Kelsey.  Clarence MacDonald was the son of Alexander MacDonald and Margaret Hendy.  He was born on 29th January 1888 at Hindmarsh, Adelaide, and had two brothers, Cecil Masterson MacDonald (born on 22nd December 1890) and Roy Victor MacDonald (born on 1st July 1895).  He was married on 4th August 1915 at Christ Church, North Adelaide, and died on 26th September 1954 at Henley Beach, Adelaide.

    Jessie Emily Kelsey was born on 27th October 1889 at North Adelaide to William Kelsey and Mary Emily Tilly Goerecke.    Her siblings were :
    William Kelsey was the son of Edward Kelsey (born about 1839, father John Kelsey) and Mary Douglass.  Their children were :
    William Kelsey died on 2nd February 1937 at Henley Beach, and his wife Mary died on 5th December 1944 at Gawler.

    Mary Goerecke was the daughter of Ferdinand Friedrich Hermann Goerecke and Emilie Ernestine Caroline Blume (born about 1834).  Ferdinand Goerecke was born on 7th April 1825 at Magdeburg, Germany, and died on 1st March 1907 at Tanunda, South Australia.  He  married Emilie on 27th March 1856 at Tanunda, and their children were :
    Emilie Goerecke died on 23rd September 1912, at Tanunda.

    A Mrs Caroline Blum, widow, and her child, arrived in Adelaide on 2nd March 1849 on the ship George Washington, which left Bremen on 25th October 1848.

    The Northeys

    Henry Northe

    The Northey family had its origins in Cornwall, where there are many families of this name.  This particular branch of the family has been possibly traced back to Henry Northe, baptised in 1680.  Early records show several variations in the spelling of the name (Northie, Northy, Northe) which has been suggested means literally “man from the north”.  Another Henry Northe was baptised in 1700.  He married, and his children were :

    James Northey

    James Northey married Elizabeth Pascoe at Kenwyn on 14th March 1773 (or 4th March 1772?), a matter of weeks before their son James was christened on 31st March 1773.  They had at least one other son, Henry, baptised at Kenwyn on 8th October 1776.  The family later lived in the villages of Blackwater and Chacewater, near the larger town of Truro, and only a few miles from Kenwyn, the original home of the Stephens family.

    Elizabeth Pascoe was christened on 31st July 1743 at Kenwyn.  Her parents were William Pascoe, christened on 2nd February 1711 at Kenwyn, and Elizabeth Steer, christened on 13th February 1716, at St Mary’s, Kenwyn.  They were married on 29th November 1740, at Truro.  Elizabeth Steer was the daughter of William Steer, born in 1687 at Kenwyn, and Ann How (Howe), baptised on 19th July 1695 at Landrake.  William and Ann were married on 22nd May 1715, at Kenwyn.

    Ann How’s parents were John How (Howe), born in 1661 at Landrake, and Jane Palmer, christened on 1st March 1665 at Landrake.  They married on 25th June 1694.  Jane’s parents were Samuel Palmer, christened on 25th April 1642 at Landrake, and Wilmouth (Wilmot) Pollard, who were married on 14th November 1664 at Botus Fleming.

    Samuel Palmer was the child of Robert Palmer, christened on 31st January 1607 at Landrake, and Jane Richard, born before 1611 at Landrake, who were married on 5th July 1636 at Landrake.  Robert Palmer’s parents were John Palmer, born before 1578 at Landrake, and Joan Walter, born before 1582, also at Landrake.  They were married on 5th November 1599 at Landrake.

    Wilmouth Pollard was the daughter of Anthony Pollard, born before 1612 at Lansalles, and Dorothy Jane ?, born before 1616, also at Lansalles.  They were married in 1636 at Lansalles.

    James Northey

    The younger James Northey married Mary (Maria) Sandoe, (baptised on 8th May 1768 at Kenwyn (? 1775)), daughter of Francis Sandoe, on 29th December 1795, and their children were :
    Benjamin and Samuel Wasley were brothers.  Samuel and Elizabeth Wasley had four children, three of whom emigrated to Australia in 1854 - John (born 1832) and his wife Loveday, and his unmarried sisters Elizabeth (christened at St Mary’s Wesleyan, Truro, on 12th March 1837) and Nanny (1837).  The two sisters went to live with an uncle, Joseph Wasley, at She-Oak Log, South Australia, and both subsequently married.  Elizabeth married Johan August Classon (aged 25, father Yon) on 12th February 1857, at Trinity Church, Adelaide, and Nanny married Joseph Williams (aged 25, father Joseph Williams) on 9th October 1858, at the residence of Joseph Wasley, Shea Oak Log.

    James Northey

    James Northey married Jane Dinnis on 23rd July 1820 at Kea, and they had nine children, some born at Kea and some at Seveock, of whom at least three emigrated to Australia :

    The 1851 Census listed the family :
Residence : Penstrase, Kea, Cornwall
    James Northey                    H        M        55        Miner on copper                                 North Totnes, DEV
    Jane                                      W       M        56        ---                                                           Kea, CON
    Abram                                   S         U        26        Miner on copper                                 Kea, CON
    William                                  S         U        26        Miner on copper                                 Kea, CON
    Robert                                   S         U        21         Miner on copper                                Kea, CON
    Henry                                    S         U        18         Miner on copper                                Kea, CON
    John                                      S         U         15         Miner on copper                                Kea, CON
    Elizabeth                              D         U         13         Scholar                                                Kea, CON


    James Northey

    James Northey, a miner, married Elizabeth Ann Dewar (born 1826) on 4th November 1849, at St Leonard’s, Shoreditch, London, and they had four children in Cornwall, before emigrating to South Australia on the “Nugget”, which left England on 31st January 1858.  At the time of the voyage, the children were :
Sarah died on 18th February 1875 aged 18, and Louisa Ellen died on 19th May 1875, both at Wallaroo Mines.
William Henry married again, to Elizabeth Wayland (aged 19, father James Wayland) on 31st March 1877, at the residence of the bride’s step-father, Blyth Plains.  They had children :
    Another child was possibly Susan Ellen, who was christened at Tywardreath on 28th November 1852.

    Elizabeth Ann Northey died on 6th September 1890 at Wallaroo Mines, aged 64, and James Northey died there on 28th October 1894, aged 71.

    Joseph Northey

    Joseph Northey emigrated to Victoria on the “Omega” in 1851, where he married Isabella Douglas (born 1828), and they had five children.

    Robert Northey

    Robert Northey was baptised on 18th April 1830 at Kea, a small village in the Parish of Kenwyn, southwest of Truro in Cornwall.  The tin mines in the area provided employment for Robert until he moved to Wales, to work in the coal mines at Aberdare.  Here on 24th July 1854 he married Ann Pearce, “according to the Rites and Ceremonies of the Established Church”.  Both Robert and Ann signed the Marriage Certificate with an “X”.  Ann Pearce, daughter of another miner, John Pearce and his wife, née Martin, was born in Cornwall on 25th November 1834.  After their marriage they decided to emigrate to Australia, and departed from Plymouth on 3rd January 1855 on the emigrant ship “Hooghly” (Captain H R Rich), arriving in Port Adelaide on 19th April.  The passenger list shows that they were accompanied by their daughter, Elizabeth Ann, an infant less than one year old.

    On their arrival in South Australia Robert and Ann settled at Burra, where Robert worked in the copper mines, and over the ensuing years they had twelve other children, all born in the Burra or Moonta districts.  In about 1875 the copper ore deposits at Burra began to diminish, and many families, including the Northeys, moved to Moonta, where they lived at Yelta at some time.  A Captain Robert Northey is listed as the superintendent of the Devon Consols Mine, south of the Wallaroo Mine, between 1870 and 1878, employing up to 80 men, but it is not known whether this is the same person.

    Robert and Ann’s children were :
Eileen and Umberto’s first child was :
On 31st January 1882 James Henry Northey of North Yelta enlisted in the Yorke’s Peninsula No 1 Company of the Rifle Volunteer Force.
Edith Verco married William Mitchem (widower, aged 36) at St Paul’s Rectory, Alberton, on 2nd August 1915.
    In later years the copper ore deposits in the Moonta fields also began to diminish, and in about 1887, Robert and Ann moved to Broken Hill, where silver and copper had been discovered in about 1880.  They settled at Umberumberka, a small township near Silverton.  It is not known whether Robert worked in the mines for a wage, or whether he was a self-employed prospector, or “gouger”.  By this time some of their children were married and had their own families to support, and they may have even preceded their parents to Broken Hill.

    Robert Northey died at Umberumberka on 9th September 1889 of asthma and acute bronchitis, and was buried in a small cemetery at Silverton.  Several years later it is believed that flooding of a nearby creek caused a wash-away which disturbed the burial sites, and the unidentified remains recovered were relocated to the main cemetery at Broken Hill.  His death certificate stated that he had spent 2 years in Queensland, 31 in South Australia and 2 years in New South Wales.

    Ann died of cerebral apoplexy on 19th May 1892 at Broken Hill, and is buried in the cemetery there.  Ann was living on the corner of Thomas and Iodide Streets at the time of her death.

    At that time there was a great deal of industrial unrest among the mine workers at Broken Hill, resulting in general strikes in 1889 and again in 1892, which caused extreme hardship and suffering to mining families.  Some miners, including the Northey brothers, refused to join the striking workers - they were labelled “scabs” and “blacklegs” and were not popular with the community or the unions.  This no doubt caused some of the brothers to leave Broken Hill and emigrate to South Africa, where work was readily available to experienced miners in the rich gold mines of Johannesburg and Pretoria.  Elizabeth, Joseph, Jane, Caroline and Emily remained in Australia, although Emily did go there in later years.  It is thought that the younger daughters, Cordelia and Edith may have gone to South Africa, and perhaps remained there after marriage.  James Henry Northey and his family returned from South Africa on the Medic in December 1904.

    The Walls and Sullivans

    Edmund Patrick Wall

    Edmund Patrick Wall, son of John Wall, was born about 1832 in County Kilkenny, Ireland.  Edmund emigrated to South Australia, where he married his first wife, Honora O’Loughlin, aged 16, at St Mary’s Catholic Church, Morphett Vale on 5th July 1853.  He became a farmer at Kapunda, and later at Eurelia, where he died on 29th August 1901, aged 69, of senile decay.  Honora was also born in Ireland, about 1837, and died at Eurelia on 4th March 1886, aged 47.  Their children were:
    After Honora died, Edmund married Ellen Flan(n)igan, the daughter of Martin Flanigan, born about 1858, who died on 31st March 1934, aged 77.  She was buried at Eurelia in the same plot as her husband, his first wife, and sons James and Martin Thomas Wall.
Adelaide Observer 15 February 1890  -  “Marriage – Wall-Flanigan – On 13th February at St Ignatius’s, Norwood, by the Rev M Hager SJ, Edmund Wall of Eurelia, to Ellen Flanigan of Paradise.”

    Edmund was a widower who gave his age as 50, and Ellen was 31 and single.

    Edmund and Ellen had one child in Adelaide and three children at Eurelia :

    John Francis Wall and the Sullivan Family

    John Francis Wall married Catherine Sullivan on 17th May 1887 at All Saints Church, Port Augusta.  Witnesses were James Wall, farmer of Eurelia, and Maggie Kinnane, of Yanyarrie.  John Wall died at Jamestown on 16th January 1926, where he was buried.  Barbara Stephens remembered Catherine brushing John’s beard as he lay dying in bed.

    Catherine Sullivan was born at Kapunda on 20th December 1856, and was christened on 1st January 1857, although her age was given at her marriage as 21.  Her parents were Eugene Sullivan, born before 1835, and Julia Ryan, also born before 1835, who were married on 14th January 1856 at Gawlertown.  Witnesses at their wedding were Morgan Sullivan and Mary Sullivan.  A Morgan Sullivan enlisted in Company 68 of either the Rifle Volunteer Force or the Volunteer Military Force on 16th March 1860.  His address was given as Smithfield, which is near Gawler.  A Morgan Sullivan died on 23rd July 1886 at Adelaide, aged 61.

    Eugene Sullivan arrived in South Australia in 1848 on the ship Westminster.  He died aged 45 on 12th October 1876 at Laura, of a fractured skull, after falling from his horse.  He was a farmer near Laura.

    Julia Sullivan’s death notice recorded that she had emigrated to South Australia in the ship Burma, arriving in 1840.  This was actually the ship Birman (448/545 tons, captain John Cleland), which sailed from Greenock, Scotland, embarked passengers at Cork on 24th August 1840, and arrived at Port Adelaide with 218 passengers on 7th December .  The passenger list included four families of Ryans :
RYAN John, wife Mary, 3 dau, son, 2 dau
RYAN John, wife (Margaret nee DERMODY?), dau
RYAN Patrick, wife (Margaret nee SHAUGHNESSY? / Mary?), son (Pat?)
RYAN Thomas, wife (Honora nee FOX?), 2 sons, 2 dau, son

    The Birman’s most important passengers were the Bagot family, which played an important role in South Australia’s early history.  Charles Hervey Bagot was born at Nurney in County Kildare, Ireland on 17 April 1788, he was the youngest son of Christopher Bagot, landed proprietor, and his wife Elizabeth Clibborn.  Charles Hervey saw active service after 1804 with the 87th Regiment in South America, Cape Colony, and India, where he was promoted to Captain in 1815.  The same year he married Mary, eldest daughter of M. S. J. MacCarthy, who was Paymaster-General of Port Louis, Mauritius.

    Bagot retired in 1819 on half-pay to Ireland where he was employed by several landowners as agent.  To provide openings for his sons he emigrated with his wife and five children to South Australia in the ship Birman, in charge of 224 immigrants, and landed at Adelaide in December, 1840.  He had been commissioned by Sir Montague Chapman to select and manage a special survey. He chose several sections, and in return Bagot received 1,500 acres on the River Light which he called Koonunga, working it at first in cooperation with the Dutton brothers.

    In 1842 his youngest son, Charles Samuel, discovered an outcrop of copper ore on the site of what became the Kapunda Mine, and soon afterwards Francis S. Dutton did likewise.  An 80-acre section was secured in 1844 at 20 shillings per acre.  Francis Dutton received a quarter share which he sold in just a short time to someone in London, England.

    Charles Hervey controlled the copper mine until 1857.  He then floated a company in London which worked it until flooding and low prices made it unprofitable in 1877.  Hervey took shares in many other mines, but none of them succeeded like the Kapunda.  The Kapunda produced minerals of an estimated value of £800,000.

    Charles Hervey was a nominee in the Legislative Council in 1844-51.  He was a member for Light in the part-elective council in 1851-53, and after responsible government held a seat in the Legislative Council in 1857-59.

    Charles Hervey toured the colonies in eastern Australia in 1846.  He went to England and Ireland with his wife in 1853-55, and on their return they built Nurney House at North Adelaide, making a home for the widow and five children of their son Christopher, who was born in 1817 and died in 1853.

    On their next journey to Europe, Mrs. Bagot died in Cairo in 1860.  After her burial, Hervey again went to continue his journey in Europe, and from there he went to the United States.  While in London he wrote a book, The National Importance of Emigration.

    In Adelaide Charles Hervey took a prominent part in the establishment of the Congregational Church in North Adelaide before his death at Nurney House on 29 July 1880 at the age of 92.

    Emigration to South Australia only began in the 1840’s and was much encouraged by Charles Bagot, land agent for Bindon Blood who lived at Rockforest, Kilkeedy and who was supervisor of the Burren road system.  He chartered a boat, the Birman, which arrived in Adelaide in 1840.  His son discovered copper at Kapunda.  Several North Clare families, probably prompted by Bagot, settled in the district - Kerin, Canny, Linnane, Davoren etc and all have descendants there to-day.  Dr Matthew Blood, first medical doctor in Kapunda and first Mayor of the town, emigrated from Corofin in 1844.  The Clare Valley, the great wine-producing area in South Australia, and the town of Clare are named after the County of Clare in Ireland.  (Bindon Blood (1775-1855) married Harriet Bagot, his second wife, in 1809 and they had five children (the last born in 1817).  Harriet was the daughter of Christopher Bagot of Nurney, County Kildare and the sister of Bindon's land agent, Charles Hervey Bagot.)

    Julia Sullivan died at Peterborough on 11th May 1918, aged 85.  She was described as the “widow of the late Eugene Sullivan, farmer”.  She was born in County Clare, Ireland, and had been in Australia for 80 years.  She had married at 20, and at the time of her death had 3 male and 3 female children living, and one deceased male child.  Her death, which was caused by “senility”, was reported by her son, T Sullivan, of Peterborough.

    Several family notices in newspapers refer to a “Johanna Sullivan”, but with details that match those of Julia Sullivan.  All the family researchers I have contacted believe that Johanna and Julia are the same person, but cannot explain the confusion.

    Catherine died on 5th December 1942 at Adelaide, and was buried at West Terrace Cemetery.  The following death notices appeared in the Advertiser :
Advertiser 9 December 1942  -  “DEATHS – WALL – On December 5th, at Seaview Road, Grange, Catherine, beloved wife of the late John Wall, aged 86 years.  Requiescat in Pace.”
Advertiser 10 December 1942  -  “DEATHS – WALL – On December 5th, at Esplanade, Grange, Kate, beloved wife of late John Wall, late of Eurelia, and sister of Mrs T McCabe, Port Wakefield, aged 86.”

    Their children were:   
    Catherine Sullivan’s siblings included :
John Joseph Sullivan died on 12th July 1935, aged 75, and was buried at Booborowie.  Bertha Sullivan died on 20th January 1958, aged 90, and was buried with her husband.
Daniel Francis Sullivan died on 21st October 1902 at Solomontown, aged 40.
Catherine was called Kathleen Mary on her gravestone, and Katie in an In Memoriam notice by her mother and brother. The family story is that she was suffering from appendicitis, but the doctor wouldn’t come until he had finished his tennis match with the priest, and by then she had ruptured and subsequently died.
Joseph and Jane divorced, and Jane married Joseph Frederick Hood and lived at Gawler.  Daniel Francis Sullivan took the surname Hood.
Thomas and Rose lived in Victoria and are both buried in Burwood Cemetery.
    Brian Stephens remembered old Granny Wall (Catherine Sullivan) “sitting huddled up in their Port Pirie house, and always smelling like peppermints.”

    Eugene Wall

    Eugene Joseph Wall enlisted in the AIF at Petersburg on 18th April 1916, with Regimental Number 15250.  His occupation was given as “carpenter”, and he had served a 6 year apprenticeship.  His mother was then living at Main Street, Petersburg, but later moved to Pine Street.  His height was 5’8", his weight 142 lbs, with brown eyes, fair hair and a fresh complexion.  He was granted long leave from 17 to 22 May 1916, and then assigned to the Base Engineers as a Sapper.  He embarked from Sydney on the “Ceramic” on 7th October 1916 as part of a detachment of reinforcements for the Engineers, arriving at Plymouth on 21st November.  The new troops were immediately marched to the Australian Details No 3 Camp at Parkhouse.  On 4th January 1917 he marched out of camp to Brightlingsea, thence to Folkestone, where he embarked for France on 20th March.  On 8th April he was taken on the strength of the 6th Field Company, Australian Engineers, at Etaples, and a month later he was killed in action on 6th May 1917 during the second battle of Bullecourt.  He was initially reported buried 3¾ miles northeast of Albert, although it is probable that his body was never recovered, as a memorial cross was later erected in the Queant Road British Cemetery.  In 1920 he was reported as being buried at Lagnicourt.  The only personal effects returned to his mother consisted of his devotional book, purse, and a button.  His death is commemorated on the Australian War Memorial at Villers-Bretonneux.

    In December 1917 Catherine Wall wrote to the Officer-in-Charge of the Victoria Barracks, Melbourne, requesting details of her son’s effects, but was informed that no personal effects had been returned to Australia at that time, and that no further information was available concerning his death.  In May 1918 Catherine signed another letter, possibly written by her son-in-law, Wesley Stephens, seeking “an official intimation of the death of my son”, as she was “applying for letters of administration, and the intimation is required by the Public Trustee.”

    In September 1922 the AIF Base Records Office wrote to Catherine Wall regarding the issuing of her son’s War Medals, and asking “whether there are any nearer blood relations than yourself, ...... for instance, is his father still alive”, since such mementos are “handed over in the following order of relationship ...... :- widow, eldest surviving son, eldest surviving daughter, father, mother, ...... .”  Catherine replied that “I am unable to give my husband’s address at the present time he is in South Australia as far as I know.  My husband went to Western Australia in 1897 to work and has not lived home since.  The late 15250 Sapper E J Wall finished his schooling at Peterborough and lernt his trade here as carpenter.  He was carpenter in the SAR Loco sheds at Peterborough when he inlested and my main support.  I am an invalid for years and living with my married son since the late E J Wall enlisted.”  The medals were duly sent to Catherine.

    General Monash, writing to his wife on 11th January 1917, explained that “The Engineers are scattered, in small parties, chiefly as gangers to infantry working parties, but also in the more technical trade works such as bridging, demolition, mining, main-drainage, concrete work, roads and special constructions.”

    The Fouses

    Johannes Henrich BRUMBACH was born about 1708 in Adelshofen, Baden Prov., Germany.  He immigrated on 30 SEP 1754 to Philadelphia, Philadelphia Co., PA. He was a German Baptist Brethren.

    He and his family arrived at Philadelphia on the ship Neptune, Captain Waire. They sailed from Rotterdam and stopped at Cowes, England for provisions as was the general custom during those long voyages, filled with innumerable hardships.  The journey for those who came from Southern Germany in 1754 lasted fully half a year amid such hardships as no one is able to describe adequately with their misery. The passage from Holland to Cowes, England, alone, often required from two to four weeks.

    Johannes Henrich BRUMBACH and his wife had the following children:
 i. Jacob BRUMBAUGH.
 ii. Conrad BROMBACH/BRUMBAUGH.
 iii. Johannes BRUMBACH.
 iv. George/Georg BRUMBACH.

    Jacob BRUMBAUGH  was born on 27 NOV 1734 in Wurtenberg, Germany. He died on 13 AUG 1816 in Hopewell Township, Huntingdon Co., PA. He was also known as Jockel.  Jacob served during the American Revolution as a Private, Seventh Class, Fourth Co., of First Battalion, Lancaster County/Pennsylvania Militia.

    He was married about 1760 in "Funkstown" (Hagerstown). Frederick Co., MD. Jacob BRUMBAUGH and his wife had the following children:
 i. William BRUMBAUGH.
 ii. John BRUMBAUGH.
 iii. Margaret BRUMBAUGH.
 iv. Conrad BRUMBAUGH.
 v. Jacob BRUMBAUGH.
 vi. Hannah BRUMBAUGH.

    His first wife having died, he then married Elizabeth BAKER/ENGLE? about 1776.  Elizabeth BAKER/ENGLE? died on 15 DEC 1827.  She was buried in Marklesburg, Huntingdon Co., PA. Jacob BRUMBAUGH and Elizabeth BAKER/ENGLE? had the following children:
 i. Henry BRUMBACH.
 ii. George BRUMBAUGH.
 iii. Daniel BRUMBAUGH.
 iv. Catharine BRUMBAUGH.
 v. Samuel BRUMBAUGH.
 vi. Ester BRUMBAUGH.
 vii. Mary BRUMBAUGH.
 viii. David BRUMBAUGH.
 ix. Susan BRUMBAUGH.

    Margaret BRUMBAUGH was born on 5 MAY 1766 in Funkstown, Frederick Co., MD. She died on 8 AUG 1829.  She was married to Nicholas FOUSE (son of Theobald FAUSS and Margaret) in NOV 1785 in Sharpsburg, Frederick Co., MD.  Nicholas FOUSE was born on 7 MAY 1748 in Zweibruecken, Bavaria, Germany.  He immigrated in OCT 1784 to Baltimore, Baltimore Co., MD.  He died on 9 AUG 1825 at Huntingdon PA.  Margaret BRUMBAUGH and Nicholas FOUSE had the following children:
 i. Margaret "Peggy" FOUSE was born on 12 OCT 1786. She died on 19 MAY 1855.
 ii. Elizabeth FOUSE.
 iii. Catharine FOUSE.
 iv. Jacob FOUSE.
 v. John FOUSE.
 vi. William FOUSE.
 vii. Frederick FOUSE.
 viii. Theobald "Dewalt" FOUSE.
 ix. Adam FOUSE.
 x. Jonathan FOUSE was born on 11 JUL 1808. He died on 4 APR 1879.

    (Another source states that Theobald Fauss was born in Bavaria in 1725, and died at Zweibruecken, Bavaria in 1765.  He married Margaret in 1746 in Zweibruecken.  She was born in 1725 in Bavaria and died in 1784 in Zweibruecken.  Nicholas Fauss (Fouse) was born in 1764 at Zweibruecken, married Margaret Brumbaugh in 1795 in Sharpsburg, Frederick, PA, and Margaret died on 1st August 1829.)

    Frederick B. FOUSE  was born on 27 APR 1800. He died on 9 SEP 1873. He was buried in Clover Creek Reformed Church Cem., (now called Salem UCC), Clover Creek, Blair Co., PA.  He was married to Catharine ACKER (daughter of Leonard ACKER and Mary ) on 4 JUL 1821.  Catharine ACKER was born on 10 OCT 1797.  She died on 30 OCT 1844.  Frederick FOUSE and Catharine ACKER had the following children:
 i. Margaret FOUSE, born on 22nd September 1822, who married Jacob A Nicodemus (born on 4th December 1819) on 2nd March 1843, and had 13 children.  She died in 1906.
 ii. Solomon B. FOUSE, born on 30th May 1824 and died on 6th October 1858.  He married Matilda Enyeart (born on 14th February 1835) on 7th March 1854, and they had two children.
 iii. William Acker FOUSE, born on 26th December 1825.
 iv. Catharine FOUSE, born on 2nd May 1827 and died on 6th January 1874.  She married George Greaser Jr (born on 8th March 1825) and they had ten children.
 v. Elizabeth FOUSE, born on 17th April 1830 and died on 29th October 1913.  She married Albert G Boyd (born on 14th July 1805) on 3rd January 1865, and they had one child.
 vi. Jacob Acker FOUSE, born on 17 JANUARY 1832.  He married Sarah Rhodes (born on 27th August 1834, died on 19th January 1858) on 2nd January 1855, and they had one child.  After Sarah’s death he married Margaret Shontz Grove (born on 16th December 1838) on 1st September 1859, and they had three children.
 vii. John A FOUSE was born on 9 MAY 1834. He died in 1835.
 viii. Paul A FOUSE was born on 15 MAY 1836. He died in 1870.

    The 1880 US Census has an entry for Jacob Fouse :
Residence : Walker, Huntingdon, Pennsylvania
              Name                                    Age            Born        Occupation                F birth            M birth
    Jacob A Fouse        H        M        49                PA        Farmer                            PA                    PA
    Maggie S                 W        M        41                PA       Keeping house              PA                    PA
    Harry                         S         U         15                PA        At home                         PA                    PA
    Grace                         D        U          10                PA        At home                        PA                    PA
    Samuel Lininger  Son inL  M         28                PA        Farm labourer               Bavaria            PA
    Alice Lininger          D        M         19                PA        Keeping house             PA                    PA


and for his sister Margaret :
Residence : Forreston, Ogle, Illinois
    Jacob Nicodemus    H        M        60                 PA        Retired Farmer              MD                   MD
    Margaret                  W        M        57                 PA        Keeps house                PA                    PA
    Ester                          D         U         22                 PA        At home                        PA                    PA
    William                      S         U         20                 PA        Apprentice blacksmith PA                   PA
    Lizzie M                    D         U         13                 PA        School                            PA                    PA


and sister Elizabeth :
Residence : Butler, Butler, Pennsylvania
    Albert G Boyd         H        M        74                  PA        Farming                         PA                    PA
    Elizabeth                  W        M        50                 PA        Keeping house             PA                    PA
    Mary C                     D         U           9                 PA        ---                                    PA                    PA


    WILLIAM A. FOUSE
    One of the substantial farmers of Huston Township, is a son of Frederick and Catherine (Acker) Fouse, and was born in Huston Township, Blair County, Pennsylvania, Christmas day, 1824.  Nicholas Fouse, the paternal great-grandfather of the subject of this sketch, was born in Polse, Germany, and was among the pioneer settlers of Clover Creek settlement and Huston Township.  He was a blacksmith by trade, but followed farming, and was a participant in several expeditions against the Indians.  He was a Whig, and a member of the Reformed Church, and married a Miss Brumbaugh, by whom he had five children.  His grandson, Frederick Fouse (father of William), was born in the Clover Creek settlement, of which he was a lifelong resident.  He was a farmer by occupation, a Republican in politics, and in religious faith and church membership a member and deacon of the German Reformed Church.  He served for many years as a justice of the peace, and died September 10, 1873, at the age of seventy-three years.  He married Catherine Acker, who died October 30, 1844, at the age of forty-seven years and twenty days.  They had eight children, five sons and three daughters: Margaret Nicodemus, now dead; Catherine Greaser (deceased); Elizabeth Boyd; Solomon (deceased); William A.; Jacob; John (deceased); and Paul, now dead.

    William A. Fouse was reared on the home farm, received his education in the schools of his neighborhood, and has always followed farming at the Clover Creek settlement.  He owns a farm of two hundred and thirty acres, of which one hundred and sixty acres are in good state of cultivation.  His farm, which has been well improved, is favorably located in regard to church, school, and market.  Mr. Fouse is a Republican in political sentiment, has held the office of supervisor in his native township, and always gives his party a cordial support.  He is a careful farmer, a good citizen, and a consistent member of the German Reformed Church.

    On May 31, 1845, William A. Fouse married Catherine Greaser.  To their union have been born nine children, five sons and four daughters: Susan, wife of Henry Rhodes, a farmer of Roaring Spring; Margaret, who married Joseph Detwiler, a carpenter, of Huston Township; Elizabeth, wife of Martin Acker, who is engaged in farming; Jane; Reuben, of Duncansville, who married Anna Collins; George, now dead; Calvin; Samuel; and William.

    [William Acker FOUSE was born on 26 DEC 1825 in Huston Township., Blair Co., PA.  Some sources show his birth date as 25 DEC 1824.  He was married to Catharine GREASER (daughter of George GREASER and Agnes KATZELMOYER) on 1 JUN 1848 or 31 MAY 1845.  Catharine GREASER  was born on 14 FEB 1827 at Ellenbach, Hesse Darmstadt.  William Acker Fouse died on 28th July 1912 in Blair County, and Catherine died in 1910 in Blair County]

    William Acker FOUSE and Catharine GREASER had the following children:
i. Susan FOUSE, born on 28th February 1849, who married Henry Rhodes, a farmer of Roaring Spring.  Their children were :
i.  Nettie May, born on 26th March 1876,
ii.  William Calvin, born on 13th September 1877,
iii.  Elmer Garfield, born on 15th July 1882, and
iv.  Ralph Palmer, born on 12th July 1887.
ii.  Mary Agnes FOUSE, born on 28th June 1850, who died in May 1854.
iii. Reuben FOUSE, born on 5th April 1852, who married Anna Collins, and died at Duncansville, Blair, PA
iv. George FOUSE, born on 11th February 1854, who died on 13th September 1863.
v. Calvin FOUSE, born on 23rd December 1855, who died on 2nd February 1898.
vi. Margaret Ann FOUSE, born on 23rd December 1857.  Margaret FOUSE and Frank ROYER had a child:
i. Newton Henry ROYER.  Newton Henry ROYER was born on 20 MAY 1879 at Martinsburg, Blair County, but I cannot find him in the 1880 US Census.  He died on 13 MAY 1946.  He was married to Mary Elizabeth METZKER (daughter of George B. METZKER and Susan LING) on 6th June 1906 at Fredericksburg, Blair County.  Mary Elizabeth METZKER was born on 23 JAN 1880.  She died on 9 JUL 1959.  Newton Henry ROYER and Mary Elizabeth METZKER had the following children:
i. Harvey N. ROYER.
ii. Clarence W. ROYER, born on 25th August 1908 at Beavertown, Blair Co, and died in January 1960,
iii. Dorothy M. ROYER, born on 1st October 1910 at Beavertown, Blair Co, and died in January 1981,.
iv. Frances L. ROYER.
v. George ROYER, born on 6th November 1913 at Beavertown, Blair Co, and died the same day,
vi. Irvin J. ROYER, born on 20th March 1915 at Beavertown, Blair Co, and died in August 1972, and
vii. Woodrow W. ROYER, born on 31st December 1918 at Beavertown, Blair Co, and died in February 1968.
The 1880 US Census shows Margaret living at home with her parents, unmarried, with no reference to Frank or Newton Royer.  The same Census lists the Metzker family :
Residence : North Woodbury, Blair Co, Pennsylvania
  Name                                                Age        Born        Occupation                    F birth        M birth
George B Metzker        H        M       32            PA        Farmer                                  PA             PA
Susan                            W        M       32           PA        Keeping house                    PA            PA
Hannah                          D         U         7           PA        ---                                           PA            PA
Harvey                           S         U         5            PA        ---                                           PA            PA
Mary                              D         U       4m           PA        ---                                           PA            PA
Elizabeth Beach       Sis in L   U        14            PA        Housekeeping                     PA            PA

    In the 1880 Census, a Frank Royer, a farm labourer aged 30, was living with his parents Samuel and Elizabeth and seven siblings on their farm at Woodbury, Blair County.  A Newton H Royer, aged 10, was living with his parents Daniel S and Eve (nee Heckman) at Porter, Clinton County, Pennsylvania.

    After the death of her first husband, Margaret Ann (Maggie) married Joseph Kiefer DETWILER, who was a carpenter, on 4th November 1886 at Martinsburg, Blair County.  Joseph Detwiler was born on 1st February 1859, at Woodbury Township, Blair County.  He died at Beaverstown, Blair County.  Margaret FOUSE and Joseph K. DETWILER had the following children:
i. Gertrude Effie DETWILER.  She was born on 12 MAY 1887, and died on 4 DEC 1918.  She was married to Edward GARBER.
ii. Warren DETWILER, born on 2 FEB 1889, and died on 14 FEB 1962.  He was married to Emma E. ISENBERG (daughter of Joel ISENBERG and Dorothy LONG) on 18 JUL 1917. They had the following children:
i. Clyde DETWILER.
ii. Dale DETWILER.
iii. Eugene M. DETWILER.
iv. Leon A. DETWILER.
iii. Mertie May DETWILER was born on 30 JAN 1891.  She died on 2 FEB 1892.
iv. Luella DETWILER born on 23rd July 1892.
v. William Edward DETWILER, who was born on 31 JAN 1894, and died on 12 OCT 1957.  He was married to Emma Katherine BURKET
vi. Harry F. DETWILER.  He was born on 30 OCT 1895, and died on 24 FEB 1941.  He was married to Martha M. MILLER
vii. Kathryn Idella DETWILER.  She was born on 27 OCT 1898, and died on 30 SEP 1984.  She was married to Lloyd E. MCGRAW on 4 SEP 1919.  He died on 14 JAN 1958.  They had the following children:
i. Mildred MCGRAW.
ii. Leona MCGRAW.
iii. Madeline MCGRAW.
iv. Dean D. MCGRAW.
v. Bernard D. MCGRAW.
vi. Eunice MCGRAW.

vii. Samuel FOUSE, born on 7th April 1859.  He married Martha Detweiler (daughter of Joseph Detweiler) on 9th October 1894, and their children were :
i.  Anna Florence, born on 2nd August 1896,
ii.  Fanny Pearl, born on 28th May 1898,
iii.  Levi Calvin, born on 3rd May 1900, and
iv.  William Earl.
viii. Elizabeth (Lizzie) FOUSE, born on 16th September 1860, who married Martin L. Acker, a farmer, on 6th October 1887 in Blair County.  Their children were :
i.  John A, born on 16th September 1888, who married Mary Olive Rhul (born on 30th April 1891) on 12th September 1907.  Their children were :
i.  Ethel Ferne, and
ii.  Ernest Erle.
ii.  Marvin C, born on 19th August 1890,
iii.  William Preston, born on 30th July 1893,
iv.  Clara Ferne, born on 27th July 1895,
v.  Harry Earl, born on 2nd October 1897, and
vi.  Roy Elmer.
ix. Jane FOUSE, born on 20th August 1863, who married Jacob Detweiler on 28th November 1898.  Their children were :
i.  Clara Verna, born on 21st February 1895,
ii.  Florence May, born on 10th May 1896,
iii.  Howard Newton, born on 18th July 1898,
iv.  Nettie, and
v.  Mabel Grace.
x. Ellen, born on 27th March 1867
xi. William FOUSE, born on 23rd September 1869, who married Jane Riley.  Their children were :
i.  Lester, born on 11th January 1899, who married Emma (born 1900), and had a child :
ii.  Madeline.
iii.  Catharine Elizabeth, born on 26th December 1900,
iv.  Daniel Carl,
v.  Anna Florence, and
vi.  Mary.

    The 1900 Census listed Orville Fouse, born about 1884, living in Blair County.

    The 1910 Census lists the following people :
Name                Est birth date        Location
Alfred Fouse            1887                Blair
Reuben Fouse          1852                Blair
William A Fouse       1826                Blair
Samuel Fouse           1858                Blair
Jacob A Fouse         1831            Huntingdon
Orville Fouse            1884               Cochise
Adelaide Fouse                               Cochise

    The 1930 Census listed :
Orville K Fouse        1909            Los Angeles
Stephen Fouse          1908                Blair
Samuel G Fouse        1859                Blair
Harry Fouse              1866            Huntingdon


    Miscellaneous

Quiz 20 June 1895  -  “A pretty little wedding took place at St Paul’s Church, Adelaide on Thursday June 13, the contracting parties being Mr C Wall, only son of Mr R C Wall of Petersburg, and Miss Annie Frearson, second daughter of the late Mr John Frearson.  The bride wore a cream costume, as also did the bridesmaid (Miss Edith Wall).  Mr A Ohlmeyer was best man.  After the ceremony the wedding breakfast was partaken of at the residence of Mrs Trush (sic), sister of the bride.”