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Revision Date : 31 March 2011

    The Clarkes in England

    When Fanny Clarke emigrated with her elder sister from Manchester to Adelaide in 1875 at the age of 13, she brought with her the front pages of the Clarke family Bible, recording births, deaths and marriages from the turn of the 19th century.  She re-established contact with her English relations early in the new century, to try and obtain news about her past and present family.  Most of her letters have been lost, but the information she received has survived, and forms the basis of this chapter.

    The family Bible was first owned by George Clarke of Manchester, who inscribed it:-  “This Bible was presented to me in the year 1806 by my Grandfather George Clarke.  He died in 1809 aged 84 years.  Also his son Richard Clarke - he died Feb 24 1794, aged 35 years.  Also Elizabeth his wife, born Sept 17 1755, christened at Benthall Church Sept 28 1755.  She died Dec 24, 1848, aged 93.”

    John Clarke

    John Clarke and his wife Elizabeth lived in the Shropshire village of Shifnal, where they had at least two children :
  • George, born on 23rd February 1723 and christened on 4th March 1723,
  • Hannah, born on 20th January 1726 and christened on 2nd February 1726.
    I cannot find a record of the marriage of John and Elizabeth at Shifnal in the IGI, although a John Clarke married Elizabeth Sheppard on 13th October 1718 at Stockton by Bridgnorth, close to Shifnal.  However this couple seems to have had 8 children in this village between 1719 and 1738.

    The Clarke family had lived in Shropshire since about 1617, when they had built a house in which they lived until about 1898.  Near Shifnal is Boscobel Manor, in the grounds of which was the famous oak tree which sheltered Charles II from the pursuing Roundheads after their victory at the battle of Worcester on 3rd September 1651.

    George Clarke

    George Clarke married Sarah Williams at Madeley, Shropshire, on 17th April 1758.  They had a son, Richard, born about 1758/9, but I can find no record of his birth, or of any other children on the IGI.  A Sarah Williams was christened at Madeley on 18th November 1730.  Her parents were John Williams and Mary.

    There is now a village called Madeley, a few miles west of the town of Stoke-on-Trent, but there is also a parish of Madeley, which is just south of the town of Telford, and includes the Ironbridge area.  This is the more likely location of the Clarke family.  The 1868 National Gazetteer has the following description :
    “MADELEY, (or Market Madeley) a parish and market town in the parliamentary borough of Wenlock, county Salop, 2 miles N.E. of Broseley, 6 S.W. of Wellington, and 15 S.E. of Shrewsbury. There are several stations in this parish on the Madeley and Coalbrookdale and the Severn Junction and Wellington branches of the Great Western line of railway, and a station on the Coalport branch of the London and North-Western line.

    “Its name indicates its situation between two rivers, and its adjunct is derived from a grant of a market by Henry III. to a community of Cluniac monks at Wenlock, to whom Madeley then belonged. It is situated on the banks of the river Severn, which is here crossed by two iron bridges, one of which has given name to the town of Iron Bridge. This bridge, which weighs 378 tons, and has an arch of 100 feet span, was constructed at Coalbrookdale in 1779. The other one was constructed in 1817.

    “The parish includes the districts of Coalbrookdale and Coalport, and the market town of Iron Bridge. The main road from Iron Bridge to Shiffnal passes through the parish, which includes scenery that may vie with the most beautiful in the counties of Monmouth or Devon, especially in the neighbourhood of Coalbrookdale. The district abounds with coal, iron, stone, and potters’ clay. A great many of the people are employed in the mines, quarries, and extensive ironworks of Madeley Court and Madeley Wood, as well as in the manufacture of porcelain, rope, and oil.

    “The town is lighted with gas, and there is a courthouse in which the county court is held. The workhouse for the Poor-law Union of Madeley, which comprises 12 parishes, is in this parish. The original market having fallen into disuse, it was revived about the middle of the last century, when a field market-house was erected near the foot of the iron bridge in Coalbrookdale. The living is a vicarage in the diocese of Hereford, value £300. The church is a stone structure of Grecian architecture, rebuilt towards the close of the last century, on the spot occupied by the old Norman edifice. The Rev. John Fletcher, a celebrated and much respected divine of the last century, was vicar of this parish.

    “There is also a district church at Iron Bridge, the living of which is a perpetual curacy, value £196, in the gift of the vicar. The Church of the Holy Trinity, at Iron Bridge, is a Gothic structure with a massive tower recently erected. The parochial charities amount to about £20 per annum. The Wesleyans and Primitive Methodists have each a chapel, besides chapels at Coalbrookdale and Iron Bridge, where the Society of Friends have a meeting-house. There are large National schools, conducted in a handsome building; also an infant school. Joseph Reynolds, Esq., is lord of the manor. Friday is market day. Fairs are held on 26th January, 29th May, and 12th October.

  “IRON BRIDGE, a village in the parish of Madeley, county Salop, 1 mile S.E. of Coalbrookdale. It is a station on the Severn Valley railway. The village is situated near the iron bridge over the river Severn, which bridge is 100 feet span, with a rise of 40 feet. The inhabitants are chiefly engaged in the neighbouring iron works. The living is a perpetual curacy in the diocese of Hereford, and in the patronage of the Vicar of Madeley.”

    Richard Clarke

    Richard Clarke married Elizabeth Beddow on 25th December 1783, at Benthall, Shropshire, about five miles from Shifnal, and adjacent to Ironbridge and Coalbrookdale, the home of the English ironmaking industry from 1740.  He died on 24th February 1794, aged 35.

    Elizabeth Beddow was christened at Benthall on 28th September 1755.  Her father was William Beddow, born about 1723 and buried on 2nd June 1775 in Benthall.  Her mother was Jane, born about 1727 and buried on 2nd February 1794 in Benthall.  Their other children, all christened in Benthall, were :
  • Samuel, born about 1749, and buried on 30th December 1750 in Benthall,
  • William, christened on 8th July 1750,
  • Samuel, christened on 28th February 1758, and buried on 5th March 1758, and his twin
  • Edward, who was christened and buried on the same days as his brother.
    Richard and Elizabeth’s children were :
  • Mary, christened at Benthall on 11th October 1784,
  • George, christened at Benthall on 5th June 1786,
  • William, baptised at Benthall on 20th or 30th April 1788,
  • Richard, baptised at Benthall on 10th March 1790.  He must have died young, as their next child was given the same name.
  • Richard, christened at Benthall on 15th March 1791, and
  • Elisabeth, christened at Saint Leonard’s, Broseley on 2nd September 1792.
    Richard Clarke was a mining engineer who was killed in an accident, leaving his three young sons and two daughters fatherless.  Mary died unmarried on 2nd January 1872 at the age of 87 in the district of Madeley.  In the 1851, 1861 and 1871 Censuses she was living at Broseley in the district of Madeley.  Richard married, and had a son, also called Richard.

    William Clarke

    William had a daughter, Caroline born about 1823, who lived with her aunt Mary in the family home in Shropshire.  She never married, and died there around the turn of the century.  She had three brothers who lived in Birmingham, and had all died before 1896.  A Caroline Clarke was christened on 23rd July 1821 at St Mary Magdalene, Bridgnorth, Shropshire.  Her parents were William Clarke and Elizabeth. 

    A William Clarke married Elizabeth Hayden on 13th September 1813, at Church Aston, Shropshire.  A group of children were all christened at the church of St Leonard’s, Broseley.  These were :
  • Richard, christened on 18th June 1815,
  • Edward, christened on 21st May 1820, and possibly
  • William Rudd, baptised on 11th September 1825 (St Leonard’s, Bridgnorth in the IGI).  (The mother of this person, however, seems to have been an Elizabeth Rudd.)
    This group ties in with the story of Caroline’s three brothers.  In 1841 the family may have lived at Bridgnorth, as a William, 50, Elizabeth, 40, Edward, 22, and Caroline, 19, were all listed in the Census at that place.  In the 1861 Census Caroline Clarke, aged 39, was living at Broseley.

    Caroline Clarke is listed in the 1881 Census :
Residence : Mines, Benthall, Shropshire
    Caroline Clarke                H        U        59        Grocer                                                                Bridgnorth, SAL

Caroline Clarke died in the June quarter of 1897 in the district of Madeley, aged 75.

    A possible listing for Edward Clarke appears in the 1881 Census :
Residence : 23 Lower Rushall St, Victoria Inn, Walsall Borough, Stafford
    Edward Clarke                H        M        61        Licensed victualler                                          Shropshire   
    Caroline                         W        M        60         ---                                                                       Shropshire
    William                            S         U        31         ---                                                                       Bilston, STA
    Caroline                          D         U        24         ---                                                                       Bilston, STA
    Edward                            S         U        20         Civil engineer                                                   Bilston, STA

    Ann Whitehouse        Servt     U       17         General servant                                                Deepfields, STA

    An Edward Clark (sic) married Caroline Mauphus in the March quarter of 1849 in the district of Dudley (on the outskirts of Wolverhampton, and close to Bilston).  Caroline Clarke was born at Bilston, Staffordshire, on 12th February 1858 (district of Dudley) and christened there on 2nd September 1860.  Edward Clarke was born in the March quarter of 1860 in the district of Dudley.

    In the 1901 Census a William Clarke, aged 50, born in Wolverhampton, was still living there as a manager of a chemical warehouse.  A Caroline Clarke married Thomas Brittain in the December quarter of 1883 in the district of Dudley, and in 1901 Caroline Brittain, aged 44, born in Bilston, was still living there.  (The Census did not list an adult Thomas Brittain at Bilston, but a Thomas Brittain, aged 38, born at Bilston, was living at South Manchester, working as a tin plate worker.  Thomas B Brittain, aged 1, was born and lived at Bilston.  A Thomas Bunch Britton (sic) was born in the September quarter of 1899 in the district of Wolverhampton.)  A Caroline Clarke, aged 44, born at Buildwas (adjacent to Benthall) was living in Wolverhampton.  An Edward Clarke, aged 41, born at Tipton (adjacent to Dudley) was a bridge plater at Newport, Monmouth, Wales.

    A possible, but unlikely, listing for William Clarke is in the 1881 Census (I believe that this is William Rudd Clarke) :
Residence : Footherley, Shenstone, Stafford
    Thomas George                H        M        25        Farmer of 14 acres                                        Middleton, WAR
    Harriet George                 W        M        23        ---                                                 (British subject) New Zealand
    William Clarke            FinLaw     M        56        Farmer labr agric                                           Bridgnorth, SAL
    Adelaide Clarke         MinLaw   M        46        Wife of farmer labr agric                        West Bromwich, STA
    Adelaide Clarke          SinLaw    U         15        ---                                                 (British subject) New Zealand
    Tarton Clarke             BinLaw     U           8        ---                                                                    Claverley, STA
    Elizabeth Clarke         SinLaw     U           6        ---                                                                     Claverley, STA
    Marion Clarke            SinLaw     U           5        ---                                                              Drayton Bassett, STA

    In 1901 this William Clarke, aged 77, was a retired farmer, living at Sutton Coldfield.

    Richard Clarke

    A Richard Clarke married Sophia Parker on 16th November 1818 at Dawley Magna, Shropshire.  A Richard Clarke was christened on 25th April 1824 at Madeley, whose father was Richard Clark and mother Sophia.  A Sophia Clarke died, aged 74, in the March quarter of 1871 in the district of Dudley.

    George Clarke

    It is possible that Richard Clarke’s widow returned to his parents’ home on the death of her husband, as George Clarke married Catherine Bates at Madeley on 25th October 1808.  George was an engineer, and the manager of a large works at Bristol.  Their children, as listed in the Bible were:
  • John, born on 1st September 1809 at 20 minutes before midnight, and registered [baptised] at Old Swinford, Worcestershire, on 24th September.  He died on 2nd September 1825, aged 16 years 1 day, and was buried at Bristol,
  • George, born in 1810, baptised at Old Swinford on 20th November 1811 [20th October 1811 in IGI], and died in 1842, buried at Liverpool in the Necropolis.
  • Mary, born on 9th October 1814 at 15 minutes before 6 am, and registered at Woverly, Worcestershire [Wolverley] in November 1814.  She married a Mr Tonks, and their children were James, Etty and Mary Ann,
  • Richard, born on 9th April 1816 at 18 minutes past 1 am, registered at Woverly on 21st July,
  • William, born on 5th June 1818 at 5 minutes past 7 pm, registered at Woverly on 19th July.  He died on 17th August 1858, and was buried in the New Cemetery, Eccles Road, Manchester.  His son was possibly James, born about 1851, who married Martha,
  • Karoline (sic), born 23rd October 1820 at 1 am, registered at Woverly on 19th November.  She married John Tipping, and they emigrated to New South Wales.
  • Edward, born on 1st March 1823 at 8 pm, registered at Woverly on 20th July,
  • John Henry, born at Bristol on 15th July 1825 at 10.30 am, and registered (baptised) at St Peter’s Church, Liverpool, on 26th July,
  • Samuel Thomas, born on 27th October 1827, registered at Bristol, and died on 1st March 1828 aged 5 months.  He was buried at Bedminster Church, Bristol,
  • George Thomas, born in 1833, and died on 16th May 1857, aged 24 in the district of Clifton (Bristol).
    All the above entries appear to have been made at the same time, so some allowance should be made for an imperfect memory.  George even commenced the entry for his own death, which was completed by his son Edward.  He died at the White Lion Inn, Dean’s Gate, Manchester on 20th January 1859, at the age of 73, and was buried at the New Cemetery, Eccles Road.

    Old Swinford is now part of Stourbridge, and Wolverley is on the northern outskirts of Kidderminster, about five miles south-west of Old Swinford.

    The Bate family

    James Bate and his wife Elizabeth had three children in Kingswinford, Staffordshire, just north of Old Swinford :
  • Elizabeth, christened on 18th August 1705,
  • James, christened on 2nd October 1708, and
  • John, baptised on 17th February 1711.
    James Bate married Margaret Wenlock at Kingswinford on 11th May 1733.  Their children, all baptised at Himley, were :
  • John, christened on 28th April 1734,
  • Mary, christened on 21st November 1736,
  • James, baptised on 13th January 1744,
  • Sarah, baptised on 4th June 1749, and
  • William, baptised on 1st August 1753.
    James Bate married Sarah Blewitt on 28th March 1769 at Kingswinford.  The couple must then have moved to Kinver, Staffordshire, as they had no children at Kingswinford.  Their children, baptised at Kinver, were :
  • Elizabeth, christened on 8th November 1774,
  • William, baptised on 18th January 1777,
  • Sarah, baptised on 24th May 1779,
  • Mary, christened on 19th May 1781,
  • Ann, christened on 27th March 1785,
  • Martha, baptised on 25th November 1787,
  • Catherine, baptised on 23rd January 1790, and
  • Fanny, christened on 1st December 1793.
    Kinver is half way between Old Swinford and Wolverley, which may be a clue that this is the correct person, even though the surname is spelled differently.

    Thomas Bluett and his wife Mary christened the following children at Kingswinford :
  • William, on 9th December 1705,
  • Mary, on 29th July 1716, and
  • Sarah, on 19th August 1722.
    William Blewitt married Sarah Eyzack at Kingswinford on 14th September 1730, and their children, all baptised at the same place, were :
  • Sarah, christened on 29th July 1731, who died on 26th March 1736,
  • William, christened on 24th February 1733, who died on 23rd August 1734,
  • Mary, baptised on 12th October 1735,
  • William, baptised on 19th March 1737,
  • Ann, christened on 17th August 1740,
  • Elizabeth, baptised on 23rd May 1743,
  • Hannah, baptised on 14th July 1745,
  • Sarah, christened on 28th May 1747, who married James Bate
  • Thomas christened on 4th July 1750, and
  • Jane, christened on 27th August 1752.

    George Clarke

    George Clarke (1810 - 1842) married Eliza, and they had two sons:

    Richard William Clarke

    Richard was married on 15th May 1856 at Didsbury to Harriet Whittall, born in Manchester on 29th January 1835.  A Harriett Whittall was christened at the Cathedral, Manchester, on 22nd March 1835, her parents being Joseph and Matilda Whittall.  Richard Clarke worked for a time in the 1850’s at the same engineering works in Bristol where his grandfather George had worked.  He was one of Fanny Clarke’s main informants about the family history, and sent her their photograph taken on their golden wedding anniversary in 1906.  Another photo shows their home at 10 Victoria Parade, Ashton-on-Ribble, with Richard standing proudly in the front doorway.  (Ashton-on-Ribble and Lea Ashton are suburbs to the west of Preston.)  A fragment of the black-bordered letter survives in which he announced the news of Harriet’s death in 1912 :-  “...the Monday on the same night she had another stroke, became unconscious Tuesday morning and continued until Wednesday.”  Pasted on the back is the newspaper notice:
CLARKE  -  On the 13th inst., at her residence, 519 Manchester Road, Denton, near Manchester, the dearly beloved wife of R W Clarke, aged 77 years. (Late of 10 Victoria Parade, Ashton.)

    A letter of Administration was granted covering Harriet’s effects :
“Harriet Clarke of 519 Manchester Rd, Denton, Lancashire (wife of Richard William Clarke) died 13 March 1912.
Administration : Manchester 29 April to the said Richard William Clarke, formerly a foreman boiler maker.  Effects £206-17-11d.”

    Their children were :
  • Eliza, baptised on 12th September 1858 at St Andrew’s Ancoats, Manchester,
  • Emily, baptised on 19th August 1860 at St Andrew’s Ancoats, Manchester,
  • a girl who died young, and
  • George Edward, born at Chorlton in the March quarter of 1876,
    An Edward Clarke was christened at St Andrew’s, Ashton-on-Ribble, on 31st July 1870.  His parents were Richard and Harriet Clarke.

    In the 1881 Census, Richard and Harriet are living apart, perhaps temporarily because of Richard’s work commitments, or possibly to help their daughter Eliza Freeman with her new-born son.  Richard and his son George are living at Lea Ashton, and Harriet and her daughter Emily are living with Eliza Freeman at Openshaw.  Both families are called “Clark”, and Harriet’s marital status was listed as “widow”.
Residence :    Prospect Place, Prospect House, Lea Ashton Ingol and Cottam
    CLARK        Richd W            Head        M        44        Foreman boilermaker                                Bristol
                          George                Son          --           5        Scholar                                                       Openshaw

Residence :    1 Beaulah Street, Openshaw
    FREEMAN   James D            Head        M        25        Joiner                                                          CON
                           Eliza                   Wife        M        22         ---                                                                Openshaw
                           Richard D          Son          --          2         ---                                                                Openshaw
                           John H               Son          --        1m        ---                                                                Openshaw
    CLARK         Harriet               MothL    W         46        ---                                                                Manchester
                           Emily                    SisL       U          20        Assistant School Mistress                    Openshaw

    By the 1891 Census the family had reunited, and was living at Broughton in the district of Preston, near Manchester.  Living there were Richard W Clarke, 58, Harriet Clarke, 56, and George E Clarke, 13.  The ages of all three are not correct for some reason.

    In the 1901 Census Richard Clarke, aged 64, occupation “Foreman Boiler Maker” and Harriet Clarke, aged 66, were both living at Preston.  A George Clarke, aged 25, born at Manchester and living at South Manchester, was an electric lamp repairer.

    A Richard W Clarke died, aged 93, in the June quarter of 1930 in the district of Ormskirk, Lancashire.

    Eliza Clarke
    Eliza Clarke married James Freeman in the September quarter of 1877 at Chorlton, and their children were :
  • Richard Dunstone, born in the December quarter of 1878, in the district of Chorlton, and
  • John Henry, born in the March quarter of 1881, in the district of Wisbeach.
    Eliza Freeman died in 1882 :
FREEMAN  -  On Saturday, March 4th [1882], Eliza, wife of Mr J D Freeman, and daughter of Mr R W Clarke, of Preston (late of Openshaw), aged 23 years.  Interred at Salford Cemetery, Wednesday, March 8th.

    In the 1901 Census a Richard Freeman, aged 21, born in Manchester, was a labourer in the RI Arsenal in the parish of Plumstead, London.

  James Dunstone Freeman was christened on 3rd August 1856 at Gunwalloe, Cornwall.  His parents were John and Annie Freman (sic).   
    The children of John and Annie (Anne or Anna) Freeman, all christened at Gunwalloe, were:
  • Mary, christened on 2nd April 1837,
  • Anne Cuttance, christened on 3rd February 1839,
  • Henry, baptised on 13th September 1840,
  • Thomas, baptised on 14th August 1842,
  • Edward, baptised on 17th January 1845,
  • John, christened on 16th July 1851,
  • Elizabeth Jane, christened on 16th July 1851,
  • William, christened on 16th July 1851 (were these triplets ?),
  • Emma, baptised on 3rd July 1853,
  • James Dunstone, baptised on 3rd August 1856, and
  • George, baptised on 22nd August 1858.
    John Freeman was born on 15th March 1812, at Gunwalloe.  His father was Edward Freeman, christened on 6th June 1773 (father William Freeman, mother Mary Dale), who married Grace Stodden on 21st September 1802.

    Emily Clarke
     Emily Clarke married Harry (James Henry) Seddon in the September quarter of 1883 at Preston, and lived at Spire Hollows, Chapel-en-le-Frith, Derbyshire.  The Seddon family were listed in the 1881 Census :
Residence : 20 City Road, Openshaw, Lancashire
    Thomas Seddon            H        M        54        Railway coal man                                     Whitefield, LAN
    Mary                              W        M        52        ---                                                                Pilkington
    James H                          S         U         23        Merchant’s clerk                                      Bolton le Moors, LAN
    Sarah E                           D         U         18        Pupil teacher                                            Whitefield, LAN

    Sarah Eliza Seddon was born on 5th October and christened on 9th November 1862 at Stand (Whitefield), Lancashire.  In the 1901 Census Sarah Seddon, aged 38, born at Whitefield, was a schoolmistress in South Manchester, and a Henry Seddon, born at Bolton, Lancashire, aged 43, occupation “stone merchant”, lived in the parish of Alderley Edge, just south of Manchester.  In the same parish lived Emily Seddon, born at Manchester, aged 40.

    An English newspaper cutting of 17th March 1906 gave the news of the wedding of Ethel Seddon, niece of Emily and Harry Seddon, and Herbert Wilson :
Pretty Openshaw Wedding
    “Lees Street Congregational Church, Openshaw, was the scene, on Wednesday afternoon [14th March], of one of the most interesting marriage ceremonies we have had to record in the district for a long time past.  Mr J Herbert Wilson, son of our highly-respected fellow-citizens, Mr and Mrs James Wilson, of Ashton Old Road, was married to Miss Ethel Seddon, whose father and mother, now settled in Australia, belong to families well known in this locality for many years.  Fortunately the day was one of typically fine March weather, and the assembly of the wedding guests was watched by a rapidly growing congregation with that deep interest which friends and neighbours ever take in the bridal ceremony of those well known to them, and whom they highly respect.  On this occasion additional interest  was given to the service by the busy whisper circling round that the happy event was to be honoured by the presence of the Lord Mayor and Lady Mayoress of Manchester, uncle and aunt of the bridegroom, who had taken great interest in the young bride and bridegroom, and in the event of the day.

    “The officiating minister was the Rev R Sutton, pastor of the church, and Mr Denis Davy, cousin of the bride, was the organist.  As soon as the deep tones of the organ (in Loaring’s “Bride’s March”) announced the arrival of the bridal party the crowded congregation rose to their feet, and remained standing until the bride, with her bridesmaids, Miss Elsie Wilson (sister of the bridegroom) and Misses Edythe Walker (of Stretford) and Agnes Wilson (friends of the bride) had assumed their places in front of the communion table, where the bridegroom and Mr Wilfrid Seddon (his groomsman), brother of the bride, were awaiting their arrival, the whole forming an exceedingly interesting and effective group.

    “The bride was attired in an ivory white voile and satin dress, with veil, and wreath of orange blossom and white heather, carrying a lovely bouquet of orchids and lilies.  Miss Elsie Wilson wore a dress of pale green alpaca, the other bridesmaids, Misses Wilson and Walker, dresses of pale pink voile, all three wearing white lace hats with pink roses, and garnet brooches, the latter the gift of the bridegroom.  They each carried a pretty shower bouquet of white roses.  The bride was given away by Mr H Seddon, of Chapel-en-le-Frith, her uncle.  The guests included the Lord Mayor and Lady Mayoress, the latter wearing a dress of French green, with green and black velvet toque, with lace trimmings.

    “Mrs Henry Seddon, representing the bride’s mother, who is in Australia, wore a pale biscuit-coloured dress, with a vieux rose-coloured hat, and pink bouquet.  Mrs Wilson, mother of the bridegroom, was attired in black silk, and held a bouquet of damask roses.  The guests also included Mr Seddon (the aged grandfather of the bride), looking wonderfully fresh and strong, ....[a list of guests followed, including many Davy’s].

    “After the deeply-impressive marriage service, which included two hymns sung by the entire congregation, was over, and the usual signing of the registers in the vestry, the bridal procession re-formed, and to a very fine rendering of Mendelssohn’s “Wedding March”, the bride and bridegroom led the way to the door, where a large company of friends and well-wishers saluted the party with showers of confetti.  The wedding lunch was arranged for in the Lees Street lecture room.

    “After lunch was over the bride and bridegroom’s health was proposed by Mr Henry Seddon, seconded by Mr Wilfrid Seddon.  After other toasts, the bride and bridegroom left for Colwyn Bay, where they are spending their honeymoon.”

    Among the list of presents received by the couple were :
Cheque, Mr and Mrs W Seddon (WA), father and mother of bride,
Cheque, Mr Harold Seddon (WA), brother of bride,
Silver fish carvers, Wilfrid Seddon, brother of bride,
Cheque, Mr Harry and Misses Edith and Winnie Seddon (WA), brother and sisters of bride,
Cheque, pictures etc, Mr and Mrs H Seddon, Chapel-en-le-Frith, uncle and aunt of bride,
Brass preserving pan, Mr Seddon, grandfather,
Silver tea and coffee pots, the Lord and Lady Mayoress of Manchester, uncle and aunt of bridegroom,
Coal box and fire irons, teachers St Mary’s School, Beswick.

    The 1901 census lists the following members of the Seddon family, all born at Openshaw and living at South Manchester :
Harold Seddon, 20, Electrical Engineer
Ethel Seddon, 18, Pupil Teacher (the bride)
Wilfred Seddon, 15, Home Trade Warehouseman’s Apprentice (best man)
Edith Seddon, 10
Winifred Seddon, 5 (A Winifred Octavia Seddon was born in the Chorlton district in the June quarter of 1896.)

    George Edward Clarke
    George Edward married Ethel Maude Brentnall at Chorlton in the September quarter of 1901 and had a daughter Muriel.  He was a manager for Harry Seddon.  The Brentnall family were listed in the 1881 Census :
Residence : 53 Church Lane, Gorton, Lancashire
    William G Brentnall     H     M     30     Steel rail roller                                           Green Hill Lane, Derby, DBY
    Mary E                         W     M     34     Dressmaker                                                                Leeds, YKS
    Edith A                         D      U       4      Scholar                                                                       Gorton, LAN
    Ethell M                        D      --       1      ---                                                                                 Gorton, LAN
    John A                          S       --       1      ---                                                                                 Gorton, LAN
    Mary Farrall           Servant  U     12      Nurse girl                                                                    Manchester, LAN

    Edith Annie Brentnall was born in the December quarter of 1876 in the district of Chorlton.  She was married in the September quarter of 1907 at Stockport, possibly to George William Seager.  Twins Ethel Maud and John Alfred Brentnall were born in the December quarter of 1879 in the district of Chorlton.  In the 1901 Census the family lived at Gorton :
    William Brentnall            50            Insurance agent                  born Alfreton, Green Hill Lane, DBY
    Mary                                 54                                                                    Morley, Leeds, YKS
    Edith                                 24            Dressmaker                                    Gorton, LAN
    Ethel                                  21            Milliner                                          Gorton
    John                                  21            Engineer's draughtsman             Gorton

    William Edward Clarke

    William Edward Clarke lived in Bristol, and was “the tallest in the family”.  His family consisted of three sons and four daughters (? 2 sons and 5 daughters), including Kate, who married Harry Brindal, and had a daughter who died and two sons; and Frances, born in 1883.  One daughter came to live with her uncle Richard Clarke when she was about 13, later married and had four children, and lived near her uncle (this must have been Lilias).  Edward was put in touch with Fanny Clarke by his brother, and sent her a postcard :
                                                                                                114 Grosvenor Road
                                                                                                    St Paul’s
    Dear Cousin,
            My daughter has sent you a few postcards, but I see she has forgotten to send her address.  My brother Richard sent me your last letter to read which is the first news I have had of you for many years.  I dare say he will be writing to you in a day or so, as I have returned your letter to him.  I shall be glad to hear from you at any time you can make it convenient to send me a line.  With love and best wishes for future.  From your Cousin,
                                                                            W Ed. Clarke.
Fanny is Assistant Mistress at the day schools attached to this Church [St Mary’s Redcliffe Church, Bristol].

    His youngest daughter, Frances (Fanny) sent her namesake four postcards of views of Bristol, with a chatty letter:
    Dear Cousin, - If I may call you so, -
                        I heard through my Uncle Richard (your Cousin) that you had enquired about the relations you once stayed with at Bristol, so I thought I might write to you.  There seems to me to be something so interesting in the fact that you stayed with Father and Mother so long ago.  I cannot remember it for the simple reason that it was about 8 or 9 years before I was born.  But my sisters - especially the two elder ones remember it very well and are pleased to hear you are getting on so well in your distant home.  They are all married and have families of their own now.  Katie lives in Killarney, so Mother is writing to ask her to send you a description of the “Eden of the West”.
    These Post Cards will give you some idea of our town and its surroundings.  Of course I am very proud of this city because it is my birthplace, but even visitors are obliged to acknowledge that it is a fine old city.  I do not suppose it can boast of such beautiful scenery as Killarney, but we have some very pretty places near.
    The chief attractions in Bristol are its buildings.  There are many ancient churches of which St Mary’s Redcliffe is the most beautiful.  Its exterior and interior are both very grand; it is the largest parish church in the west of England.
    Among the more modern buildings the New Art Gallery is, I think, the most attractive.  The pictures exhibited there are, many of them, very beautiful.
    Visitors are often bewildered by the crooked streets and odd lanes in Bristol, I do not suppose there are many cities that could surpass ours in that for even those accustomed to it get puzzled sometimes.
    We were all amused at the idea of people travelling a long distance to see snow.  We cannot realize what a wonderful thing it is because it is a common occurrence to get a snow storm during the winter here.  It is true, is it not?
        “Those things we have, we prize not  to the worth
        While we enjoy them, but being lack’d and lost
        Why, then we rack the value.”
    We are hoping to have some warm weather soon, but just at present it is wet and rather cold.  We do not appreciate wet weather because we do not know what it is to be short of water.
    Now I cannot think of anything else to say, so I will draw to a close.  I hope Muriel will feel that these post cards are worthy of a place in her album.  Good-bye.  Trusting this will find you all quite well as it leaves us
                                                                    I remain
                                                                    Your (unknown) cousin
                                                                          Frances Clarke

    Another set of postcards of Irish scenes was addressed to Muriel Holder:
    Dear Cousin Muriel,
                At last I am sending the long promised post cards.  They will give you a good idea of Irish scenery.  My holiday was very pleasant.  I thoroughly enjoyed boating on the lake near Ross Castle.  Please share the post cards with your sisters, give them my love and accept the same, from your cousin,
                            Frances Clarke

    In May 1990 I visited Bristol, and saw St Mary’s Redcliffe, which lived up to Frances Clarke’s praises.  When I tried to find the Clarke’s home I was told by a friendly policeman that St Paul’s was now the centre of a black ghetto, and a “no go” area for tourists, and that I would surely be mugged and robbed if I ventured there.  Grosvenor Road was the scene of race riots several years ago, and even police cars did not drive through the area.

    The 1881 Census shows William Clark (sic), his wife, five children and his mother-in-law living  at 33 Davey Street, St Paul, Bristol.
Residence :    33 Davey St, St Paul In …..
CLARK        William E        H        M        42        Boot Heeling Machine Operator                Liverpool
                      Ann E             W       M        38        ---                                                                     Poling, SUS
                       Maria A E      D        U         17        Pupil teacher                                                  Bristol
                       Catherine P    D        U         14        Pupil teacher                                                  Bristol
                       Lilias A           D        --         12        ---                                                                     Bristol
                       Richard W      S        --           7        Scholar                                                            Bristol
                       William G J     S        --           2         ---                                                                     Bristol
BIGGS            Eliza          Mr in L   W         66        Laundress                                                      Bristol

    The IGI lists the following children of William Edward and Ann (or Annie) Elizabeth Clark :
  • Marie Annie Eliza, born on 15th March 1864, and baptised at St James, Bristol,
  • Lilias Arundel, christened on 7th February 1869 at St James, Bristol (Lilian in the IGI).  Poling is quite close to Arundel in Sussex.
  • Richard William, christened on 5th April 1874 at St James, Bristol, and
  • Agnes Annie, christened on 8th July 1886 at St Mary’s Redcliffe, Bristol.
    In addition to these, Catherine Clarke was born in the September quarter of 1866 in the Clifton district (her name was registerd as Cathern P Clark).  William George J Clark (sic) was born in the December quarter of 1878 in the district of Barton Regis (Clifton, Bristol).  Frances Harriet Clarke was born in the Bristol district in the September quarter of 1883.

    William Edward Clark (sic) married Anne Elizabeth Snow in the September quarter of 1863 in the district of Bristol.  Anne Elizabeth Snow was christened on 22nd October 1842 at Poling, Sussex, the daughter of Luke Snow and Esther Sowter.

    In the 1891 Census, the Clarke family lived at Ashley in the district of Barton Regis, Bristol.  Listed are William E Clarke, 52, Annie E Clarke, 48, Catherine P Clarke, 20 (?), Richard W Clarke, 17, and Frances H Clarke, 7.  An Agnes A Clarke, aged 4, was living at Bedminster, an inner southern suburb of Bristol.

    The 1901 Census lists a William Clarke, aged 62, born in Liverpool, occupation “shopkeeper”, living in Bristol.  Also living in Bristol were William J Clarke, 21, a decorator, Richard W Clarke, 27, a carpenter, and Frances H Clarke, 17, a school teacher.  However, Fanny Holder’s address book contains an entry for Mrs Annie Clarke, who was living at the School House, Bawdryn, near Bridgewater, England.  This would have been in the early 1900’s.  The 1901 Census also lists an Agnes A Clarke, aged 14, born at Bristol, with occupation “cardboard box maker”.

    An Ann Clark died, aged 53, in the December quarter of 1895 in the district of Barton Regis.  An Elizabeth Biggs died, aged 70, in the September quarter of 1884 in the Bath district, and an Eliza Biggs died, aged 67, in the September quarter of 1885 in the Barton Regis district.  The 1871 Census shows an Eliza Biggs, aged 56, living in the district of Clifton, St Phillip and St Jacob.  The 1891 Census does not list Eliza Biggs

    At some time after about 1905 Frances Clarke moved to the small village of Litton, south of Bristol, where she taught in the local school.  Her father must have moved with her, as one of a set of postcards she sent to her Adelaide cousins mentions that “This is very near us.  It is the farm [Home Farm, Litton] from which we get our milk etc.  Father spent many a happy evening there playing cards with the young folk.”  William E Clarke died, aged 73, in the March quarter of 1912 in the district of Clutton, which includes Litton.  A Frances H Clarke married William A Bradwell in the March quarter of 1918 in the district of Shardlow (just south of Derby).

    A Richard William Clarke was married at Bristol in the June quarter of 1901 to either Clara Toms or Elizabeth Mary A Dudbridge.

    An Agnes Annie Clarke was married at Bristol in the September quarter of 1906 to either William Joseph Fouracre, George Jefferies, or Thomas Percy Shepherd (or Shepperd).  An Agnes A Clarke was married at Bristol in the June quarter of 1919 to William Holley.

    The Snow Family
    Esther Sowter was baptised on 7th December 1817 at Lyminster, Sussex.  Her parents were Richard and Ann Sowter.  She married Luke Snow on 19th March 1839 at Poling, Sussex.

    In the 1841 Census of Poling is the household of Luke Snow, agricultural labourer, 25, his wife Esther, 20, and son William, 1.  William Snow was christened on 19th April 1840 at St Mary’s Church, Littlehampton, Sussex.

    The 1851 Census listed :
    Luke Snow                    H        M        37        Labourer                                                        Poling, SUS
    Esther                           W        M        32        ---                                                                    Leominster, SUS
    William                           S         U        11        ---                                                                    Littlehampton, SUS
    Ann Elizabeth               D         --          8        ---                                                                    Poling, SUS
    Ellen                               D         --          6        ---                                                                    Poling, SUS
    Jane                                D         --          3        ---                                                                    Poling, SUS
    Luke Farby                    S          --          1        ---                                                                    Poling, SUS

    Ellen Snow was christened on 2nd March 1845, Jane Snow was christened on 26th December 1847, and Luke Farley Snow was christened on 12th May 1850, all at Poling.  Luke Snow died in the September quarter of 1854 in the district of Worthing, which includes Poling.

    In 1861 the Census recorded the family living at the Brickyards, Poling :
    Ester Snow                    H        W        37        ---                                                                    Poling, SUS
    Luke                                S         --         10        ---                                                                    Poling, SUS
    John                                S         --           8        ---                                                                    Poling, SUS
    Emily                               D        --           7        ---                                                                    Poling, SUS
    Henry Bridger           Lodger  W         31        Agricultural labourer                                   Poling, SUS
    John W Bridger             S        --           5        ---                                                                     Angmering, SUS   

    Esther Snow consistently lowered her age, possibly with an eye to her younger lodger, whom she married on 14th April 1861 at St Nicholas Church, Brighton.  Henry Bridger had married Caroline Bishop on 26th November 1853 at Angmering, Sussex, and their son, George Henry was baptised on 27th March 1854 at Poling.  He died on 1st April 1854.  A second son, John William was baptised at Angmering on 29th July 1855, and their daughter Mary Jane was christened on 12th July 1857 at Poling.  Caroline Bridger died in the September quarter of 1857 in the district of Worthing, and Mary Jane died on 1st November 1857 at Poling.

    A Jane Snow died in the December quarter of 1862 in the district of Worthing.

    The 1871 Census of Poling shows the new family living in Poling :
    Henry Bridger                H        M        39        Agricultural labourer                                    Poling, SUS
    Esther                             W       M        46        ---                                                                     Poling, SUS
    John W                           S         U        15        Labourer                                                         Angmering, SUS
    Luke F Snow            Stepson   U        21        Potter                                                               Poling, SUS

    The 1881 Census lists them living at Arundel Road, Poling :
    Henry Bridger                H        M        49        Brickyard labourer                                         Poling, SUS
    Ester                               W        M        50(?)    ---                                                                     Poling, SUS
    John                                S          U        25        Brickyard labourer                                         Poling, SUS

    In 1891 the family still lived in Poling :
    Henry Bridger                H        M        58        General labourer                                             Poling, SUS
    Esther                             W        M       72         ---                                                                     Poling, SUS
    John William                  S          U       32         General labourer                                            Angmering, SUS
    Emily Hammond            D         M       34         ---                                                                     Poling, SUS
    Lydia Hammond         Gdau      U       15         ---                                                                      Lowestoft, SUF

    Emily Snow had married William George Hammond on 13th July 1872 at St Nicholas Church, Brighton.  He was christened on 25th February 1849 at Arundel, and died, aged 80, in the March quarter of 1930 in the district of East Preston.  They had a son, William Henry, christened on 5th January 1873 at Poling.  In the 1881 Census three Hammond children (William H, 8, Lydia C, 6, and Charles, 3, all born at Poling) were living in the Preston Street Workhouse, East Preston.

    Esther Bridger died, aged 73, in the December quarter of 1891 in the district of East Preston (including Poling).

    The 1901 Census of Poling lists Henry Bridger living in the Pottery Cottages :
    Henry Bridger                H        W        71        Ordinary labourer                                           Poling, SUS
    John W                           S         U         44        Potter’s labourer                                             Poling, SUS   
    Emily Hammond            D        M         46        ---                                                                      Poling, SUS

    Emily Hammond died, aged 58, in the March quarter of 1914 in the district of East Preston.  John W Bridger died, aged 85, in the December quarter of 1941 in the district of Worthing.

    Luke Farley Snow married Frances Olliver on 21st September 1872 at Patching, Sussex.  In the 1881 Census the family lived at Cross Bush, Leominster (probably Lyminster) Sussex :
    Luke Snow                 H        M        31        Potter                                                                      Poling, SUS
    Fanny                        W        M        33        ---                                                                             Patching, SUS
    George                        S          --          8        Scholar                                                                    Patching, SUS
    Elizabeth                     D         --          6        Scholar                                                                    Patching, SUS
    Alice E                        D         --          4        ---                                                                              Crossbush, SUS

    Luke Farley Snow died, aged 45, in the March quarter of 1893 in the district of East Preston, which includes Poling.  In 1901 George Snow, aged 28, was a domestic gardener at Poling.

    I can find no relationship with an Eliza Biggs in the family.

    Catherine Paulina Clarke
    Catherine Paulina Clarke married James Henry Brindal in the Bristol district in the December quarter of 1891.  Fanny Holder’s address book contains several addresses for Mrs H Brindal, in Killarney and Cork, Ireland, and Kilmarnock, Scotland.  In the 1881 Census a James Brindall, aged 13, born in Bristol, was a scholar (boarder ?) at the City School or Queen Elizabeth Hospital, Lower Berkeley Place, Bristol St Augustine.  His parents were not mentioned.  A James Henry Brindal was born in the Clifton district in the September quarter of 1867.

    In 1881 an Edward Brindal and his family lived near the Clarke family.  Edward Brindal was a warehouseman at a boot factory, a possible link to the Clarke family which may have resulted in a marriage between the two families.
Residence :    27 Franklyn St, St Paul In …..
BRINDAL    Edward            H        M        37        Warehouseman, Boot Factory                           Bristol
                       Lucy               W        M        37        ---                                                                            Bristol
                       Lucy Ann       D         --          8         Scholar                                                                  Bristol
                       Edward E        S          --          6         Scholar                                                                  Bristol
                       Sariah              D         --          4         Scholar                                                                  Bristol
                       Lilly Rose       D         --          2          ---                                                                           Bristol

    In the 1901 Census, Edward, Lucy , Lucy Ann, Sarah and Lilly Rose are listed, and their surname is spelt “Brindall”.  Lucy Ann Brindal was married in the December quarter of 1904 at Bristol, possibly to either Thomas Reginald Pitcher or Charles Henry Wherrett.

    Listed in the 1901 Census as born and living in Bristol were :
    James H Brindel                        34                        Foreman Clicker
    Catherine P Brindel                  33
    Edward K Brindel                       7                        Scholar
    Lucy E Brindel                            5                        Scholar
    Albert G R Brindel                      3                        Scholar

    James Brindel’s occupation is again associated with shoemaking.  Lucy Eveline Brindal was born in the June quarter of 1895 in the district of Barton Regis, and Albert George R Brindal was born in the March quarter of 1898 in the same district.

    Lilias Arundel Clarke
    At the time of the 1891 Census, Lilias Clarke, aged 22, was living with her uncle, Richard Clarke, at Broughton in the district of Preston, near Manchester.  Lilias Arundel Clarke married William Goodier in the district of Preston (Lancashire) in the September quarter of 1896.  In the 1901 Census Lilias Goodier, aged 32, was living in Preston.  In the same town were several William Goodiers, all born in Preston :
    William Goodier    32    Butcher
    William Goodier    33    Overlooker In Cotton Weaving Shed
    William Goodier    36    General Carter
    William Goodier    60    Biscuit Baker

    Marie Annie Eliza Clarke
    Marie Annie Clarke may have also spent some time with her uncle Richard Clarke, as she married Richard Henry Place in the September quarter of 1885 in the district of Preston.  In the 1901 census the family lived at Rishton, on the outskirts of Blackburn :
    Richard Henry Place            40                Cashier cotton mill                                            Hoddleston, LAN
    Marie A E                              37                 ---                                                                        Bristol, GLO
    Mabel Annie                        12                  ---                                                                        Rishton, LAN
    Leonard Clarke                      7                  ---                                                                         Rishton, LAN
    Frank Clarke                          4                   ---                                                                         Rishton, LAN
    George Herbert                      1                  ---                                                                         Rishton, LAN

    Mabel  Annie Place was born in the September quarter of 1888, Leonard Clarke Place in the December quarter of 1893, Frank Clarke Place in the June quarter of 1897, and George Herbert Place in the March quarter of 1900, all in the district of Blackburn.  Leonard Place married Elizabeth E Hanson in the December quarter of 1918 in Blackburn.

    William George John Clarke
    William George John Clarke married Mabel Emma Charlotte Mogford on 18th February 1901 at St Paul’s Church, Bristol.  Both bride and groom were aged 22 years.  Mabel Mogford was born on 5th February 1879 at Bristol to William Harvey Mogford and his wife Emma Maria, née Hall.  She died in 1929.  The 1901 census lists a Mabel Clarke, born in Bristol, occupation “paper bag maker”, but her age is given as 26 years.  There is another Mabel Clarke, born at Curland, Somerset, occupation “domestic servant”, aged 21 years.

    Mary Clarke

    Mary Clarke married John Sebastian Tonks on 24th September 1843 at Bedminster, Somerset.  John Tonks’ name was given as John Augustus Tonks by his son, James Edward Tonkes, on his marriage in Adelaide in 1879.  In the 1851 Census the family were living at William St, Newton, Lancashire :
Residence :    William St, Newton, Lancashire
    TONKS        John                H       M        36        Engineer                                                  Dublin
                         Mary               W       M        36        ---                                                             Wolverley, LAN
                         Mary Ann       D        U        13        Scholar                                                    Liverpool, LAN
                         John E              S        U          9        ---                                                              Bristol, SOM
                         Sebastian         S        U          7        ---                                                              Crewe, CHE
                         Henrietta          D       U          3        ---                                                              Manchester, LAN
                         Thomas            S        U          2        ---                                                              Manchester, LAN

    John Edward Tonks was baptised on 9th May 1841 at St Philip and St Jacob’s, Bristol.  Henrietta Tonks was baptised on 5th January 1848, William Tonks on 11th October 1848, and Squire Tonks on 18th February 1852, all at Manchester, with parents John and Mary Tonks.

    The Clarke family did not have a favourable opinion of John Tonks or some of his family, as evidenced by a letter written by Mary Tonk’s nephew, John Henry Clarke, to his cousin Fanny Clarke, in which he says “I have no doubt we all loved dear old Aunt Mary but her Husband I am sorry to say was very much disliked for his bad habits, that was the reason your Uncle as your Guardian kept you aloof from the Tonkses’, and I have no desire to open up the acquaintance with James Tonks but I liked his sisters Etty and Mary Ann.”

    In the 1861 Census, Sebastian was called Edward Sebastian, and he and Henrietta were living with their married sister, Mary Ann.  Father John Tonks must have died before 1861, as Mary is now a widow :
Residence :    4 Stage Building Yard, Manchester, Lancashire
    TONKS             Mary           H        W        46        Cook                                                        Bristol, SOM
                               William        S         U        12        Factory worker                                       Manchester, LAN
                               Squire          S         U        10        Scholar                                                    Manchester, LAN
                               James           S         U         6         Scholar                                                    Manchester, LAN

    Son John Tonks had found work elsewhere :
Residence :    42 Church St, Gorton, Lancashire
    TONKS             John            --         U        20         Mill worker                                             Bristol, SOM

    In 1871 Mary Tonks  lived at St Jude :
Residence :    St Jude, Lancashire
    TONKS             Mary            H        W        56        Housekeeper                                          Cookley, WOR
                               Squire           S        --          19        Shirtcutter and … repairer                    Manchester, LAN
                               James            S        U         16        Moulder                                                   Manchester, LAN
                               Minnie       Gdau    U           5        ---                                                              Manchester, LAN

    Cookley is adjacent to Wolverley.  Minnie Tonks was born in the March quarter of 1866 in the district of Manchester.

    Mary Tonks does not appear in the 1881 Census.  A Mary Tonks died in the June quarter of 1902 in the district of King’s Norton (a southern suburb of Birmingham), aged 87.

    A John Augustus Tonks married Ellen Booth in the March quarter of 1864 in the district of Manchester.  This seems to be the same person as the John E Tonks in the 1851 Census, as his details in the 1871 Census are identical :
Residence :    8 Claverton Buildings, Lyncombe and Widcombe, Somerset
    TONKS             John            H         M        29        Engine erector                                        Bristol, SOM
                               Ellen            W        M        29        ---                                                             Manchester, LAN
                               Leticia          D         U          4        ---                                                              Darwen, LAN
                               John             S          U          2        ---                                                             Manchester, LAN

    Letitia Booth Tonkes was born in the June quarter of 1867 in the district of Blackburn.

    John Augustus (John E) Tonks died in the December quarter of 1876 in the district of Chester, aged 35, and in the 1881 Census his widow, Ellen Tonkes, lived in Chester :
Residence :    19 Trafford St, Chester St Oswald, Cheshire
    TONKES           Ellen             H        W        35        ---                                                             Manchester, LAN
                                John            S          U        12        Scholar                                                    Manchester, LAN
                                Caroline      D         U          9        Scholar                                                    Manchester, LAN
                                Ellen            D         U          6        Scholar                                                    Chester, CHE
                                Mary Ann  D         U          4        Scholar                                                    Chester, CHE

    Ellen Tonks died, aged 82, in the December quarter of 1924 in the district of Chester.

  By 1881 Edward Sebastian and James Edward had both emigrated to Australia, but Squire Tonks remained in England :
Residence :    42 Barlow St, Bradford, Lancashire
    TONKS              Squire         H         M        29       Iron Turner                                             Manchester, LAN
                                Annie         W        M        29        ---                                                             Oldham, LAN
                                Annie          D         U          5        Scholar                                                    Manchester, LAN
    JONES      William Henry   Lodger  U        25       Engineer fitter                         Summershill, Denbigh, Wales

    Squire Tonks married Anne McLean in the June quarter of 1874 in the district of Manchester.  He died, aged 65, in the December quarter of 1917 in the district of Prestwich.

    In 1881 Letitia Tonks, daughter of James Tonks, was a servant in Chester :
Residence :    26 Garden Lane, Chester St Oswald, Cheshire
    WHITE               Ann            H        M        60        Independent House Property                           MSX
                                 Douglas     S         U        30        ---                                                               Bicester, OXF
    TONKES             Leticia     Servt     U        14        General servant                                       Manchester, LAN

    Letitia Booth Tonkes married Charles Frederick Payne in the June quarter of 1898 in the district of Chelsea. She was listed in the 1901 Census :
    PAYNE    Letitia B        30    Domestic servant        Civil Parish : St Pancras, LON    b. Darwen, LAN

    Between 1871 and 1874 brothers James and Edward Tonkes emigrated to Australia.  Edward lived in Melbourne, while James settled in the Port Adelaide district.  Edward married Katherine Cook in Carlton, Melbourne, in 1874, and they had at least 8 children.  James married Marion Matilda Fisher on 27th December 1879, and they had at least 9 children.  The newspaper notice of the marriage referred to James’ father as John Augustus Tonkes.
Adelaide Advertiser 1 January 1880  -  “MARRIED  TONKES-FISHER  On the 27th December, by the Rev F Ryan, James Edward, fifth son of John Augustus Tonkes, late of Manchester, and nephew to the late John Henry Clarke, of Adelaide, to Marion Matilda, only daughter of Thomas Fisher, of Port Adelaide.”
Adelaide Advertiser 16 December 1880  -  “ADELAIDE LICENSING BENCH – QUARTERLY MEETING Wednesday December 15 PUBLICANS’ TRANSFERS GRANTED – Coles, James to James Edward Tonkes, Globe Hotel, Port Adelaide.”

    Richard Clarke

    Richard Clarke died on 12th January 1860, at the age of 43, and was buried at the New Cemetery, Eccles Road, Manchester.  A newspaper announcement of his death read:
    “We announced, in our impression of Saturday, the demise of Mr Richard Clarke, for about 14 years manager of the locomotive department, at Messrs Fairbairn and Sons’, engineers.  The funeral of the deceased gentleman took place on Sunday, the place of interment being the New Cemetery.  His remains were attended to the grave by all the principal employés of the same establishment, by whom the deceased was regarded with the greatest esteem.  A further testimony to the deceased’s worth was shown by the presence at his burial of his late employers, Messrs William and George Fairbairn, who thus, coupled with their sorrow for his loss, testified the estimation in which they held one who had been so long their faithful servant.”

    Richard Clarke married Mary Ann (see Will of John Henry Clarke), and their children, according to Fanny Clarke, were :
  • Richard, whose son Samuel died young,
  • Helena,
  • Edward, whose son Harvey died young,
  • Mary Ann, died young (? she was still alive in 1901),
  • Lavinia, who had a daughter Gertie,
  • George, died young,
  • Emma, died young,
  • Edward, died young,
  • John Henry, born about 1846, and
  • William (according to the Will of John Henry Clarke)    .
    A Richard Clarke married Mary Ann Underhill on 29th July 1838 at St Mary’s, Stafford.  Their son Richard Clarke was born in Manchester in the March quarter of 1840.  A Mary Clarke was born at Bristol in the December quarter of 1844, and a Mary Ann Clark was born at St Mary Radcliffe, Bristol, on 15th January 1845.  Emma Clarke was born in the September quarter of 1850, Helena Clarke was born in the September quarter of 1852, and Edward Clarke was born in the June quarter of 1860, all in the district of Manchester.  George Edward Clarke was born on 22nd November 1856 to Richard and Mary Ann Clarke, and christened on 17th December 1856 at Manchester.

    In 1841 Richard and Mary Clarke, both aged 25, and Richard Clark, aged 0, were living in Manchester.

    The 1851 Census lists Richard and Mary Ann Clarke, both aged 34, Richard Clarke, aged 11, Lavinia Clarke, aged 9, Mary A Clarke, aged 7, John Clarke, aged 5, and Emma Clarke, aged 0, living in the Ancoats area of Manchester.

    The 1861 Census lists the following family members living in the Newton area of Manchester : Richard Clarke, aged 21, Lavina (sic), aged 19, Mary Ann, aged 16, John, aged 15, Emma, aged 10, Helena, aged 8, William Clarke, aged 7, George Edward Clarke, aged 4, and Edward Clark, aged 0.

    Emma Clarke died, aged 19, in the December quarter of 1869, in the district of Chorlton.

    The 1871 Census lists the Clarke family living in the Chorlton On Medlock area : Mary A Clarke, aged 55, Richard Clarke, aged 31, Helena, aged 18 and George E, aged 14.  By this time Lavinia was married, Emma was dead, and John had emigrated to South Australia.

    The 1881 Census lists the family :
Residence :    132 Hendham Vale, Manchester, LAN
    CLARKE            Mary Ann     H        W        65        Property Owner                            Bristol, GLO
                                Richard           S         U        41        Mechanical Engineer                   Manchester, LAN
                                Mary Ann      D        U        36        Draper                                             Bristol, GLO
                                Helena            D        U        28        Teacher                                           Manchester, LAN

    George Edward Clarke married Annie Elizabeth Preston in the June quarter of 1881 in the district of West Derby (Liverpool), but I cannot find them in the 1881 Census.  Caroline Preston Clarke was born in the December quarter of 1893, and Lillian Preston Clarke in the December quarter of 1896, both in the West Derby district.

    The 1891 Census lists Mary A Clarke, aged 70, Richard Clarke, aged 51, Mary A Clarke, aged 46, and Helena Clarke, aged 30 (possibly a misreading of 38), all living at Newton in the Prestwich district of Manchester.  A George Clarke, aged 35, was living at Kirkdale, West Derby (a riverside suburb of Liverpool).

    In the 1901 Census Mary Ann Clarke was not listed and her two daughters were still unmarried :
    Richard Clarke            61            b. Manchester     CP : Manchester        Mechanical Engineer Iron Foundry
    Mary Clarke                56            b. Bristol               CP : Manchester        Hosier and Outfitter Shopkeeper
    Helena Clarke             48            b. Manchester      CP : Manchester        Hosier and Outfitter Shopkeeper

    George E Clarke, aged 44, born in Manchester, was a marine engineer living in the parish of Kirkdale, Liverpool, with Annie E Clarke, aged 39, born in Liverpool.

    Helena Clarke died in the December quarter of 1909 in the district of Prestwich.  Her age was given as 54.

    Lavinia Clarke

    Lavinia Clarke was married in the June quarter of 1863 in the district of Manchester to William Bridgett Pritchard.

    In the 1881 Census William and Lavinia Pritchard’s family were listed :
Residence :    270 Oxford St, Chorlton On Medlock, Lancashire
PRITCHARD        William B        H        M         48       Chiropodist                                    Leeds, YKS
                                Lavinia           W        M        39        ---                                                    Manchester, LAN
                                Gertrude         D         --         15        Scholar                                            Manchester, LAN
                                William B        S         --         13        Scholar                                            Manchester, LAN
                                Harry W          S         --         11        Scholar                                            Manchester, LAN
                                Percy H           S         --         10        Scholar                                            Manchester, LAN
                                Frank               S         --           9        Scholar                                            Manchester, LAN
                                Sydney           S         --           7        ---                                                      Manchester, LAN
                                Lilian M          D         --          5        ---                                                      Manchester, LAN
                                Evelyn            D         --          4         ---                                                      Manchester, LAN
                                Nellie              D         --           3        ---                                                      Manchester, LAN
                                Elsie                D         --         6m       ---                                                      Manchester, LAN
                                Clara Nash   Servt     U        19        General servant                              Tibberton, GLO
                                Jane Garvon  Servt   U        21        General servant                               Manchester, LAN

    Another child, Lavinia, was christened at the Manchester Cathedral on 7th June 1865, and died aged 2 in the December quarter of 1866 in the Chorlton district.  Gertrude was born in the March quarter of 1866, William Bridgett in the March quarter of 1868, Harry Washington in the September quarter of 1869, Percy Howard in the March quarter of 1871, Frank in the September quarter of 1872, Sydney in the June quarter of 1874, Lilian May in the June quarter of 1875, and Evelyn Mary in the June quarter of 1877, all in the district of Chorlton.  Nellie was born on 19th March 1878, and Elsie on 10th October 1880.  They were both christened on 28th November 1880 at St Saviour’s, Manchester.

    In the 1901 Census William Pritchard, aged 68, and Lavinia, aged 59, were living in the South Manchester district.  William B Pritchard, aged 33, and Frank Pritchard, aged 28, both born in Manchester, were both surgeons living in South Manchester.  Harry Washington Pritchard, aged 31, was a doctor (MRCS) living at Timperley (near Sale in the suburbs of Manchester).  Percy H Pritchard, aged 31, was a surgeon chiropodist living in Bristol.  Evelyn Pritchard, aged 24, lived in South Manchester.  Nellie Pritchard, aged 23, was a cookery teacher living in South Manchester, and Elsie Pritchard, aged 20, also lived in South Manchester.  Lavinia Pritchard died in the December quarter of 1901, aged 60, and William Pritchard died in the March quarter of 1913, aged 80, both in the Manchester district.  Percy Howard Pritchard was married in the March quarter of 1896 in the Salford district, to either Maria Porter or Isabella Martha S Whittaker.  Harry Washington Pritchard was married in the December quarter of 1905 in the Chorlton district, to either Ada Probert Burrows or Nellie Meadows.

    Gertrude Pritchard married George William Rowe in the September quarter of 1872 in the district of Brentford.  The 1901 Census lists the family in Timperley, with George William Rowe, aged 36, a blacking manufacturer born in Lincolnshire, Gertrude, aged 35, and their son Walter Rowe, aged 6, who was born at Timperley.  Walter Rowe was born in the June quarter of 1895 in the district of Altrincham.  He was mentioned in the Will of John Henry Clarke (jnr).  ).  Gertrude Rowe died, aged 42, in the June quarter of 1908 in the district of Chorlton.

    John Henry Clarke

    John Henry Clarke served an apprenticeship with Fairbairns in Manchester, and in 1866 he emigrated to Adelaide on the ship “Peeress”, under Colonial Passage Certificate No. 2306.  He was single, aged 20, and his occupation was listed as “Engineer”.  The Shipping News column of the SA Advertiser of 8th November 1866 noted the arrival of this ship :
“Wednesday, November 7 - Peeress, ship 777 tons, Robert Tilmouth, master, from London July 25 via Plymouth August 9.   Elder, Smith and Co., agents.  passengers - Dr John Carroll (Surgeon-Superintendent), in the cabin; and 312 Government immigrants in the steerage whose names will be found elsewhere.

    “The Peeress arrived on Wednesday after an admirable passage from Plymouth, characterised by light variables from Madeira to the line, light south-east trades, and light winds generally across the southern parallel, but notwithstanding this she has completed the voyage in about 90 days, bringing her living freight of immigrants in excellent order and condition.  Captain Tilmouth is not a stranger here, having entered an appearance on previous occasions when the Lord Raglan and Trafalgar were trading here.  His report of the voyage is destitute of startling incidents.  He left Plymouth on August 9 with strong westerly gales, which continued for several days, but afterwards became light and variable.  On the 30th day out the line was crossed after being for four days becalmed to the northward of it.  The south-east trades were moderate, and fine weather continued till off St Paul’s, where it blew furiously for a while, but she made a capital run along on the parallel of 40°, having rounded the Cape on October 7, and got to Cape Leeuwin on November 3.  Mr Pilot Reid boarded her when off Glenelg, and as soon as she reached the anchorage Captain Tilmouth landed to secure if possible the services of the Eleanor, for the morning’s tide.  If he is successful she will tow into harbor and moor at once in the stream; but if unsuccessful she will be taken in on Friday morning, and thus save the relatives of people on board the unpleasant trip from the Semaphore Jetty.  Vessels spoken - On October 7, in lat. 39°18’ S, long. 100°30’ E, the French barque Hugh Matthei, from Chauuse, 86 days out, bound to Melbourne.

    “When a vessel comes here a second time with immigrants it may be concluded she is well adapted to the purposes of the Commissioners, and in the case of the Peeress such is most certainly the case.  She has ample promenading space on deck, good roomy compartments below, with such regard paid to ventilation and light as to recommend her immediately to the notice of the proper authorities.  The upper deck is clean, and the state of the female compartment is highly creditable not only to the occupants, but to the matron, Miss Dring, whose assiduous attention is most favourably noticed by Dr Carroll.  In late arrivals the superiority of regularly paid matrons has been most evident in the good order of that part of the ship more particularly under their control.  The immigrants on board the Peeress are for the most part holders of assisted certificates, and, as a whole, they present a favourable appearance, especially in the hindmost section, where 139 men have found most comfortable quarters, and behaved so decorously as to earn the commendation of the officers over them.

    “Dr Carroll was here in the Art Union with Captain Polson, and with the Norman Morrison, since which time he has been shipwrecked in the Barbadoes with coolies, but fortunately all hands were saved.  He has been so constantly in the transport service as to be at no loss for an engagement, and it is gratifying to notice his present charge is almost an unprecedented one, having had no births, no deaths, and not even a serious case of illness during the voyage.  This may in a measure be attributed to the ships selected.  Independently of Edmund’s ventilator, with which she is fitted, she has stern and side ports sufficient alone to ensure a continuous current of fresh air.

    “In noticing the appearance of the people it is certain they are superior to many previous shiploads, though this may be accounted for by the majority being assisted migrants.
    “From the industrial list it is seen that labourers preponderate, the figures being as follows:-  Miners 3, labourers 74, farm and agricultural labourers 57, ploughmen 4, shepherd 1, carpenters 6, engineer 1 [John H Clarke], miller 1, policemen 2, shoemaker 1, soldier 1, tailor 1, coachman 1, gardeners 4, butcher 1, painter 1, moulder 1, hammerman 1, domestic servants 66, cooks 6, dressmakers 2, laundress 1, sempstress 1, warehouseman 1, wheelwrights 2, porter 1, quarryman 1, smith 1, dairymaids 3, sawyer 1, mason 1, matron 1.

    “The sanitary state of the vessel is highly satisfactory, and Dr Duncan, who made his visit of inspection this afternoon, could not fail to be pleased with the orderly appearance of the ‘tween decks.”

    John Clarke worked in Adelaide as an engineer, and his entry in the 1877 SA Directory lists him at Brown Street (now Morphett Street), on the west side, next to the Queen’s Arms on Wright Street.  In 1885 he was working as an enginefitter in Gouger Street, and lived in Camborne Terrace.  In 1900 he had moved to 3 Palmerston Road, North Unley, a house he called “Trafford” probably after the Manchester suburb where he once lived.

    The SA Advertiser of 3rd September 1870 noted the marriage of John Clarke and Grace Shanks :
CLARKE - SHANKS.  On Thursday, Sept 1, by special licence, at St Luke’s Church, by the Rev W[illiam] F[rederick] Marshall, John Henry, third son of the late Richard Clarke, Esq., of Manchester, to Grace, fourth daughter of Mr Peter Shanks, of Adelaide.
The bridegroom was 24, a bachelor, and his occupation was given as “Engineer”.  The bride was 20, a spinster, and her father was a baker, of Logan Street.  The golden anniversary of the wedding was celebrated in 1920, when a notice in The Chronicle called Grace the third daughter of Peter Shanks Esq.

    Peter Shanks (died on 23rd June 1877 at Adelaide, aged 67) and Mary Ann White (died on 23rd January 1892 at West Adelaide, aged 72) had the following children, all born in Adelaide :
  • George James, born on 19th January 1844, and died on 15th July 1876 at Adelaide, aged 32,
  • Jane, born on 16th January 1846, and died on 12th February 1847, aged 1 year and 2 weeks,
  • Grace, born on 2nd October 1849,
  • Sarah Louise, born on 18th September 1852, and died on 28th May 1854, aged 20 months,
  • Thomas Eli, born on 28th August 1854,
  • John, born on 7th January 1857, and
  • Rosina, born on 1st March 1859.
    John Clarke died at Cape Town on 13th December 1922, on his return journey from England to South Australia.  His Will was written in England only five weeks before, which indicates that he knew at the time that he was seriously ill, and that the trip “home” was probably a last farewell to his family.

“This is the last Will and Testament of me John Henry Clarke of 3 Palmerston Road North Unley in the State of South Australia.  I hereby revoke all wills by me at any time heretofore made and declare this to be my last Will and testament.  I appoint my wife Grace Clarke of 3 Palmerston Road North Unley South Australia to be Executrix of this my Will and direct that all my just debts and Funeral and Testamentary Expenses shall be paid as soon as conveniently may be after my decease.  I give and bequeath to my wife Grace Clarke the rents and interests of all my land and house property stock securities for money Book Debts or Bonds for her sole use during her lifetime and none of the property to be sold during her lifetime.  After her decease the whole of my Australian property to be sold and equally divided between Thomas Eli Shanks John Shanks Mary Ann Fletcher Alfred Savage Elsie Fletcher Kate Henderson Fanny Holder of South Australia Rosina Shanks of Western Australia Rose Standbridge of New South Wales Dora Tipping of Victoria.  On my wife’s decease I hereby appoint as Executor for property in South Australia William Castle Foreman Gardener Marleston Avenue Ashford Adelaide South Australia and Ebenezer Zamora Bolt 26 Cambridge Road Seven Kings Ilford Essex of my property in England which is to be sold and I give and bequeath the proceeds equally between George Edward Clarke William Clarke brothers Maggie Tetlow (daughter of Mr Wm Clarke) Sidney Pritchard Frank Pritchard (sons of Frank Pritchard MB ChB) of Tredegar Walter Rowe nephew of Manchester Sidney Pritchard 103 Ryles Park Rd Macclesfield.  Both the Australian and English Executors to receive £100 – one hundred pounds each for acting in this capacity.  The property in England refers to my share in the Beswick property, Ashton New Road, willed to me by my late mother, Mary Ann Clarke and the Failsworth property Ashton Road I being heir at law from my late sister Mary Ann Clarke.  Dated this ninth day of November in the year of our Lord One Thousand Nine Hundred twenty two signed John Henry Clarke.  Signed by the said John Henry Clarke the Testator as and for his last Will in the presence of us present at the same time who at his request in his presence and in the presence of each other have hereunto subscribed our names as witnesses.  C E Bolt 26 Cambridge Rd Seven Kings married (?) V Lindsell 160 Richmond Rd Ilford Clerk.”

    John Clarke’s estate was declared not to exceed £970 in value when his Will was proved in the Supreme Court of South Australia on 16th May 1923.

Advertiser 19 December 1922  -  DEATHS – Clarke – On the 12th (sic) December at the Hospital, Cape Town, John Henry, beloved husband of Grace Clarke, 3 Palmerston Road, North Unley.  “For ever with the Lord.”
                        I have lost my life’s companion,
                        A life linked with my own;
                        One in hope, love and feeling;
                        Death divided – now alone.

    Grace Clarke continued to live at “Trafford” after her husband’s death until her death on 17th September 1935.

    In the 1881 Census the Bolt family was living in London :
Residence : 252 Burdett Rd, London, Middlesex
    Elizabeth Bolt            W(H)        M        44            Wife of Pilot (at sea)                        Weymouth, DST
    Mary R                        D              U         26            No occupation                                  Weymouth, DST
    Annie L                       D              --         14            Scholar                                                Singapore
    Alfred                          S               --         12            Scholar                                                Limehouse, LON
    Daniel R                      S               --           7            Scholar                                                Limehouse, LON
    Ebenezer Z                 S               --           3            ---                                                          Limehouse, LON

    In 1901 the family had moved to Ilford, Essex :
    Daniel Bolt                75                   b. Weymouth    CP : Ilford, Essex           Retired mariner
    Elizabeth                    64                        Weymouth           Ilford, Essex            ---
    Mary                           46                        Weymouth          Ilford, Essex            Overlooker cellular collar works
    Annie Bole (sic)        34                        Singapore            Ilford, Essex            Monthly nurse
    Alfred                         32                        Limehouse           East Ham, Essex     Commercial clerk
    Daniel                         27                        Limehouse           Hornchurch, Essex  Land surveyor
    Ebenezer                    23                        Limehouse            Ilford, Essex            Horticultural clerk

    Daniel Roberts Bolt was born in the September quarter of 1873 in the Stepney District, and Ebenezer Zamora Bolt was born in the December quarter of 1877 in the same district.  Ebenezer Bolt married Charlotte Elizabeth French (born in 1877) on 8th June 1905 in the Register Office, Romford, London.  The connection between the Clarke and Bolt families remains a mystery, although it is interesting that Ebenezer Bolt was a horticultural clerk, and John Clarke’s executor in Adelaide was a gardener.

       William Clarke

    John Henry Clarke’s Will mentions his brothers George Edward and William, presumably the only ones surviving in 1922, and a Maggie Tetlow, the daughter of William.  Maggie Clarke married Albert William Tetlow in the June quarter of 1904 in the district of Prestwich, a suburb of Manchester.  Albert Tetlow was born in the December quarter of 1883 in the district of Manchester.  Margaret (Maggie on her birth cerificate) Clarke was possibly born on 28th December 1884 and christened on 8th February 1885 at All Saints Church, Newton Heath (a suburb of Manchester near Prestwich).  Her parents were William Clarke and Jane Crossley.  William Clarke married Jane Crossley in the September quarter of 1869 at All Saints Church, Newton Heath.  Jane was christened on 30th April 1848 at Newton, and her parents were Luke Crossley and Mary Booth.  William and Jane had a large family, all christened at All Saints Church, Newton Heath :
  • Sarah Jane, baptised on 30th January 1870,
  • John William, christened on 30th July 1871,
  • Robert, baptised on 6th October 1872, and died on 1st October 1873,
  • Mary Elizabeth, born about 1874,
  • Esther, baptised on 6th June 1875,
  • Robert, born on 25th May 1877, baptised on 10th June 1877, and died on 8th August 1877,
  • Martha Ann, born on 23rd May 1878 and christened on 9th June 1878,
  • Joseph, baptised on 8th August 1880,   
  • Margaret, born on 28th December 1884 and christened on 8th February 1885, and
  • James, christened on 8th July 1888.
    The 1881 census lists the family :
Residence : 4 Thorpe St, Newton, Lancashire
    William Clarke            H        M        34        Splndle and flyer maker                       Failsworth, LAN
    Jane                             W       M        33        ---                                                            Newton Heath, LAN
    Sarah Jane                   D        --         11        Scholar                                                  Newton Heath, LAN
    John Wm                     S         --          9         Scholar                                                  Newton Heath, LAN
    Mary Elizth                 D         --          7         Scholar                                                  Failsworth, LAN
    Esther                          D         --          6         Scholar                                                  Newton Heath, LAN
    Martha A                    D         --          2         ---                                                           Newton Heath, LAN
    Joseph                         S         --        10m      ---                                                            Newton Heath, LAN
    Charles Crossley    BinL       U        37        Wheelwright                                         Newton Heath, LAN

    However I am not convinced that this is the right William Clarke, as his parents may have been Richard and Sarah Clarke, and he does not appear in the Census records in the correct locations.

An extract copied by Fanny Clarke from a letter from her cousin Richard stated that “I think the sailor you speak of must be William Clarke, John’s [John Henry Clarke (jnr)] brother.  He was one [for] a short time.  He is living and has a family.”

    William Clarke

    The family Bible states that William Clarke died on 17th August 1858, and was buried in the New Cemetery, Eccles Road, Manchester. Fanny Clarke received a letter from a cousin James Clarke, who may have been William’s son - I can find no other connection which fits, and this was confirmed by a reference in the Will of John Henry Clarke (snr).  James was married to Martha, and died on 26th February 1909 in the district of Bolton, aged 58.   

    A William Clarke possibly married Mary Ann Curtis in the September quarter of 1848 in the district of Manchester.  A James Clark (sic) was born on 21st March 1850 and christened on 1st September 1850 at Manchester. His parents were William and Mary Ann Clark.

    One of the earliest letters Fanny received was a quaintly-spelt one from her cousin James Clarke, who was possibly the son of her uncle William:
                                                                                        125 Chorley New Road
                April 18th 1902                                                        Near Bolton
                                                                                                 Lanc. England
    My Dear Cousin Fanny
        I recived your welcome letter & was glad to hear you ware all quite well. I thought you had forgoten me. i enquired many times about you & Kate But could not get any tidings about you So i had given up all hopes.  i have not Forgot when you & Kate left Plymouth on the ship Collingrove under the comand off Captain Angel.  i think i have onley recived one letter from Kate since you left England.  I have writen to my Cousin Richard Clarke and he will write you.  i have not seen or heard anything off the Kenworthys or harrops for over 20 years i will make some inquiry next time i go to Manchester and will inform you more when i write again.  My dear Aunt Betsy as past away also Mr & Mrs Anderson.  They have been departed from this life 15 years.  Mrs Anderson was left 8 hundred a year.  She had made her Will over to me when she was verry feable.  Some Distant relations of hers Perswaded her to make another Will.  So i was done out off every thing Except 40 pounds.  Mr Anderson Left a fortuen off 60 thousends.  His money was willed to his relations.  I have been married 22 years we had 13 childern But sorry to say we have lost them all but one a girl.  She will be 13 next September.  i am working for the LLR Railway works Horwich.  i have been here 16 years and i am verry Comfortable.  We are haveing our photo taken i will send them in my next letter.
    My wife & daughter joynes me with our kind love to you and your husband & Family not forgeting Kate.  Your Affectoniate Cousins, James & Martha Clarke.
PS.  I send you a Manchester paper.

    A James Clark was born on 21st March 1850 and christened on 1st September 1850 in Manchester, his parents being William Clark and Mary Ann.  James Clarke married Martha Gooddy in the June quarter of 1879 in the district of Stockport.  Martha was born in the September quarter of 1860 in the same district.

    In the 1881 Census, James and Martha Clark were living at Cheadle, near Stockport, just south of Manchester :
Residence :    Cheadle, Cheshire
    CLARK                James            H        M        30        Bleacher’s labourer                                Liverpool
                                  Martha         W       M         21        Bleacher’s labourer wife                       Stockport

    In the 1901 Census, James, aged 50, occupation “Engine Fitter”, born at Eaghill, Lancashire (Eagland Hill?), and Martha, aged 40, born at Stockport, Cheshire, lived at Horwich.  The daughter James mentions in the letter above could be Ann(e) Clarke, listed in the 1901 Census as born and living at Horwich, aged 11.  An Annie Clarke was born in the December quarter of 1889 in the Bolton district.

    Caroline Clarke

    Caroline Clarke married John Tipping in the June quarter of 1847 in the district of Liverpool, and they emigrated to New South Wales, where the birth of a son, Richard Henry (Harry), at Newcastle on 1st September 1860 was recorded in the family Bible.  According to Fanny Clarke, Harry married Dora Davis, and their children included Hugh, Madge and Connie.  A newspaper cutting preserved by Fanny Clarke from 1899 records:-  “The marriage of Mr John R Tipping, son of the late Mr John Tipping, locomotive inspector in the Penrith district for many years, and Miss Alice Besley, youngest daughter of Mr G B Besley, of Penrith, was solemnised at St Stephen’s Church of England, Penrith, on Wednesday.”  Mention was made of Miss Maggie Tipping (sister of the bridegroom), Mr A T Tipping and Mr Herbert Tipping (brothers of the bridegroom).

    Caroline Tipping died in 1864 at Picton, New South Wales.  John Tipping married again, to Mary L Cornwell, (born 1844, father Isaac Cornwell, mother Mary) at Richmond, NSW, in 1866.  A son, John, was born to the couple at Penrith in 1867 before both Mary, aged 23, and son John died in the same year.  John Tipping then married again, to Mary’s cousin, Margaret Susannah Cornwell, (father Abraham Cornwell, mother Susannah Eaton) at Richmond in 1869.  Their children were :
  • John R, born in 1870 at Richmond, and died in 1871 at Penrith,
  • John Richmond, born in 1872 at Penrith,
  • Abraham Thomas, born in 1874 at Penrith, who married Annie Butler Fulton (born 1876 at Penrith, father William Charles Fulton, mother Annie Butler) at St Peters in 1896, and again at Sydney in 1900.  Annie Tipping died in 1907 at Ashfield, NSW, and Abraham then married Lilian L Gray (born 1885 at Newcastle, father Joseph C Gray, mother Frances) at Sydney on 1909.
  • Gloster Angus, born in 1878 at Penrith, who died in 1884,
  • William Herbert, born in 1880 at Penrith, who married Stella Foat (born 1884 at Penrith, father Richard Foat, mother Elizabeth A) at Sydney in 1907.
  • Septimus G, born in 1882 at Penrith,
  • Alfred C, born in 1885 at Penrith, who married Barbara Askew at Katoomba in 1908.  Alfred Tipping died at Penrith in 1925.
  • Margaret E, born in 1887 at Penrith, who died in 1908 at Penrith.
    A John Tipping (mother Margaret) died at Penrith in 1888.

    John Richmond Tipping married Alice Jane Besley in 1899 at Penrith.  Alice was born at Penrith in 1874 to George Brian Besley and Alice Jane Matthews, who were married in Sydney in 1861.  The children of John and Alice Tipping were :
  • Thelma O, born in 1901 at Penrith, who married Norman R White in 1927 at Penrith,
  • Alice M, born in 1907 at Penrith, who married Athol A Doust in 1933 at Penrith,
  • Gordon Besley, born in 1908 at Ashfield, who married Ruby M J Rolfe (born 1900, father Robert, Mother Elizabeth) in 1937 at West Wyalong,
  • Edna May, born in 1910 at Penrith, who married Edric Neville Wood in 1937 at Chatswood, and
  • Doreen M, born in 1914 at Penrith, who married Amos William Parker in 1938 at Penrith.
    Richard Henry Tipping married Dorothea Davis on 8th April 1890, at Christ Church, Kadina.  The bride was the daughter of John Davis and his wife, variously recorded as Rosa (or Rose) Sophia (or Sarah) Mary Wills (or Wells).  John Davis, aged 32, married Rosa Sophia Mary Wills, aged 18, on 5th December 1850 at St James Church, Blakiston.  Their children were :
  • John, born on 15th February 1851 at Macclesfield, who may have married Sophia Calton (aged 30, father Henry Calton) on 8th July 1875 at Clayton Church, Kensington.  The groom’s age was given as 25.
  • Charles Thomas, born on 22nd April 1854 at Norwood, who married Sarah Elizabeth Simms (aged 21, father Thomas John Simms) on 15th November 1876 at St George’s Church, Woodforde.
  • Edward Alfred, born on 21st June 1858 at Macclesfield, who died on 13th June 1860 at Macclesfield,
  • Mary Eliza, born on 14th July 1860 at Macclesfield,
  • Emily Aida, born 14th July 1862, near Macclesfield, who died on 7th March 1863 at Kadina (Emily Eda),
  • Dorothea, born on 3rd February 1864 at Kadina, and
  • Alfred Wills, born on 11th August 1867 at Kadina.
    The children of Richard and Dorothea (Dora) Tipping were :
  • Hugh Ridout, born in 1891 at Essendon, Victoria, who died, aged 73, in 1964 at Heidelberg, Victoria,
  • Dorothy Madge, born in 1892 at Essendon, Victoria, and
  • Constance Jessup, born in 1896 at Hawthorn Victoria.
    Richard Tipping died, aged 59, in 1920 at Balwyn, Victoria.  His father’s and mother’s names were listed as Richard Tipping and Catherine Clarke.  Dorothea Tipping died, aged 92, in 1956 at Hawthorn, Victoria,  Her father’s name was listed as Alfred Davis.

    John Henry Clarke

    John Henry Clarke, the sixth son of George Clarke, came out to Adelaide in connection with the three locomotives that the Adelaide City and Port Railway had had built by Fairbairns of Manchester, the firm with which the Clarke family had strong associations.  On 17th May 1855, at the age of 29, he was appointed Superintendent of Locomotives in the railway department, a position which he held for 23 years, until his death.  The “List of Officers and Servants in the employ of the Railway”, published in the 1856 SA Government Gazette, gives John Clarke’s salary as £7 per week (£364 per annum), and he was the second-highest paid employee, after the Secretary and Traffic Manager, who earned £400 per year.  Under his supervision was a permanent staff consisting of two engine-drivers, engaged at £4 per week each, two stokers (£3-5-0), and two mechanics (£3-18-0), and a budget which included an allowance for up to four part-time mechanics for a period of 36 weeks.  His annual salary had risen to £400 in 1863, to £450 in 1867, and to £500 in 1875.

    He was married on 17th June 1858, at the church of St John the Evangelist, Halifax Street, Adelaide, to Eliza Ann Jessop, of Stepney, by the Rev Alan R Russell.  The groom’s occupation was stated as “Engineer”, and the bride was the eldest daughter of the late Mr William Jessop, New Kent Road, London.  The couple had no children.  In 1867 they were living on North Terrace, and in the 1870’s on West Terrace, between Philip Street and Currie Street.  They later moved to North Gilberton.

    In 1866 John Henry Clarke invested in the newly-formed Aerated Bread Company, his name appearing on the half-yearly listings (2nd March and 20th August 1866, 4th March and 2nd September 1867) of shareholders with a holding of 20 shares, worth £1 each (“John Henry Clarke, Engineer, North Terrace West”).  Unfortunately the Company was liquidated in 1868, so he probably lost all his money.

SA Police Gazette 23 October 1872  -  “Stolen from Dwellings – Stolen from the garden of John Henry Clarke, West Terrace, Adelaide, on the 17th instant, a large-sized rooted geranium plant, in bloom (C953).  Identifiable.”

    John Clarke resigned from the Railways on 31st December 1878, evidently on the grounds of ill-health.  He died on 19th June 1879, at the age of 53, and the following notice appeared in the Adelaide Register of 21st June :
Death of Mr J Henry Clarke - Our obituary notices of Friday contained the name of Mr John Henry Clarke, a well-known and respected colonist, who died at his residence, North Gilberton, on Thursday June 19th.  In May 1855 Mr Clarke was appointed Superintendent of Locomotives in the railway department, and he has held the position ever since.  Some months ago, owing to illness, he obtained a long leave of absence, but he never recovered sufficiently to resume duties.  By marriage he was related to the late Mr J H Cunningham of the Telegraph Office, and Mr E C Cracknell, Superintendent of Telegraphs, Sydney.

    After her husband’s death, Eliza Clarke continued to live at North Gilberton until about 1885, when she moved to Fisher Street, Norwood, two houses from her niece, Fanny Clarke, who had just married Herbert Holder.  She later moved to Osmond Terrace, Norwood, where she died on 21st August 1901, aged 68, and was buried with her husband in West Terrace Cemetery.  In the same plot is buried Edmund Soden Davys, “late of Sligo, Ireland”, an old friend of the Clarkes, who died at the Exchange Hotel, Hindley Street, on 27th June 1898, aged 66.  He was the Secretary of the Central Road Board (Public Works Department) from 1876 to 1887, and entered the details of John Clarke’s death in the family Bible, signing the entry in true secretarial form.

    E S Davys was first appointed to a position in the Civil Service on 1st January 1857.  In 1866 he was the Clerk in the Office of the Official Assignee in the Court of Insolvency, at an annual salary of £220.  On 16th February 1866 he was appointed to the office of Registrar and Clerk of the Court of Insolvency at a salary of £260, and on 1st May 1875 he was appointed as Secretary, Cashier and Accountant of the Central District of Main Roads, at a salary of £450.  The Road Boards were abolished in December 1887.

Observer 24 August 1901  -  “Deaths - Clarke - On the 21st August, at Osmond Terrace Norwood, in her 69th year, Eliza Ann, relict of the late John Henry Clarke, formerly Loco Superintendent of the SA Railway Department.”

    Probate was granted on John Clarke’s will on 4th July 1879, and his estate was sworn not to exceed £2500 in value.  Edmund Soden Davys and Edward Squire were appointed executors.  The will reads :
“This is the last Will and Testament of me John Henry Clarke of the City of Adelaide in the Province of South Australia Superintendent of the Locomotive Department of the South Australian Railways.  I bequeath to my wife Eliza Ann Clarke all the pictures prints books plate plated articles linen china wines liquors provisions household goods furniture chattels and effects (other than moneys or securities for money) which shall at my death be in or about my dwelling house.
“I bequeath to each of my executors (hereinafter named) the sum of Twenty five Pounds in case they consent to act as Trustees and Executors of this my Will such legacies or sums of Twenty five pounds to be as an acknowledgement for the trouble of executing my Will in lieu of any commission to be charged by or paid to them in respect to their duties as such Trustees and Executors.
“I bequeath my gold watch and chain my gold ring with representation of a locomotive engine engraved and also my gold studs set with garnets to my nephew John Clarke otherwise John Henry Clarke the son of my late brother Richard Clarke now deceased.  I devise all my real estate except what I otherwise devise by this my Will and except estates vested in me upon trust unto Edmund Soden Davys of the City of Adelaide aforesaid Clerk with the Government Service and William John Cunningham of the City of Adelaide aforesaid Clerk in the Telegraph Department of the said Province their being executors and administrators respectively according to the nature and tenure thereof UPON TRUST that the said Edmund Soden Davys and William John Cunningham or the survivor of them or the heirs executors or administrators respectively of such survivor shall at their or his discretion sell the same either together or in parcels and either by public auction or private contract and may buy in and rescind any contract for sale and resell without being responsible for any loss occasioned thereby and execute and do all such assurances and acts for effectuating any such sales as they or he shall think fit.
“I bequeath all my personal estate (except chattels real included in the general devise hereinbefore contained of real estate and except what I otherwise bequeath by this my Will) unto the said Edmund Soden Davys and William John Cunningham their executors and administrators UPON TRUST that the said Edmund Soden Davys and William John Cunningham or the survivor of them or the executors or administrators of such survivor shall at their or his discretion call in sell and convert into money such part of my said personal estate as shall not consist of money And I declare that the said Edmund Soden Davys and William John Cunningham and survivor of them and the heirs executors or administrators respectively of such survivor shall out of the moneys to arise from the sale of my said real estate and from the calling in sale and conversion into money of such part of my said personal estate as shall not consist of money and the money of which I shall be possessed at my death pay my funeral and testamentary expenses and debts and the legacies bequeathed by this my Will or any Codicil hereto And shall convert the residue of the said moneys in the names or name or under the legal control of the said Edmund Soden Davys and William John Cunningham or the survivor of them or the executor or administrators of such survivor (hereinafter called the Trustees or Trustee) in any of the Public Stocks or funds or upon Government securities of the said Province of South Australia of freehold securities in the said Province or in or upon the shares of any corporation Joint Stock Company or association carrying on the business of Banking in the said Province or in the said Province and in other parts of the world or in or upon the Shares Stocks or Securities of any Municipal Corporation in the said Province And I declare that the said Trustees or Trustee may vary the said stocks funds shares and securities at their or his discretion And shall pay the income of the said trust premises to my said wife during her life And from and after the death of my said wife I bequeath the said moneys stocks funds shares and securities equally unto and among all my Nieces and Nephews hereinafter named (that is to say) Elizabeth Clarke and Frances Clarke the daughters of my Brother Edward Clarke of Manchester in England Licensed Victualler, John Clarke otherwise John Henry Clarke aforesaid, James Clarke the son of my late Brother William Clarke of Manchester aforesaid Engineer and Richard Henry Tipping the son of my Sister Caroline share and share alike to become payable to my said Nieces when they shall attain the age of twenty one years or marry which shall first happen and to my said Nephews when they shall attain the age of twenty one years.  I direct that my trustees after the death of my wife shall apply the whole or so much as they shall think fit of the annual income of the contingent portion to which each of my said Nieces and Nephews shall be entitled under this my Will towards the maintenance education or bringing up of such Niece or Nephew and shall accumulate the unapplied income and add the accumulations to the portion whenever the same shall have arisen And I declare that in case of the death in my lifetime of any of them the said Elizabeth Clarke Frances Clarke John Clarke otherwise John Henry Clarke James Clarke and Richard Henry Tipping having issue such issue shall take by way of substitution the share or shares to which the parents would if living be entitled equally to be divided among them And I hereby declare that the said Edmund Soden Davys and William John Cunningham and the survivor of them and the heirs executors or administrators respectively of such survivor may at anytime or times before all my said real estate shall have been sold devise all or any part thereof at the best rent that can be had or obtained for the same for any term of years not exceeding twenty one years to take effect on possession and either with or without giving to the lessee a right of purchasing the fee simple and inheritance of and in the devised premises And I further declare that until all my said real and personal estate shall be sold and converted into money the said trustees or trustee for the time being hereof respectively shall apply the income of such part thereof as shall for the time being remain unsold or unconverted after payment thereout of all rates taxes expenses of repairs insurance and other outgoings in the manner in which the annual income of the stocks funds shares or securities aforesaid would be payable and applicable if such real and personal estate had been sold and the net surplus moneys arising from such sale had been invested as aforesaid And I hereby declare that the receipt of the trustees or trustee for the time being acting in the execution of any of the trusts hereof for the purchase money of property sold or for any money funds shares or securities paid or transferred to them or him in pursuance hereof or of any of the trusts hereof shall effectually discharge the purchaser or purchasers or other person or persons paying or transferring the same therefrom and from being concerned to see to the application thereof And I hereby declare that if the said trustees hereby appointed or either of them shall die in my lifetime or if they or either of them or any Trustee or Trustees to be appointed as hereinafter is provided shall after my death die or desire to be discharged or go to reside out of the said Province or refuse or become incapable to act then and so often the said Trustees or Trustee (and for this purpose every retiring or refusing trustee shall be considered a trustee) may appoint a new Trustee or new Trustees in the place of the Trustee or Trustees so dying or desiring to be discharged or going to reside out of the said Province or refusing or becoming incapable to act And upon every such appointment the said trust premises shall be so transferred that the same may become vested in the new Trustee or Trustees jointly with surviving or continuing trustee or solely as the case may require and every such new Trustee shall (as well before as after the said trust premises shall have become so vested) have the same powers authorities and discretions as if he had been originally appointed a trustee And I declare that the trustees for the time being of this my Will shall respectively be chargeable only with such moneys as they respectively shall actually receive and shall not be answerable for each other nor for any Banker Broker or other person in whose hands any of the trust moneys shall be placed nor for the insufficiency or deficiency of any Stocks funds or securities nor otherwise for involuntary losses And that the said Trustees for the time being may respectively reimburse themselves out of the trust premises all expenses incurred in or about the execution of the aforesaid trusts and powers.  I devise all the freehold hereditaments vested in me upon trust or mortgage unto the said Edmund Soden Davys and William John Cunningham their heirs and assigns UPON THE TRUSTS and subject to the equity of Redemption subsisting therein respectively but the money secured on such Mortgages shall be considered as part of my personal estate And I appoint the said Edmund Soden Davys and William John Cunningham Executors of this my Will and authorise the Acting Executor or Executors for the time being of this my Will to satisfy any debts claimed to be owing by me or by my estate and any liabilities to which I or my estate may be alleged to be subject upon any evidence they or he shall think fit and to accept any composition or security for any debt and to allow such time for payment (either with or without taking security) as to the said Acting Executors or Executor shall seem fit and also to compromise or submit to arbitration and settle all accounts and matters belonging to or relating to my estate and generally to act in regard thereto as they or he shall think expedient without being responsible for any loss thereby occasioned And I revoke all other Wills and Testamentary writings by me herebefore made In witness whereof I have to this my last Will and Testament contained in this and the four preceding sheets of paper set my hand this twenty fifth day of July in the year of our Lord one thousand and eight hundred and seventy one.
                        Jno Henry Clarke
“Signed by the said Testator John Henry Clarke as and for his last Will and Testament in the presence of us present at the same time who at his request in his sight and presence and in the presence of each other have subscribed our names as witnesses.
                        B Bryce    Solicitor Adelaide
                        George Henry Cargeeg   his Clerk

“This is a Codicil to the last Will and Testament of me the within mentioned John Henry Clarke dated the twenty fifth day of July One thousand eight hundred and seventy one within written.  Whereas William John Cunningham in my said Will named has lately died and I am desirous of appointing Edward Squire of Adelaide in the Province of South Australia Gentleman as Executor and Trustee of my said Will in his place Now I hereby appoint the said Edward Squire to be a Trustee and Executor of my said Will in the place of the said William John Cunningham and I declare that my said Will shall accordingly be read and construed as if the name of the said Edward Squire had been inserted therein throughout instead of the name of the said William John Cunningham and in all other respects I confirm my said Will.
“In witness whereof I have hereunto set my hand this twenty seventh day of September in the year of our Lord one thousand eight hundred and seventy five.
                        Jno Henry Clarke

 “Signed and declared by the said John Henry Clarke as and for a Codicil to his last Will and Testament in the presence of us present at the same time who at his request in his presence and in the presence of each other have hereunto subscribed our names as witnesses.
                        F R Ayers   Solicitor Adelaide
                        W J Gepp   his Clerk

“This is a Second Codicil to the last Will and Testament of me the within mentioned John Henry Clarke dated the twenty fifth day of July One thousand eight hundred and seventy one.  I hereby direct and empower the Executors or Executor of my said Will so soon as conveniently may be after my death to pay to my wife Eliza Ann Clarke a legacy or sum of Five hundred pounds sterling in addition to all devises and bequests in her favour made by my said Will.  I hereby revoke the bequest of my gold chain made by my said Will to my nephew John Clarke otherwise John Henry Clarke and bequeath the same to my said wife.  I hereby declare that my nieces described in my said Will as Elizabeth Clarke and Frances Clarke are the persons known as Catherine Elizabeth Gray Clarke and Fanny Gray Clarke.  I direct that the legacy bequeathed to the executors of my said Will shall be paid to them free and clear of all legacy duty And except as aforesaid I hereby confirm my said Will and the first Codicil thereto.  In witness whereof I have hereunto set my hand this tenth day of June one thousand eight hundred and seventy nine.
                         Jno Henry Clarke

“Signed by John Henry Clarke within mentioned as a second Codicil to his last Will and Testament in the presence of us present at the same time who at his request in his sight and presence and in the presence of each other have subscribed our names as attesting witnesses.
                        F R Ayers   Solicitor Adelaide
                        H P Tomkinson   his Clerk”

    Building The Port Adelaide Railway

    During the first ten years or so of South Australia’s existence, several attempts were made by promoters to undertake the construction of a railway between Adelaide and Port Adelaide by private enterprise, but none of them materialised.  In February 1850 a private Act was passed, authorising the Adelaide City and Port Railway Company to construct and operate a railway extending from the stone quarry below the Legislative Council building, along the Port Road to Port Adelaide, with a branch to the North Arm.  The gauge was to have been 4’ 8½" and the Company was required to complete five miles of railway within eighteen months, and the whole works within three years.  The Act authorised a capital of £45 000, and prescribed maximum charges of sixpence per ton-mile for carriage and goods, and twopence, three-halfpence, and one penny per mile for first, second and third class fares respectively.  One quaint proviso was that, if required, the Company must give delivery of goods in Adelaide at the level of the door-sill of the Legislative Council building.

    The Company made little progress, however; on expiry of the prescribed eighteen months none of the line had been laid, and the resident director, H W Parker, gave formal notice of the abandonment of the project.  In doing so, he complained bitterly of the conditions contained in the authorising Act, saying that “No railway in the world would pay under the Ordinance - the tolls were too low and the prospective traffic insufficient.”

    The Government and the Legislative Council then decided to build the railway with Government funds, and passed an Act in October 1851, appointing a Board of Undertakers to carry out the work, five years being allowed for its completion.  The gauge was originally fixed at 5’ 3" instead of the 4’ 8½" originally proposed.  This was agreed to by Earl Grey, who stated in a dispatch to Sir Henry Young that he was influenced in arriving at that decision by receipt of a dispatch from the Governor of New South Wales, stating that the colony had adopted the wider gauge.  (Unfortunately New South Wales did not adhere to that decision, hence the break of gauge at Albury.)  The “Undertakers” appointed Benjamin Herschel Babbage as local chief engineer, and in England the services of Isambard Kingdom Brunel were enlisted as agent, or consulting engineer.  It is therefore not surprising that the rails originally laid in the Adelaide and Port Railway were of the same type as those used by Brunel on the Great Western Railway.  These were known as “Bridge” pattern, and laid on longitudinal timbers.

    The proposal to build the railway as a Government undertaking was the subject of correspondence with the Home authorities, and the following extract is from a report by the British Commissioners of Railways at Whitehall to the Secretary of State for the Colonies:-  “According to the system hitherto adopted in this country, and, as far as the Commissioners are aware, in the colonies likewise, the construction of railways has been left entirely to private enterprise. ...... On the other hand, the construction of railways in a colony carried on immediately under the direction of the local Government would, there is reason to think, form a most important instrument in promoting the general improvement of the colony.  The power of laying out on a comprehensive plan the main lines of communication through the colony, of opening the access to particular districts in such order as may be most conducive to the interests of the colony generally, and of determining the position of the stations, and consequently the sites of future towns and villages, is, it is evident, a power which could be employed with much greater effect and more extensive influence in a newly-settled colony than in the Mother-country, where the railway is merely the last step in the social progress, and accommodates itself necessarily to centres of traffic and masses of population that already exist.”

    The railway to Port Adelaide was duly completed and opened on 19th April 1856, after successive Acts had been passed increasing the capital provision to a total of £186 000.  To mark the occasion, a banquet was held in a building near McLaren’s Wharf, Port Adelaide, the Governor (Sir Richard Graves MacDonnell), prominent legislators and officials, and leading colonists taking part in the proceedings.  It is recorded that for the special train on this occasion 150 tickets at one guinea each were issued.

    This was the first State-owned railway in the British Empire.  The first three locomotives imported were manufactured by Fairbairns, of Manchester, and named “Adelaide”, “Victoria” and “Albert”.  These were originally tank engines, but were later converted to tenders, possibly about 1869.  The engines were painted a rich green, with their name on an ornamented brass plate on each side of the boiler,  The engine number was painted in gold on the buffer beams (1 – Adelaide, 2 – Victoria, 3 – Albert).

    The Board of Undertakers functioned until June 1856, when an Act was passed appointing a Board of Railway Commissioners to control the railways.  This Board in turn was abolished in 1859 when control of the railways was vested in the Commissioner of Public Works, who issued directions to the manager.  This arrangement continued until 1887, when the South Australian Railways Commissioners Act was passed, under which almost complete authority for the management and administration of the railways was vested in three Commissioners, reserving financial control to Parliament.  The number of Commissioners was later reduced from three to one.

Observer 10 February 1855  -  “The Adelaide City and Port Railway - The plant for the line was ordered from England quite a year ago, and may be speedily expected.  Care has been taken to specify as far as possible stock suited for the climate, under-carriage frames of wrought iron, panels of papier mache, carriages of all classes, large and well ventilated, with double roofs, &c, &c.  The selection of the stock is entrusted to Mr Brunel, the celebrated engineer of the Great Western Railway.  The gauge of the line is to be 5’ 3", long since selected as the Australian gauge, to which the neighbouring colony of Victoria has adhered, though New South Wales has gone back to the original gauge of 4’ 8½".  The rails are to be laid on longitudinal timbers of Swan River mahogany [jarrah], of which the first installment has lately arrived, contractor Mr H Yelverton of Fremantle.  The main quantity of this timber, however, is contracted for by Mr H Martin of this city.”
Observer 9 June 1855  -  “The brig Marco Polo arrived on Wednesday at the Port from Bristol with some plant for the City and Port Railway.  There are on board 2 miles of rails with the necessary fixings, which will be laid down at the Port end of the line, so that the remainder of the rails as they arrive can be wheeled along the finished part of the line in trucks, and deposited in their places.  The rest of the plant is expected to arrive in the course of the year.”
Register 2 November 1855  -  “Arrival of the Theodore - ...... A practical engineer, Mr Clarke, has arrived as a cabin passenger in the Theodore under engagement with the Railway Board.”
Observer 3 November 1855  -  “Shipping Intelligence - Arrived - The ship Theodore, 1001 tons, J Davys, master, from Liverpool, July 3, Elder & Co agents.  Passengers, Mr Clarke, in the cabin, James Sherlock...... in the intermediate.  The ship Theodore has arrived, as reported, after a passage of 120 days.  Her log reports variable weather.  Spoke, Sept 16, in lat 39° 6’ south the Russian-built ship Aallotar, from London bound to Sydney.  The Aallotar had been a prize.  The Theodore’s draught of water being 19’ 6", she will not be able cross the Bar until lightened.  Cargo - 8 railway carriages, 3 locomotive engines and tenders, quantity of machinery for the Undertakers of the City and Port Railway.”
Register 5 November 1885  -  “The Theodore - The schooners Agenora and Fame are lying alongside this vessel for the purpose of lightening her of a portion of her cargo to enable her to come over the bar.”
Observer 17 November 1855  -  “Theodore - the ship is still discharging cargo outside by the aid of lighters, but from the large bulk of the railway carriages, which are contained in cases 29’ long, 9’ wide and 3’ 9" deep, and stowed ‘tween decks and amidships, it is difficult to get at other merchandise stowed in the wings of the ship; and there is consequently much difficulty and delay in discharging her.”
Register 20 November 1855  -  “The Port Railway - The locomotives for this railway have arrived in the Theodore, but they have not yet been landed, as the vessel’s draught of water has not enabled it to come up to the Port.”
Observer 24 November 1855  -  “Theodore - The portions of the cargo taken out of this ship at the anchorage have lightened her so considerably that her draught of water is not more than 16’ 9", so that she will in all probability come over the Bar on Saturday or Monday next.”
Register 17 January 1856  -  “The Adelaide City and Port Railway - The first stupendous machine of that species called “the iron horse” is already temporarily stabled on the Company’s Wharf, and will be ready to occupy a permanent stall at headquarters in a few days.  The other engines with their tenders and trains of ponderous vehicles not only create surprise by their bulk and number, but invite curiosity with respect to the noble ship that brought them (the Theodore), which is now finishing the delivery of an immense cargo.”
Adelaide Times 17 January 1856  -  “The Railway - Port Terminus - The Theodore’s cargo being now for the most part landed, and the locomotives safely deposited near Burfield’s Hotel under the superintendence of Mr Clarke (the engineer), who has been busily engaged for the last fortnight arranging the fittings of the first locomotive ever put together in the colony, and it is now in a very advanced state of completion.  The power in locomotives being calculated by the number of tons, the one in question is computed to propel from forty to fifty waggons or carriages, each weighing on an average 5 or when full loaded 11 tons.  It has two 15" cylinders and a 24" stroke.  The driving and trailing wheels are 5’ 4" and the leading wheels 3’ 9" in diameter, having six wheels, four of which are coupled together.  When this engine is fully loaded with coals and fuel it weighs about 23 tons.  There are three locomotives arrived in the Theodore, all of which are alike; and severally named Adelaide, Victoria and the Albert.  The one now being worked on is the Adelaide.  The name is placed on the side in large brass letters on a red ground, the body or boiler-case is painted green, and the funnel is of bright copper.  The tender is not as usual separate from the locomotive engine, but is on an improved system (designed by J R Brunell Esq and William Fairbairn Esq) in which the tender is fixed on the same frame and wheels as the engine.  It was manufactured at the factory of Wm Fairbairn and Son of Manchester, and is now under the superintendence of Mr Clarke, who was formerly in their employ.”
Observer 19 January 1856  -  “The Adelaide City and Port Railway - The Rolling Stock - The engines and carriages have arrived from England and are being prepared for use with all possible despatch.  They comprise three locomotive engines, constructed upon a new principle, the tender being attached, instead of upon a separate carriage; three first class and six second [and third] class carriages with fittings sufficient for as many more; and twelve luggage waggons with duplicate fittings.  These, together with a quantity of turntables, traversing frames, cranes &c, have just been landed or are in course of landing from the Theodore.  Mr Clarke, the locomotive superintendent, has one engine which will soon be fit for work, and he thinks a trial trip may be made with it by the end of the month.  Mr Sherlock, the chief carriage builder, has already put several of the goods waggons into working order, and has begun to prepare the passenger carriages. ...... At the Port Station all the carriages and goods waggons received from England are now put together and mounted on wheels, and are ready to come up the line as soon as the completion of the whole of the same will permit.  It is confidently stated that the works will be thus far advanced by the end of this month.  All the plant recently brought out by the Theodore, including waggons, carriages and locomotives, is now being cleaned and put together under an awning at the Port Station.  The names of the engines are understood to be the following - the “Adelaide”, “Victoria” and “Albert”.  Some disappointment has occurred in the arrival of this portion of the plant, which is in a great measure explained by the unexpected delay of the departure of the Theodore from England, which is principally attributed to the great weight and size of the packages.  Nearly the whole of them have now been discharged.  Another part of the cargo consisted of ballast waggons, which have only just been landed.  It was intended to have used them in the formation of the line, in assisting at the earthwork, conveying the iron &c.  From these causes the date at which it had been anticipated that the railway would be open for traffic has been unavoidably deferred.  Another reason for the delay, and by no means an inconsiderable one, is the fact that only three weeks have elapsed since the last portion of the land required for the line has been ceded to the Board of Undertakers - so high were the demands said to be made by the owners of the same.  In many cases the title was found to be uncertain, and some of the land passed through has been hitherto unclaimed, at least such is the case with one or two allotments. ...... It is now confidently anticipated that the railway would be opened in March, making due allowance for the various unavoidable delays that have occurred, as it will be seen from the observations already made that the permanent way is nearly completed, and that the putting together of the locomotives is being proceeded with great rapidity.  They have been built at the factory of Messrs Fairbairn of Manchester, under the superintendance of Mr Clarke, or rather he was employed to make them, and he has now arrived in the colony to superintend fitting them up.  Mr Sherlock holds a similar position  in the carriage department; he having been employed by Messrs Wright of Birmingham in superintending the contract for the carriages, which under his direction will soon be in working order.”
Register 31 January 1856  -  “The Railway - The first locomotive engine landed and put into working order in South Australia will make a short trial during the forenoon of tomorrow from the Station at Port Adelaide to the Station at Alberton.  The various parts of the engine have been put together under the superintendence of Mr Clarke, a gentleman who lately arrived from England to conduct that department of the Adelaide City and Port Railway.  Mr Clarke mentions in terms of the highest praise the care of Captain Davys of the ship Theodore, to which may be attributed the safe and perfect condition in which everything has been landed of the very large quantity of machinery, engines and material consigned to the Undertakers of the City and Port Railway.”
Adelaide Times 1 February 1856  -  “City and Port Railway - Yesterday for the first time in South Australia a locomotive engine was put in motion on the above line.  On the arrival of Mr Babbage at the Port, the engine, which was occupied by that gentleman, together with Captain Davys of the Theodore, and Messrs Todd, Cracknell and Mockridge, and Mr Clarke, the engineer, started on her course; but through some slight mistake in one of the sidings, some little delay occurred, which being remedied the mighty horse rushed on to the Albert Town Station.  On returning from the Albert Town Station a passenger-carriage frame was attached to the engine, and several persons who occupied the temporary seats prepared were taken for the first time on the South Australian Railway.  Under the superintendence of Mr Clarke the engine, the Adelaide, has been brought into thoroughly good working order, and has, we believe, completely satisfied the fondest wishes of her contractors; and Mr Clarke must feel proud at the manner in which his pet horse travelled over the line for the first time, and the signal-whistle which called together a goodly company of Portonians and reminded them of their travels in the mother country.”
Observer 2 February 1856  -  “The Port Railway - The absolute cost of the rolling stock in England has been not less that £52 895.”
Observer 2 February 1856  -  “The City and Port Railway - The Trial Trip - The Adelaide, the first completed of the first locomotive engines ever introduced into this colony, made several trial trips on Thursday morning between the Port Station and the station at Alberton with the most complete success.  The very first motion of the engine gave full assurance that it was in perfect working order, and its subsequent performances fully confirmed that assurance.  Shortly after starting, however, the progress of the engine was arrested by some inaccuracy in the gauge of the rails in a curvature where they have been laid down temporarily for the accommodation of the trucks, but that difficulty was shortly surmounted with a little judgment and labour, and the engine alone proceeded at an easy but steady pace as far as the Alberton Station.  After making one trip so far with Messrs Babbage, Davys (master of the Theodore), Todd, Higginson (secretary of the Board of Undertakers), and Light, a truck was attached to the engine, and in that about 30 passengers were taken to Alberton and back at a speed varying from 4 to 10 miles an hour.  Though the weight of the engine and truck with the passengers must have been little short of 30 tons, no depression of the rails was observable, and the embankment was in no way injured.”
Adelaide Times 9 February 1856  -  “The Progress of the Railway - In the course of last Thursday some half-dozen trucks and carriages were brought up from the Port to the Adelaide terminus, although a considerable delay occurred owing to the non-completion of the roadway over the bridge passing over the Torrens.  Up till Wednesday last the central part of the line crossing the bridge had been only temporarily for the passage of trucks, owing to the delay which occurred in the arrival of the timber required for the purpose.  On the morning in question it had been intended by Mr Babbage to have substituted for this temporary portion of the line a more substantial and permanent arrangement, as the timber requisite had not only arrived, but a considerable portion of it was at that time lying near the bridge ready for use.  But owing to the soaking rain which fell in the course of the day, the workmen employed had not proceeded further with the work than to the extent of removing the temporary structure.  On the arrival of the trucks at the bridge Mr Babbage, who directed their progress, being resolved to reach town that night if possible, had no alternative but to construct the portion of the bridge unfinished.  Under his resolute superintendence the work was done and the terminus reached that night.  Yesterday morning it was arranged to have the first trial trip of an engine throughout the length of the line, but again the unpropitious state of the weather somewhat interfered, as some parts of the line required a little aid from the workmen to render it fit for active operations.  The weather having cleared up about half past ten, the workmen were sent to where the line was unfinished and a telegraphic message despatched to the Port to get up the steam of the Adelaide, recently restored to shape as a locomotive.  Several parts of the line having been “packed” as the locality demanded, the Adelaide, with a train of carriages attached, started about a quarter past three.  The dead weight of the whole, including cargo, was about 200 tons, an amount fully adequate to test the powers of endurance of the roadway.  With a due exercise of care in the progress of the procession (consisting in no small degree of a lively multitude of all ages), Bowden was reached with perfect success and no casualty.  Here it was found necessary to feed the boiler, as it was found that, owing to the newness of the material and the stiffness shown in the working of the axles, the progress was very slow.  At this station the train was altogether detached.  The locomotive tank having been supplied by the Cornwall engine, it proceeded alone for a short distance in order that the pumps should transmit the water into the boiler, the contents of which had become very low.  This stage was continued to Morphett Street as a test of the working condition of the rails.  Having performed this part of the journey some two or three times with uniform success, the Adelaide then returned to Bowden to fetch the dead weight, by no means reduced by the number of living varieties who could manage to obtain an elevation.  The engine was again detached at Morphett Street and proceeded alone to test the condition of the terminus rails - also for water.  By this means they disposed of the promiscuous assemblage who had taken possession of the trucks.  On approaching the terminus the engine had to pass over a part of the line, the roadway of which had lately been used as an ordinary track for the passage of drays.  It was then hastily covered with a coating of sand and the rails hastily laid.  Owing to the late severe rains which have more or less interfered with the true set of the various parts of the line, the part in question was materially affected.  On the passage of the engine there was such a considerable deflection that the fore-wheel of the engine ran off, but with no great difficulty the ponderous machine was restored to its legitimate position.  A similar occurrence took place at the cutting, in a spot where the engine had passed over some three times before.  In most cases where the rails yielded to a slight extent the defect occurred from insufficient packing, the sand having been removed to bolt the rails and time hardly been allowed to replace it.  Yet the trip was not altogether unproductive, for an amount of material was brought up to Adelaide, the carriage of which by the ordinary road would have cost £100.  Although the defects in question were found to occur on rails of Barlow’s principle, yet they were generally found to act the best, the progress of the engine was decidedly steadier than on rails of the ordinary construction.  Large numbers of people were assembled at various parts of the line to witness the novelty of the performance.”
Observer 9 February 1856  -  “The City and Port Railway - The first railway locomotive arrived yesterday in Adelaide.  The ballasting of the line of the railway is not yet complete, but the rails being continuously laid allowed the passage of the engine for the whole distance.  The engine had twelve carriages and trucks attached to it, in which were 60 tons of heavy castings and other goods belonging to the railway.  The whole train was estimated to exceed 200 tons in weight.  The departure from the Port took place at a quarter to 3 in the afternoon, and the train came cautiously and slowly up the line till it reached the Bowden Station, when the locomotive was disconnected from the trucks and carriages for the purpose of taking in water from a fire engine which was kindly lent by the Cornwall Insurance Company, and it became necessary to run it up and down a portion of the line to pump water into the boiler, as the machinery for that purpose cannot be worked without the wheels being also put in motion.  In crossing the bridge over the Torrens the locomotive, which with its fuel and water weighs 37 tons, was halted in order to ascertain the deflection; but although carefully inspected none whatever was observed in the structure.  It was then run as far as the Morphett Street level crossing, on the rails, and immediately returned to fetch the trucks and carriages.  After some time the whole train was observed in motion, and it came up as far as the Morphett Street crossing, when the engine was detached and run into the station-ground, but got off the rails at a place where the ground had sunk from a collection of surface water owing to the late rains.  It was soon backed onto the rails again and the weak part in the road strengthened by some stringybark rails.  On passing over the same place the second time, however, the engine again slipped off.  The third attempt was more successful, and it arrived at its destination about 6 o’clock.  There being no rails laid as yet to the engine shed, the “Adelaide, No 1” had to bush it for the night.  It was brought up under the lee of the goods shed and covered with a tarpaulin.  Notwithstanding the unfavourable state of the weather, there was a large crowd of people to witness the arrival of the first locomotive, and to many of them the sight was a novelty.  The experimental trip was a fair trial of the line considering the recent very heavy rains, which caused a little inconvenience and delay in two or three places by the subsidence of the soil.  Occasionally the passage of so great a weight over the rails for the first time pressed the transoms down visibly.  The engine worked beautifully.  A great saving was effected by the bringing up the 60 tons of goods, which at the ordinary rate of cartage would have cost upwards of £120.  Mr Babbage, the engineer, intends to avail himself of the line at once in bringing up the remainder of the plant at present lying at the Port; and with the facilities now afforded he will have no difficulty in opening the line for general traffic by the middle of March.”
Observer 1 March 1856  -  “The ship Theodore sailed on February 23rd for Bombay.”
Adelaide Times 10 March 1856  -  “City and Port Railway - Trial Trip - Saturday last was fixed upon as the day for a trial trip on the City and Port Railway line.  The Board had issued a large number of invitations, and there was no lack of gentlemen to avail them-selves of them.  All being ready for the start we ascended one of the carriages, but not without some misgivings as to the success of the trip.  This over, the confidence of the most sanguine was somewhat shaken when, after starting from the platform of the Adelaide Station and proceeding to the distance of a hundred yards or so, the train was suddenly reversed, from some irregularity of the proceedings, and backed to its first starting place, where our friends, who had bidden us adieu, were still waiting, and who, less venturesome than ourselves, looked exceedingly doubtful as to the issue of our journey.  Though not greatly apprehensive, on any occasion, of danger, we confess we were a little inclined ere this to say, with Antony -
“Haply you may not see me more; or if
A mangled shadow.”
After a quarter of an hour’s detention, however, we made a second and more effectual start at ten minutes to two o’clock, being only within forty minutes of the time appointed.  The shrill whistle of the engine was returned by the hearty, encouraging hurras of the crowd collected on North Terrace to see the start - many of whom perhaps had never before seen a railway in their lives.  We can imagine it to have been an afternoon of deep suspense to the Adelaide Public, when it is considered that the cream of the South Australian Government was contained in those carriages; that the Executive and Legislat-ive Councils and official dignitaries were all in the same box; and that they might come to a weary if not a sad end.  At two minutes to two o’clock the train passed the Bowden Station, being eight minutes from town, and the speed was gradually increased to about twenty miles an hour, which we should say was about the maximum speed of its travelling; not very satisfactory to an old Railway traveller, but very good for a beginning.  Woodville was passed at eight minutes past two o’clock, making the distance from Bowden, say four miles, in ten minutes.  At a quarter past two o’clock the train stopped a mile on this side of the Port to supply the engine with water, of which a sufficient quantity had not been taken in on starting.  This occasioned a detention of 18 minutes, and we arrived at the Port at 24 minutes to three o’clock.  Deducting the stoppage, this gives 28 minutes for the whole distance of seven miles, say, or an average of fifteen miles per hour.  The platform of the station at the Port was crowded with anxious expectants, whose countenances betokened expressions of congratulation at the safe termination of the first railway trip in South Australia.  We cannot say that the return from the Port was attended with the same success.  The train left at ten minutes to four o’clock, and proceeded very satisfactorily for the first four miles, when we were made sensible, by a sudden jumping motion, and the stopping of the carriages, that we were off the line, and had been in imminent danger of being thrown over the embankment.  On getting out we found that the bolts binding the transoms to the longitudinal timbers supporting the rails had given way, and that the near wheels of all the carriages were off the line, the flange of the wheel cutting into the sand.  It appears that on this part of the line the ballasting had been but imperfectly done, the workmen being at the time engaged in completing it.  It was poor consolation, however, to the 120 passengers by the train to know how it occurred - not being satisfied with the assurance that trains do sometimes go off.  Many, impatient at the stoppage, made for the Port Road and took vehicles to town, whilst others, including several members of the Council, proceeded on foot along the line, preferring the certainty of animal power to the uncertainty of locomotive.  We confess we were somewhat tempted to avail ourselves of a seat in one of the passing vehicles, but were deterred by the unseemly exultation of those Knights of the Whip who witnessed our distress.  After three quarters of an hour’s detention we were again in motion and reached town in twenty minutes.  Excepting the unfortunate stoppage of the train on returning, we think the trip ended as satisfactorily as could have been expected, bearing in mind that the line is not yet completed.  On Easter Monday, however, the public will be able to judge for themselves of the capabilities of the City and Port Railway, and of its general efficiency.  If it answers well, the time wasted upon it, and the cost of its construction will probably be speedily forgotten.”
Adelaide Times 10 March 1856  -  “Fire - On Saturday evening about half past 8 o’clock a fire was discovered at the Adelaide Railway Terminus in the coal shed.  It was fortunately extinguished before any serious damage was done.”
Observer 15 March 1856  -  “The trial trip on the railway - On Saturday the Undertakers of the City and Port Railway invited several of their friends to a trial trip on the railway.  The line is not yet properly formed for traffic, several miles not being ballasted, and the rails not being finally fixed.  The Undertakers, however, yielding to the natural impatience of the public to see this railway at work, projected a trip, perhaps before the stability of the works warranted such a trial.  At one o’clock the guests invited assembled at the Railway Station on North Terrace, where refreshments were provided.  Most of the members of the Legislative Council, many Government officers, and several of the leading gentlemen of Adelaide were present.  There was a considerable amount of good-humoured bantering of the Undertakers as to the significance of their title, and some commendation of their precautionary foresight in having invited the Colonial Surgeon to be one of the party.  Many of the company, being old colonists, had never seen a locomotive at work before, and were perhaps “just a leetle” timid at trusting themselves for the first time to the mercies of the iron horse on a half-finished line.  The five carriages, one first class, two second class and two third class, were yoked to the engine Victoria.  At ten minutes to two o’clock the train started.  A crowd of persons collected near the level crossing at Morphett Street, and cheered lustily as the pioneer of progress passed them.  The train moved on steadily, slackening speed over parts where the road was tender, but in other parts reaching a speed of about 17 miles an hour.  It was 28 minutes reaching Alberton, where the engine stopped to take in water, after which it proceeded to the Port.  There the company dispersed, a large number partaking themselves to Messrs Hart and Hughes’s flour mill, which being in full work, was seen to advantage.  At about a quarter to 4 the train set out again on its homeward journey.  The trip back unfortunately was not altogether so successful as the trip down.  Shortly after passing Woodville the train got off the line.  The line at this part is not properly packed or ballasted, and the wooden frame-work is not fully fastened together, in order to allow such shiftings of the rails as the proper packing may require to be made without straining the fastenings.  The longitudinal sleepers are fastened together by wooden transoms, bound by iron rods, riveted and nailed strongly onto them.  Many of these nails have not yet been inserted and the framework is not as compact therefore as it will be.  The train was proceeding at rather a more rapid pace than the tender state of the line at this part warranted.  The fastenings to one of the transoms gave way to the lateral pressure of the engine, the sleepers were pressed outwards, and the train was drawn on between the rails.  The brakes were immediately applied and the train was stopped in about 30 yards.  No damage was done except a little displacement of the rails.  By the aid of a jack, which had been brought with the train, and several rails which were pulled down from the fencing, the engine and the carriages were put on the rails again.  The accident, however, caused a very considerable detention.  Several of the company, doubting whether the disaster could be easily rectified, walked across to the Port Road and came up to town in carts.  Others strolled townwards along the line.  The majority, however, patiently waited till all was put right.  Once on the rails again the train came on without any further mishap to the station and discharged its passengers safely at about a qarter past 5 o’clock.  As a proof of the qualities of the line, or even as an illustration of the capabilities of railways in motion, the trip was altogether premature, though in many respects it was very gratifying.  It is too early at present, also, for us to indulge in any criticisms on the structure of the line.  It would not be fair to the Undertakers or their engineer  to do so till the work is complete.  When they pronounce it fit for traffic and open to the use of the public we shall then be prepared to pass such a judgment on it as our recollections of English railways may enable us to make.”
Adelaide Times 8 April 1856  -  “City and Port Railway - The line from Adelaide to the Port, having undergone a thorough overhauling, was yesterday again submitted to public trial, the result of which was to all appearance as satisfactory as the previous one was unfortunate.  At one o’clock, the time appointed for starting, the platform was filled with a crowd of gentlemen and a small sprinkling of ladies, all apparently as eager for the jaunt as though an accident on a railway were one of the most remote of human contingencies.  At a quarter past one o’clock the five carriages prepared - first, second and third class - moved slowly out of the station with its living freight consisting of nearly three hundred persons.  At first the speed was as solemn as that of a steam engine possibly could be, evidently reminding the anxious-looking spectators more of a funeral than a pleasure excursion.  Presently, however, things began to look more lively.  The fencing, poles and other objects along the sides of the line seemed suddenly to take to their heels and bolt off; the startled cows and pigs seemed to be training themselves for the coming races; and before North Adelaide Hill was entirely lost sight of, so satisfactory was the speed, that all the houses looked as if they were rushing headlong from that eminence towards the locality of Mount Lofty.  It was not the speed, however, - which perhaps never exceeded 20 miles per hour - but the ease with which the train glided along and the consequent luxury as compared with the diabolical machine known as a port-cart, which elicited the enthusiasm of the travellers and struck despair into the soul of every tandem-driver along the road.  The Port was thus reached without the slightest mishap within half an hour; and after resting there till half past three the train was again put in motion and proceeded on its way to town.  On the journey back, and at the Port, an inspection of the various parts of the works was made by a committee of gentlemen appointed for the purpose, and whose report as to the state of the line will have to be made to the Government before the railway is declared open for general traffic.   Each of the stations was carefully inspected, and considerable interest was manifested at the Torrens Bridge as to whether any deflection would be apparent from the weight of the train - everything was declared to be as firm as a rock.  The party reached Adelaide Station about a quarter to four o’clock, thus completing a pleasant afternoon’s trip “not hastily but happily”.  The opening for general traffic will take place on Monday next.”
Observer 12 April 1856  -  “Trial trip on the Port Railway - Yesterday the Undertakers of this line paid a visit of inspection to the works.  A train of five carriages left the City Station at a quarter past 1.  The carriages were all filled with persons who, either by invitation or otherwise, crowded into them.  After passing slowly out of the yard and crossing Morphett Street the speed was accelerated and the train was drawn at a rate of at least 20 miles an hour.  At Woodville the speed was slackened, the ballasting of this part of the line not yet being completed.  The train reached the Port Station at 17 minutes to 2, having been exactly 28 minutes in performing the journey.  Three quarters of an hour was allowed to the passengers to perambulate about the Port, the engine in the meanwhile being backed into the goods shed to take in water from one of the two tanks erected there.  On the return trip the train stopped and the Undertakers dismounted at each station, including Woodville, where the materials for constructing the station buildings are already on the ground, a square plot of land having been given by Mr J B Hughes.  The train also stopped at the bridge, the Undertakers and some of the passengers alighting to examine the structure.  The train was drawn onto the middle of the bridge and stopped there to ascertain if its weight produced any deflection.  None whatever was visible to the naked eye; it requires a level to detect it, and, as we were informed, it would not exceed half an inch.  The train arrived at the City Station exactly an hour after leaving the Port.  A most decided improvement is visible in the permanent way since the last public trial trip, when it will be remembered the engine got off the line.  The irregularities in the line of rails, that were then but too visible, have been greatly reduced, in some parts the rails being as even and level as could be wished.  In other places there are still some slight wavy appearances in the rails that require to be remedied.  That the ballasting has settled down pretty fairly, however, was evident from the fact that the train passed over the bridges, culverts, and level crossings without any  perceptible bumps such as were too evident on the former trial; and the motion of the train was unexceptionally smooth and the carriages moved pretty evenly without much waggling.  The line is to be officially examined by Captain Freeling during this week, after which, if approved of by him, it will be opened for public traffic.  The Undertakers have fixed the timetable, and arranged that for the present and until the line becomes thoroughly solidified and tested by actual traffic, no greater speed shall be allowed than will suffice to perform the journey between the two termini in half an hour.  A little handbook has also been published containing the rules and regulations to be observed by the employees and passengers on the railway.  The full opening of the railway has not yet been fixed, though experimental trips and trips of inspection are being made every day.  Due notice of the public opening will be given, which it is expected will take place shortly.”
Observer 12 April 1856  -  “Adelaide City and Port Railway - The daily trips to the Port are increasingly attractive, no fewer than 400 persons having availed themselves of Wednesday’s gratis excursion.  The train started at half past four pm and returned at six o’clock, with the large party so much pleased as to promise good returns when the real traffic commences.  Over some part of the line between Bowden and Woodville the iron horse was permitted to exhibit his power and swiftness to the extent of 30 miles an hour or thereabout; and some experienced railway travellers bestowed their hearty commendations upon these incipient performances on the City and Port line.”
Adelaide Times 12 April 1856  -  “Adelaide City and Port Railway - As the engines have now been running backwards and forwards over this line for more than a month with heavy loads of ballast, as well as with occasional passenger trains, it may not be uninteresting to some of your readers to know the number of miles run by the engines and the total weight carried by the railway.  It appears from a rough calculation that the engines have already travelled 1100 miles, with an average gross weight (including the engine itself) of 83 tons, which is equivalent to 91300 tons moved over one mile, or about 12172 tons moved over the whole distance between Adelaide and the Port.  It may be well imagined that the effect of such weights continually rolling over the rails, aided by the action of the beaters employed to pack the sand under the timbers, has been to compress it thoroughly.  In fact whenever the timber framework has been undisturbed for some time, upon lifting it the sand immediately beneath has been found reduced to a compact mass, well adapted for sustaining great pressure, without sensibly yielding, as was anticipated by the engineer when he decided to avail himself of a cheap, natural ballast close at hand.”

    Opening The Port Adelaide Railway

Register 16 April 1856  -  “Public Notices
Adelaide City and Port Railway - The INAUGURATION of the LINE
by His Excellency the Governor-in-Chief will take place on
Saturday next the 19th instant, on which occasion a Luncheon
will be provided at Port Adelaide in the new Store of the
South Australian Company (kindly lent for the occasion).  The
chair will be taken by Alfred Watts Esq MLC, the Chairman of
the Board, at a quarter before 2 o’clock precisely.  The following
gentlemen have consented to act as stewards :-
Board of Directors  -
Messrs Alfred Watts MLC Chairman
J Ellis
C S Hare
S Davenport MLC
Wm Younghusband MLC
The Hon the Colonial Secretary
Messrs J H Fisher MLC
W Giles
J B Hughes MLC
N Oldham
G Tinline
S Tomkinson

Tickets (not transferable) to admit a Lady and Gentleman may be
obtained at this office up to four o’clock on Thursday next, price
one guinea each.  A train will be in readiness at the station at
one o’clock precisely to take the guests to Port Adelaide, free of
charge, and will bring them back again, starting from Port
Adelaide at five o’clock.  No other train will run on that day, and
no-one will be taken as passenger except on production of a ticket. 
The Railway will be opened for general traffic on Monday next
the 21st inst.  Timetable, table of fares etc will be immediately
By order of the Board,
                                                        H Higginson, Secretary.
City and Port Railway Office, Adelaide Station.    15th April 1856
Register 19 April 1856  -  “The City and Port Railway - The formal opening of this railway will be inaugurated today, and the line will be opened for general traffic on Monday next.  The arrangements for the opening today comprise the issue of 150 tickets at a guinea each, which admit the holders to a special train starting from the Adelaide Station at 1 o’clock and leaving the Port at 5 o’clock, and to a splendid dejeuner to be laid out in the large room of the South Australian Company’s Store at the Maclaren Wharf.  Each ticket will admit a lady and gentleman, so that, supposing the whole of the tickets to be sold, the party will number above three hundred.  His Excellency the Governor and suite are expected to be present.  The line is in good condition, the engine and train having passed over it four times a day for some time past.  Should the weather prove fine we doubt not that the excursion will be a pleasant one.  We need not say that the occasion is of great interest and importance in connection with the progress of the colony.  In order to prevent disappointment we are authorised to say that it is probable that the Opening Committee will be in a position to issue tickets until noon today.”
Observer 19 April 1856  -  “The City and Port Railway - On Saturday [12 April] a train loaded with passengers made a very agreeable trip to the Port and back again.  The first and second class carriages contained a number of gentlemen specially invited; the third class carriages were filled by parties who had invited themselves, but all appeared to enjoy the trip with equal satisfaction.  The train proceeded slowly from the station and increased its speed as it crossed the bridge over the Torrens, again moderating as it approached the station at Bowden, where it made a short stay.  A scream from the whistle preceded its second start, and away it went at the rate of 20 miles an hour for some time, but again the speed was moderated passing Woodville, a promising locality ornamented by the beautiful church munificently erected by Mr J B Hughes.  The train stopped a minute or two at Alberton and then proceeded to the terminus at the Port, having occupied in the downward trip 28 minutes, including the two stoppages.  After a short delay the train, with its highly gratified company, returned, making no stoppages, but approaching several populous localities at a moderate speed.  The time occupied in returning from the Port to the City terminus was about 27 minutes.  The speed attained between Woodville and Bowden was at the rate of at least 25 miles an hour.  It would be difficult to suppose that any vehicles could travel at the rate indicated with an easier motion than that now attained on the City and Port Railway.  The company were unanimous in their approval of the working of the railway, the elegance of the carriages, and the obliging urbanity of Mr Cherry, the chief station-master, and the other officers of the establishment.  Trains have been running twice a day nearly every day this week in which some hundreds of colonists have been able, gratuitously, to test the safety and comfort of the line.  On Tuesday two gratuitous trips added to the opportunities for pleasant recreation so kindly afforded to the public previous to the opening of the line for general traffic, now appointed to take place on Monday 21st, inst.  The morning was truly delightful, and at 11 o’clock precisely the splendid locomotive engine No 1 was attached to the train, comprising 8 carriages, each of the first class affording luxurious accommodation for 32 passengers and the others adapted to the conveyance of much larger numbers in proportion.  As the journey was in some measure one of inspection by the officials, the engine was not permitted to display its full power, so that the passengers were not set down at the Port terminus in much less than half an hour.  About the same time was allowed the passengers to view the progress of improvement at Port Adelaide, and the train was then ready to complete the excursion by return to the city terminus, where the delighted passengers were landed at 1 o’clock.  The afternoon trip was equally pleasant, but the carriages were so crowded that many intending excursionists were disappointed, and the holiday folk who enlivened the colonnade at the city station on the second return were said to be no fewer than 500.  Several passengers who had to use the Melbourne and Sandridge Railway have frankly expressed a very decided preference for “the travelling” on the Adelaide City and Port line.  During the forenoon and afternoon of Wednesday two more free excursions to and from the Port were afforded to the public.  The gratification so liberally allowed seems to impart a new zest to the free traveller, instead of any feeling akin to lassitude or satiety, so that when the paying traffic commences on Monday it will undoubtedly be found ample and remunerative.  The return train in the morning comprised not only a long line of passenger carriages of the three classes, but a considerable supply of coke for the engine, and the transit occupied a few minutes beyond the average.”
Adelaide Times 19 April 1856  -  “Smoking on Railways - A correspondent complains that in travelling from the Port to the city on Thursday last he was turned out of the carriage for smoking a cigar, although he desisted as soon as he was requested to do so.  Of course smoking cannot be allowed in a railway carriage, but as many persons here are ignorant of the ordinary regulations generally enforced, it would be advisable to give everyone ample notice before proceeding to extremities.”
Observer 3 May 1856  -  “For the week ending April 27 the number of passengers who paid fare on the line amounted to 8694, and the aggregate receipts to £446 16s 0½d.  The express train on Monday was exactly 16 minutes in the down, and 16½ minutes in the up journey.”

    Locomotive Superintendant

    In 1857 and 1858, John Clarke gave evidence to two Parliamentary Select Committees, one appointed to report on the extension of the railway to Gawler, and the other to investigate supposed irregularities in the management of the South Australian Railway.  Mr J H Clark (as his name was consistently spelled) stated that he had been engaged by the Government in England on the 17th May 1855, and came out in their service, arriving on 1st November.  When asked whether he had had great experience in England with locomotives, he replied “Yes, I was brought up to it; and for three years I had the full management of fourteen engines and 300 men.”  He was a “practical man, experienced in the construction and working of engines.  I put the first of those engines [the first three SAR locomotives] together, and had to teach men their work as engine-drivers.  As superintendent of locomotives, his duties were “to hold myself responsible for the working of the engines, and all things connected with stores and repairs.  I am responsible for the men under my charge – engine-drivers, stokers, and men employed in repairs.  I have one principal mechanic as shop-foreman; his duty is to see the work divided among the other mechanics, and that all jobs are done properly.  There are four engine-drivers and four stokers continually engaged in the running department; eight engine fitters, continually at work repairing the engines running or doing stock work – they are continually at work at the vices; there are three engine-turners, who work various machines; one large machine, one the fifteen-inch lathe, and one the ten-inch lathe – they turn the wheels of the carriages true, when required, and that is the only connexion we have with the carriage department; there are three engine smiths, continually employed in doing repairs to the engines.  The smith works the iron at the fire, the fitter works it up cold.  There is a painter and a joiner, four smiths’ strikers, and a storekeeper; then there are the following laborers, classified in various positions – one, a handy man, employed as a machine-driller, and saves the employment of a mechanic for that purpose; the stationary engineman and night cleaner, who stops up at night to prepare the engine for going out the following morning; another man is employed as pointsman and cleaner, his duties are to see that the points are right on the arrival of an engine, he has to got with it to the tank, and assists in turning the engine; another man, a wire-worker, is kept continually employed in repairing the spark-catchers, an effectual prevention of sparks, which I have had the good luck the find out; there are seven laborers employed in carrying coke and wood, and three boys.  One works a shaping machine, which planes iron level, circular, or angular, and the other two are termed apprentices, being learned the art of practical engineering.”

    Several memos penned by John Clarke survive in the State Records Archives, which display the grammar and spelling of an intelligent workman.
“South Australian Railway
Locomotive Department
Adelaide Station, 14th January 1859
     R Borrow Esq
        I have the honour to report to you for the information of the Board, after carefull Investigation I consider it quite safe to commence burning wood in the Locomotives on the Port Line, and to do so, we should have a good stock on hand at the Adelaide Station, at present there is not more than 40 Tons on the premises.
Upon Trial I find the fire wood delivered at the Gawler Station of a first rate quality.  I would recommend a suply from that at Gawler, to be sent to this Station until other arrangements are made for a more speedy delivery of wood at the Adelaide Station.
    I have the honour to be
    Your obedient Servant
    John H Clarke
    Loco Supt.”

    “26th February 1859
    Locomotive Department
    South Australian Railway
    R Borrow Esq
        Sir --    In reply to yours asking for a report from me as to whether any reductions can be made in this Department under the lease of salaries, allowances, rates of wages, number of men employed, I have the honor to report as follows.
    The engine Drivers 15/- per day.  It being impossible to suply the place of those engine drivers in the Colony without riot, I do not think I could safely recommend any reduction.
    The wages paid in this Dept are for engine Drivers a 15/- per day, machanics fitters a 13/4 per day, one smith a 14/- per day, remainder 13/- per day, stokers a 10/- per day, night cleaners a 9/- per day, strikers a 8/- per day and laborers a 7/- per day.  Those wages for machanics are now fully higher than those usally given by Engineers in Adelaide, but by paying those wages I have caused a first rate lot of workmen and I feel sure that there is no economy in getting second class workmen for second class wages, and this is especally of machanical Engineers.  Stokers a 10/- per day the duty of stokers is very severe exposed to all weathers and considerable responsibility attaches to them.  Night cleaners a 9/- per day the occupation of these men imployed during the night and the work is of a very ardurious and disagreeable nature involving the distruction of the clothes and moreover a very filthy job.  The strikers a 8/- per day this is the General rate of wages for that class of workman.
Laborers a 7/- per day the usal wages of laborers and the laborers here have generally very dirty disagreeable work to perform such as sifting coke, cleaning smoke boxes, fire boxes etc.  --  Numbers of men Imployed I do not see in our present state of our accommodation that any men can be dispensed with.  The shed room is very deficient that there are allways two engines and othertimes more necessarilly outside and the repairs to these engines have to be done at some distance from the work shops, thus entailing additional labor and considerable waste of material.
    I have the honor to be
    Your most obedient servant
    John H Clarke
    Locomotive Superintendent.”

    An enquiry from the Commissioner of Public Works to the Railway Commissioners was referred to John Clarke for a reply :
    “Public Works Office
    Adelaide, 8th April 1859
    I am directed by The Commissioner to request that you will submit to the S A Railway Commissioners his desire that they will take into consideration whether the time has not now arrived when it is desirable to run trains to and from Port Adelaide every hour during the day.
    I have the honor to be
    Your Obedt Servt
to which John Clarke replied :
“South Australian Railway
Locomotive Department
Adelaide Station, 19th April 1859
    R Borrow Esq
        In reply to your enquiry of the 18th inst as to whether we have sufficient motive power to run hourly Trains on the Port Line, I have the honor to report that we are not in a position at present to do so, nor could I recommend it previous to our being in possession of at least two additional Engines.  These supplied I cannot see any thing to prevent such an arrangement being carried out, but with our present stock I frequently find it difficult to keep one Engine in reserve in case of accident.
    Yours Obediently
    John H Clarke
    Loco Supt”

 “South Australian Railway
Locomotive Department
Adelaide Station, 14th May 1859
    R Borrow Esq
        I have the honor to report to you.  The Engine Drivers and Stokers has applied to me for the winter Coats usally supplyed by the Commissioners.
        I would recommend Coats made to order similar to Sample.  They would last much longer.
        The Drivers complain of the bought Coats letting the Rain through and not lasting out the winter.
    Yours Obediently
    John H Clarke
    Loco Supt”

“South Australian Railway
Locomotive Department
Adelaide Station, 11th June 1859
    R Borrow Esq
        The enclosed is a Certificate from the Doctor of the state of Clark’s health.  He comes down to the works twice every week.  I see it will be some time before he will be fit to commence duty.
    I have the honor to be your
    Obedient Servant
    John H Clarke
    Loco Supt”

    A report was prepared in 1858 by the Civil Engineering firm of England and Coulthard on the condition of the engines and rolling stock on the Port and Gawler lines, which included significant input from John Clarke :
    February 6th 1858
    In accordance with your instructions of Nov 12 (637/57) requesting us to examine and report upon the sufficiency, condition etc “of the Engines and general Rolling Stock of the Port and Gawler Town Railways” we have now the honor to submit the following for your information.
    In making our report we have found it necessary to separate the Engines into two classes, inasmuch as the nature of the lines, the construction of the Machines, and the water used in them present differences of a most important character.
    The Port line we find, is worked by three Engines, viz No1 the “Adelaide” No2 the “Victoria” & No 3 the “Albert”.  These Engines were made by Messrs Fairbairn & Sons of Manchester.  They are of the class called composite or Tank Engines from having the Tender combined with the propelling power.  The Cylinders are of 16 in diameter & length of stroke 21 in.  The Driving and Trailing wheels are 5 ft 4 in diameter and coupled.
    Before entering upon the details of the Engines which we think ought to be particularly noticed, we may remark that the Cylinders, Wheels, Axles, Expansion gear, and the other portions of the working gear of Engines Nos 1, 2 & 3 are in a remarkably good state and evince very slight signs of wear.  The whole of the work of these Engines is very strong and exceedingly well finished.
    In the Engines which have been employed solely upon the Port line our attention has been principally drawn to the state of the Boilers, and the reports upon each separate Engine will show more particularly  their state.  We must remark that the whole of the damage which has been caused to these Engines is attributable entirely to the use of bad water.  The injuries already received and still likely to occur to them are of such a nature as will render the safety of the Engines exceedingly doubtful, & unless some means are devised for supplying better water, they are not likely to last beyond about three years.  Attention cannot too strongly be drawn to this matter, as in our opinion through the increased traffic, and the constant overhauling the Engines require, and must have to keep them in working order, there is now barely as much power available as is required to keep the lines open, and should at any time an accident occur, it would be most severely felt by the other engines.
    No 1 Engine    This Engine in Novr last underwent a thorough repair, and since then has been doing her work very well.  Some short time afterwards it was found necessary to pull out about 20 tubes, and replace them by new ones.  All of these were in the centre & lower position of the Boiler where they are subject to the most intense heat and to the deposit of the greatest amount of sediment.  We do not consider that there was any defect in these tubes beyond the ordinary wear and tear usual in Locomotives.  The leaking in many was caused by the constant expansion & contraction to which they are subject, and many of the others had to be replaced on account of their being shaken by the fixing of the new tubes.
    The greatest damage done to this as well as the other Port Engines is in the firebox, and in every instance it has commenced at the lowest part.  Three of the corners are cracked for several inches in length.  These cracks have been repaired as well as it is possible to repair them, by fitting other pieces of copper over the fractures but even these require renewing every 6 or 9 months.
    There is little doubt but that these fissures have been caused by a considerable deposit of the inorganic matter suspended in the water.  Some of it has adhered to the plate causing an increase in its thickness, and a great deal has also settled down into the bottom of the water space, and has prevented that free communication with the water which the surface of the firebox should have in order to ensure its proper working and to avoid risk of accident.
    The Boilers should be constantly scoured out in order to wash away the deposit before it has time to fix itself.  And there appears little reason to doubt but that these cracks were commenced before the nature of the water was thoroughly known.
    The evil however has not been overlooked, Mr Clarke, the Locomotive Superintendent states he has used for some months past a mixture, which has in a great measure prevented the deposit that had previously taken place, and this with a more constant scouring out of the Boilers has had a beneficial effect but not sufficient to justify the use of the water at present in use, if better can by any means be obtained.
    No 2 Engine    Of the working gear of this Engine as well as of the various bearings etc we can speak equally well as of the previous one; its general condition is also good except as regards the firebox.  This is in a much worse condition, the crown having dropped between every stay thus showing that the Boiler had at some time been short of water, and become almost red hot, but as the firebox is also bulged in several places lower down we cannot but believe that the boiler has at some time been subject to a pressure which has been highly dangerous.  All the four corners of the firebox are also cracked about 6 in and have been repaired in a similar manner to No 1.
    No 3 Engine    The working gear and general condition of this Engine are also good.  The firebox in this instance is slightly cracked in two corners but the other two have cracks of a more serious nature, one being about 12 in and the other about 1 ft 9 in long, these have been repaired in the way above detailed, & have so far done their duty very well, but as the cracks are constantly extending, it will be found necessary before long to replace the fireboxes by new ones.  On examining the inside of this boiler we found the deposit on the tubes and the inside of the Boiler very thick, averaging nearly 1/8th inch.  The portion of the Boiler about the level of the water appears to be most subject to decay from the deposit, and in fact the rivet heads at this point are being very fast destroyed.
    With regard to the feed pipes, Mr Clarke states that he has had no trouble by their bursting, - this is attributable to their being of the proper thickness (No 8 Wire Gauge) and through the good arrangement of the pumps.  The tubes are also strong being No 11 Wire gauge.
    All these Engines were well supplied with duplicates on their departure from England and in fact had it not been so there might probably have been a stoppage from the constant deterioration to which they have been exposed from the action of the water, overwork and other causes.
    The Gawler line is also worked by three Engines Nos 4, 5 & 6.  They were manufactured by Messrs R Stephenson & Co of Newcastle and are similar in all respects except for the size of the wheels,  the diameters of the Cylinders being 14 in & the length of stroke 20 in.  In No 4 the diameter of the driving and trailing wheels is 5 ft 6 in and are coupled.  In Nos 5 & 6 the diameter of the Driving and Trailing wheels is 4 ft 6 in, also coupled.
    These Engines differ from those used on the Port line by having separate tenders, and in this respect are better adapted for a long line than the tank engines – the wheels also in two of the Engines are 10 in less in diameter which is a material advantage in a line where the inclines are heavy & where the same engines have to do the luggage as well as the passenger traffic.  In other respects these engines cannot compare with those used on the Port line, either in their capacities for generating steam, the strength of their various portions, or in the finish of the work.  The fireboxes will more particularly bear description, as they only seem to be of the size usually adopted for engines working on the narrow gauge of 4 ft 8½ in instead of being increased to suit one of 5 ft 3 in.  Had this increase taken place the boilers would have been enlarged and thus much more power obtained.  The pumps in all these Engines are made of cast iron, instead of brass as they ought to be.
    Great trouble has also been experienced on account of the feed pipes not having been made sufficiently strong, they are only of No 11 WG and have often caused delay through their bursting.
    Should other engines be obtained from the same firm it would be advisable to have an alteration made in the dome in order to allow of access to the interior of the boiler, nearly the whole of the dome ought to be capable of being removed instead of only the top.  This has prevented our bestowing that complete examination on the internal part of the boilers which was necessary, but through the use of better water (principally obtained at Salisbury) they are in a very good state, and much superior to those used on the Port Railway.
    No 4 Engine    The working gear is in fair order as are the bearings etc and nothing worse is perceptible than the ordinary wear & tear to which engines are subject.  The firebox is as good as ever it was and shows no symptoms of cracks in any portion, & as it has been subject to as much pressure as any boiler on the Port line, there is no doubt but that its preservation is almost entirely owing to the good water with which this, and the other Gawler Engines have been supplied.
    No 5 Engine    The firebox is in every respect as good as in the last.  The working gear is also in fair condition, but none of it is so well put together, nor as strong, nor as well finished as Nos 1, 2 & 3.  The eccentrics are not so good, nor is the arrangement for the expansion gear.
    No 6 Engine    The firebox in this Engine is also in good order, and likewise the working gear, but it is subject to the same remarks which have been made above.
    The Tenders for the Engines Nos 4, 5 & 6 are all in good condition, and do not require any further remarks.
    From this it will be seen that the fireboxes of the three Gawler Engines are in a much better state that the three on the Port line and taking the original workmanship, and material, to be of equal quality, the only conclusion to be drawn is that it is entirely owing to the water that has been used.
    We are sorry to remark that with the Gawler Engines there were no duplicates of any portion, not even tubes, sent out from England, and it has only been by the greatest good fortune that the Gawler engines have been able so long to do their work.
    As a point bearing upon the durability of the Rolling Stock it is necessary to observe that the extremely close proximity of the Dry Creek and Grand Junction Stations is productive of a large amount of unnecessary wear & tear besides considerable loss of time, and of power, situated as they are upon an incline, there is not time to get up steam sufficient to enable the engines to traverse the distance between them at the proper rate of speed, and the frequent stoppages which they occasion have a very destructive effect upon the machinery, wheels and rails.  We do not feel justified in stepping beyond our province by recommending any alterations in the arrangements of the Railway Board, but it appears to us a matter worth considering, whether the traffic at the above named places, sufficiently compensates for the damage it occasions, and whether the public service would not be sufficiently answered by making them into signal stations.
    There are other points on which observations might be made but which do not properly fall within the limits of this Report, and which we therefore do not touch on; but we cannot avoid calling attention to the inconvenience of the present Adelaide Station, which causes much shunting which might otherwise be avoided.  We venture also to suggest whether the Goods travelling over the Port and Gawler lines might not with great advantage be left at the Bowden Junction and thus reduce expense and wear and tear in the Rolling Stock to a great extent.  But this is a matter which is rather for the consideration of the Railway Commissioners.
    Before closing this report we would remark that the water supplied to the Port Engines is obtained from two sources, viz the Torrens and a well at the Engine Shed.  At the commencement it was entirely from the latter source and is of much worse quality that the former, but we think it highly probable that if the well were sunk deeper a better spring of water might be struck.  We beg to forward herewith specimens of the deposit, which we would recommend for analysis by some competent chemist, in order to afford reliable data on which some preventive might be devised.
    In concluding this report we feel bound to state that we have received every assistance from the Railway Authorities in making our observations, and Mr Clarke of the Locomotive Department did all that was in his power to do, to facilitate our operations.
    We feel it necessary to state that the furnishing of this Report has been unavoidably deferred beyond the time we wished to forward it, owing to the continued absence of the engines we desired to examine.  This circumstance is attributable to the very disproportionate amount of Engine power which compelled the Authorities to keep them continually in use.
                    We have the honor to remain
                    Your obedt Servants
                (signed)    England & Coulthard
                        Civil Engineers”

    John Clarke contributed information to the “Report on Railway Rolling Stock” which was prepared for Parliament in 1863 and 1864.  The Assistant Engineer acknowledged his efforts in the 1863 report thus : “I cannot conclude this report without stating that I have received every assistance from Mr J H Clark, the Locomotive Superintendent; and I think it only due to him to express my conviction, that nothing but his unwearied exertions have kept the railway open under the great difficulties he has had to contend with – arising from insufficient power and inadequate means to keep it constantly available.”  In 1864 the Inspector of Railways stated that : “Looking at the great extra stress that has been thrown upon the locomotives during the last three months, I think that credit is due to the Locomotive Superintendent, Mr Clarke, with his inadequate shops, that the condition of the engines (though not nearly, with the amount of traffic and number of engines, what they ought to be) is not worse.”

    Mr Clarke also provided evidence to the 1864 Select Committee appointed to report on the Dry Creek and Port Railway Bill.  In 1865 John Clarke gave evidence to the Board of Inquiry appointed to investigate the railway accident involving the derailing of a special train carrying the Governor (Sir Dominick Daly).  From the evidence, it appeared that Clarke frequently drove trains himself, particularly when accompanied by the Manager.  He also stated that while he was in England “the firm I came from were building engines for the express purpose of running a mile a minute; and before I left I had the satisfaction of driving one of those engines on the London and North-Western railways.”  The report censured Clarke for not informing the driver of the special train of altered line conditions, which contributed to the derailment.

The Select Committee reporting on Railway Extension in 1866 asked Mr Clarke “You have had experience in railways in England?”, to which he replied “Yes, I have had some little experience on the Liverpool and Manchester Line since 1838.  I went very early to the engineering, when I was quite a boy, and I have been amongst it ever since.”
“In any other part of the world than England?”  “No; not on the Continent, but in Ireland.”

    In October 1867 the Legislative Council was informed that, amongst others, the Locomotive Superintendent was allowed to travel free on the Railways without holding a pass.

    Edward Clarke

    According to Richard Clarke, his uncle Edward was the tallest of his family.  He became the Head Steward to the Earl of Stamford, at his estate of Bradgate Park, Newtown Linford, near Leicester.  He married Fanny Adams Gray, the daughter of Joseph Gray and his wife Elizabeth (nee Adams), at All Saints Church in Newtown Linford on 1st October 1857.  His age was given as 32, his profession as hotelkeeper, and residence as Manchester.  Witnesses to the wedding were Richard Rudkin, John Rudkin, Hannah Adams Gray and Elizabeth Adams Gray.  Fanny was born at Newtown Linford on 20th February 1834 (1833 in the Family Bible).  The Grays had been farmers in the area for many generations, and the Adams family had worked on the Earl’s estate for generations.  Henry Adams, Fanny’s grandfather, was a keeper at Bradgate Park for over sixty years, under three successive Earls.

    In the 1851 Census Edward Clarke, aged 28, lived in the London Road district of Manchester.

    Edward and Fanny had four children :
  • Catherine Elizabeth Adams Gray Clarke, born on 17th August 1858 at 9.30 am in Manchester, and christened in Newtown Linford on 1st October,
  • Fanny Gray Clarke, born on 14th October 1861 at 8.05 pm in Manchester, and christened at the Old Cathedral, Manchester on 29th December, with godmother Mary Gandon, and godfather W Venables,
  • George Edward Clarke, born on 5th April 1865 at 3.25 am, baptised on 26th June at Manchester Cathedral, and died at Bowdon, Cheshire on 29th March, 1866, buried in the New Cemetery, Salford,
  • Hannah Clarke, born on 13th April 1868 in the district of Chorlton (south-western suburb of Manchester), and died in 1869 (? December quarter of 1868), buried at Ardwick Cemetery, Manchester.
    Fanny Adams Clarke died on 24th (or 25th) April 1869 at Newtown Linford, aged 35, and was buried in the village churchyard.  However, when I visited the church in May 1990, I could not find her gravestone.  Edward appears to have moved back to Manchester, for he died there at the Police Courts Hotel, Fetter Lane, on 19th September 1874, aged 51.  His death notice gave his address as late of the White Lion Hotel, Deans Gate, the place where his father had died in 1859.  Perhaps the family owned the hotel, or were the licensees?  Edward was buried in the Ardwick Cemetery.

    When their father died and left them orphaned Catherine and Elizabeth were 16 and 13 years old.  A cryptic note written by Fanny in the early 1900’s accuses a Joseph Kenworthy as being the “man who robbed us when left orphans, Manchester, 1873 (sic)”, and gives the name and address of “John Kenworthy, agent and valuer, 92 Market Street, Manchester”.  Whatever the circumstances, it seems that their uncle, John Henry Clarke of Adelaide became their guardian, and the two girls were soon on a ship bound for South Australia.

    The Collingrove, of 861 tons, Captain H R Angel, sailed from Gravesend on 30th October 1874, passed Deal on the 31st, and sailed from Plymouth on 4th November, with 75 passengers and general cargo.  She arrived at Port Adelaide on Wednesday 20th January 1875.  The SA Advertiser reported :
    “The Collingrove has made her voyage from England with her customary regularity, and but for adverse winds at the very last stage, she would have been here on the 18th.  As it was, everyone was pleased to note that Capt Angel had passed the Jervis early on Wednesday morning; but it was late at night before she anchored in the roads.  There were several expectants on the pier, ready to go off and welcome the good ship with a confused noise of howling and shrieks, which only subsided on ranging alongside.  All her people were reported well, and in the case of several who not long ago left our shore as invalids, they have now returned with renewed vigor.  The voyage has been a pleasant one, and nothing of note has occurred beyond the everyday life of a passenger ship.  She weighed anchor from Plymouth Sound on November 4, and for three following days had light variable winds and calms.  Soon after, a fine norther set in, and extremely rapid progress was made through the NE trades.  On November 25 when 21 days out from Plymouth, the Line was crossed.  Subsequently there ensued fine SE trades, which helped the good ship as far as eight degrees of south latitude, where on November 30, she fell in with the City of Berlin homeward bound, and by her forwarded letters.  Light airs and calms then followed until December 7th, and this most vexatious interval of calms was most perplexing, as the vessel made but 400 miles in a week.  During this time there were several vessels in company, with the same fate.  Soon after some good running was commenced, and continued until on the meridian of the Cape, which was reached on December 25.  Splendid work followed while crossing the Southern Ocean, and ran up to 130 deg. of east longitude, where the wind fell very light, and it was January 19 before sighting the land.  On making Kangaroo Island the ship was worked up for the passage and came through at midnight.  She looks as well as ever, and all her gear and appliances appeared to be in excellent order.”

    Another passenger on the Collingrove, Agnes Fulton, wrote a diary of the voyage which is now preserved in the Mortlock Library. On November 24th1874 she noted : “Going along slowly.  Concert tonight - the Captain’s benefit.  Miss Clark sang “Minnies faith” .”  The entry for 31st December 1874 noted :  “Concert tonight.  Miss Fanny Clark (a girl about 12) was the best singer there.  She sang “Under the Willows She’s Laid with Care”, was encored and sang “Little Bunch of Roses” - was not quite so nice.”  The complete diary is included at the end of the chapter.

    It is probable that the two young girls lived with their uncle, John Henry Clarke, and his wife Eliza, and the death of John in June 1879 would have been a great loss to them.  Both Catherine and Fanny’s first child was a daughter, and each was given the second name Jessop, in honour of their aunt.

    The Clarkes in Australia

    Catherine Clarke and the Hendersons

      Catherine Clarke, or Kate as she was called, married Thomas Hall Henderson on 16th October 1879 at St Luke's Church, Adelaide.

    Thomas Hall Henderson was born on 9th June 1853, at sea, to Thomas Henderson and Elizabeth (nee Hall).  Thomas senior had been born at Knockin, Shropshire about 1812, and had arrived in SA in January 1839 in the Oriana, the first ship to sail from Liverpool to Port Adelaide.  He was a carpenter, who came to Glen Osmond in October 1844, then moved to Gawler, where he assisted in building St George’s Church.  He returned to Glen Osmond and built The Vine Inn in 1850, before visiting England in 1853.  In January 1855 he returned to SA, importing the first black Spanish fowls, which were exhibited at the Agricultural and Horticultural Show in February 1855.  He was the first enrolled member of the Glen Osmond Volunteer Company in 1859.  He died at Glen Osmond on 25th April 1862, and was buried in the Hindmarsh cemetery.  He married Elizabeth Hall on 27th May 1843 in Adelaide.  She was born about 1824 at Brampton, Cumberland, and died on 30th June 1916.  Their children were:
  • Isaac (born on 7th April 1844 and baptised on 2nd June at Holy Trinity Church, Adelaide, died 1879),
  • William (1845 - ?),
  • Sarah Winfrede (1849 - 1850),
  • Thomas (1850 - 1851),
  • Thomas Hall (1853 - 1934),
  • Sarah Peggy (1855 - ?),
  • Mary (1857 - 1857), and
  • William Hall (28th July 1858 - 19th April 1912), married Clara Emily Koeppen, (15th April 1858 - 24th June 1940), whose mother later married Mr J M Wendt).
    Thomas Hall Henderson was the Post and Telegraph Master, at Wilmington and Jamestown, later at Strathalbyn for 12 years, and then at Balaklava.  They had four children, all born at Jamestown and baptised at St James’ Church of England :
  • Effie Jessup, born on 27th November 1880 and baptised on 29th December,
  • Bessie, born on 20th August 1882 and baptised on 8th September,
  • Harry Osmond, born on 20th October 1884 and baptised on 17th November, and
  • Doris Daphne, born on 23rd October 1889 and baptised on 13th November.
    T H Henderson joined the Observatory and Telegraph Branch of the Post Office as a Cadet Operator on 1st July 1872, and was reclassified to Junior Operator on 1st August 1873, at a salary of £120 per annum.  The South Australian Government Gazette of July 23 1896 listed the names and classifications of the officers of the Postal and Telegraph Office of the Civil Service, and stated that T H Henderson had been appointed to a position with a salary of £80 or upwards per annum on August 1st 1873.  In 1876 he was an Operator in the Telegraph Branch in Adelaide.  In May 1878 the foundations for a Post and Telegraph Office were laid at Wilmington, to fill a long-standing need.  The Port Augusta Dispatch of 31st August 1878 noted that “The Post and Telegraph Office is about completed.  It is a very neat building, and a great improvement on its galvanised prototype; still it is not altogether the style for a public office, as it is too much like a snug cottage residence.”  Thomas Henderson was assigned to the new office as the Telegraph Operator on 1st April 1877, at an annual salary of £130, and remained there until he was transferred to Jamestown in late 1879.  On 1st July 1878 he was also appointed as Postmaster at Wilmington, and his salary was increased to £160 per annum.
South Australian Government Gazette  -  “Chief Secretary’s Office, Adelaide 23 October 1879.  His Excellency the Governor has been pleased to make the following appointments in the Post Office and Telegraph Department :
Mr T H Henderson, postmaster and stationmaster, Wilmington, 5th class, to be postmaster and stationmaster, Jamestown, 5th class, from 1st November 1879.”
The salary for the new position was £170 a year in 1879, rising £10 a year to £210 in 1883.  From 1882 the position included the responsibility of Savings Bank Agent.

    An account of his farewell from the town was carried by the Port Augusta Despatch, and copied in the Jamestown Review of 11th December 1879 :
    “Valedictory  -  A social gathering took place at Gibson’s Hotel, Wilmington, on Monday evening, December 1st, on the occasion of bidding farewell to the Post and Telegraph-master, Mr T H Henderson, who has been recently transferred to Jamestown.  Mr T Hunter occupied the chair, and explained the object of the meeting.  After the usual loyal toasts had been given, Mr Brett proposed the health of Mr Henderson in a few well-chosen words.  The presentation was then made, which took the shape of a valuable tea and coffee service.  Mr Henderson was evidently taken by surprise at this unexpected but substantial expression of esteem in which he is held generally, and in accepting the gift he expressed in suitable and feeling terms his gratification in respect to the kind consideration displayed by such a token of regard.  The party spent an enjoyable evening.  Several songs and recitations were rendered, thus adding to the pleasure of the occasion.  Mr Henderson carries with him to his new sphere of labour the goodwill and best wishes of a large circle of friends in the district he is leaving.”

    Jamestown was founded in about 1870 and named after the current Governor of South Australia, Sir James Fergusson, and so was little more than a small village when the newly-married Hendersons arrived.  The original Post Office at Jamestown was at the western end of Ayr Street, and was superseded in 1908 by a more centrally-located office.  The old building is now a private home.  Two old photographs show the Henderson and Holder families picnicking in the Bundaleer Forest, south of Jamestown, in November 1889, with a Mr Newton, who may be John Newton, head teacher of the Jamestown Primary School from 1887 until the end of 1891.

    The Jamestown Review of Thursday 11th December 1879 noted the arrival of the new family :
    “New Postmaster  -  Mr H Marshall, late Post and Telegraph Master at Jamestown, having been transferred to Adelaide, the duties have been assumed by Mr T H Henderson, late of Wilmington.”


    Other articles in the Jamestown Review shed light on the family’s life :
“Post Office Hours  -  The Post and Telegraph Office and Savings Bank are open on weekdays from 9 am till 8 pm, except Saturdays, when they are closed at 6 pm.”
5 February 1880  -  “Entertainment  -  Our local Dramatic Club has ever sustained the reputation of being ready to act in aid of any public or private necessity, and they gave a further instance of this on Monday evening last, when they had announced an entertainment on behalf of the widow and family of the late W Frazer, who, as our readers may remember, was once for a short time driver of a Hallett coach, and was accidentally killed near Orroroo.  Considering the extreme heat of the weather, the audience may be considered a good one, although the Hall was by no means crowded. ...... Mesdames Rogers and Henderson gave the duet “Over Hill, over Dale”, with great sweetness and power, and had, albeit apparently most unwillingly, to submit to an undeniable encore.  Mrs Henderson made, we understand, her first appearance in public, and without any intention to overstep the most rigidly impartial criticism, we must say that the general feeling inspired by her singing was a very strong desire to hear her sing again. ...... The result, though not so large as might have been hoped, will be, we trust, a timely aid to those on whose behalf the entertainment was produced.”
12 February 1880  -  Jamestown Institute  -  The foundation stone for the extensions to the local Institute was laid on 9th February by John Darling MP.  The event was followed by a series of athletic sports in the South Park Lands, and a tea-meeting.  “The tea-meeting was well patronised, and at the evening’s entertainment there was a crowded house.  The first part was composed of music and song. ..... Mesdames Rogers and Henderson sang “The Wind and the Harp” with great precision and effect. ..... The first part concluded with “The Merry Little Maiden”, very archly sung by Mrs Henderson.”
Adelaide Observer 6 March 1880  -  “Donations to Irish Relief Fund  - Collected by the Postmaster, Jamestown ...... T H Henderson 10/-.”
29 April 1880  -  “Our Mails  -  The policy of our mail authorities has at least the merit of being intelligible.  It is quite clear that everything else has to give way to the one consideration of getting mails through from Adelaide in the least possible time.  Now we would be the very last to object to this, as the remote centres of population have every right to rapid and easy communication with the metropolis; but all the same there is no reason why the intermunicipal service should be thrown into hopeless confusion.  At present the communication between Jamestown and the Northern towns is worse than it has ever before been since mails were established in the North.  Orroroo, 35 miles distant, Yatina 20 miles, Mannanarie 10 miles, Yarcowie 17 miles, Terowie 24 miles, and Blackrock 26 miles; all these places are two days from Jamestown by mail, and this is although there is nominally a daily mail to everyone of them, and they all (with the exception of Mannanarie) receive a mail on the evening of the same day that it leaves Adelaide.  Anything more mischeivously and aggravatingly absurd it would be very hard to conceive.  Whether these arrangements were made through pure wilful neglect of our requirements, or in complete ignorance of them, matters but little - the annoyance and very serious business inconvenience remaining the same in either case - but we do hope that in the interests of fair play some modification will be made in the present times of starting the mails, and some more intelligible route devised for them to follow.  As an instance in point, we are informed by our correspondent that the usual Orroroo parcel of “Jamestown Reviews”, duly posted here on Thursday morning, had not turned up at Orroroo on Sunday last.  Since the above was written we have learnt from the “Register” that the North mail from Jamestown will be started earlier, so as to catch the through mail from Hallett to Orroroo at Yatina on Mondays, Wednesdays and Fridays.  This will somewhat reduce the inconvenience of the present arrangement, but is only after all a half measure.  There ought to be a daily mail from Jamestown to Yatina, junctioning there with the mail to Orroroo, and in view of the business requirements which would be met by such an arrangement, the residents have a most undoubted right to demand it from the authorities.  Even with an evening mail to Orroroo three times a week letters posted anywhere on the Pirie line on, say, Tuesday forenoon, would not reach Orroroo till Thursday morning.  We hope the Orroroo people will unite with Jamestown and the western towns and make an urgent request that their reasonable wants in the matter of mails may receive prompt attention.”
20 May 1880  -  “Letter Pillars  -  We understand that it is proposed to erect letter-receiving pillars at two or more suitable spots within our corporate limits. ...... We presume a daily delivery of letters might be arranged if proper representations were made to headquarters.”
27 May 1880  -  “Reopening of the Jamestown Institute  -  The programme of the Entertainment associated with this ceremony included an interlude of song, during which the audience were favoured with ...... Mrs Henderson.”
19 August 1880  -  “Letter Pillars  -  These long asked for conveniences are at last supplied.  The one at the corner of Ayr Street and Dunure Terrace is cleared at 11 am and 4 pm.  The one fixed near the Railway Hotel is cleared at 10.50 am and 3.50 pm.  We are informed that some festive larrikins have been already placing in the pillars articles not contemplated by the postal regulations, such as dirty playing cards, small stones, and pieces of hoop iron and tin.  In one case an egg was found broken amongst the letters.  As some of the artists whose genius works itself off in this erratic way are pretty sure to read this paragraph, we can inform them that measures are being taken to in their case turn the laugh very decidedly the other way.”
11 November 1880  -  “Remarkable Escape  -  Mr T H Williams, police trooper of Jamestown, had a serious accident which was at the same time a marvellous escape on Saturday last.  On that day, Mr Williams in company with another townsman was near the outer boundary of the Western Park, and stopped to have a shot at a hawk, he had no sooner pulled the trigger than a rattling explosion threw him on the ground and he found his left hand severely lacerated and bleeding.  On recovering himself a little, Mr Williams saw that the right barrel of the gun was missing, the left one being still hanging to the fragments of the stock which was very much shattered.  This barrel was bent in a most extraordinary manner, but still contained its original charge of powder and shot.  The locks were both blown away, and, we believe, have not yet been found.  The gun was the property of Mr Henderson, our local post-master, and had been not long before purchased from a well-known gunmaker who guaranteed the excellence of its manufacture and condition.    Mr Williams is of course well used to firearms, and is moreover exceedingly careful in the management of them.  He loaded with only a small charge of powder and the usual quantity of shot, and all this makes it extremely difficult to account for the accident.  Our idea after an examination of the fragments of the gun is that a flaw must have existed near the breech of the right barrel and on the side next the other one, this being broken through would of course admit the explosion into the gaps between the two barrels, from which there being no vent it tore away the straps and wrenched the barrel clean off.  In any case the escape of Mr Williams is most remarkable, he of course promptly sought medical assistance, and his hand is now in a fair way of recovery.”
18 November 1880  -  “The Telephone  -  While on his recent visit of inspection to the Northern Post and Telegraph offices, Mr Todd, CMG, took an opportunity of connecting Pirie with Jamestown by Telephone.  The experiment which was conducted in the presence of a small party of townsmen was perfectly successful, although the weather was at the time rather gusty and not very favourable to the full effect being obtained from the instruments.  Several gentlemen at this end conversed with others at Pirie and some airs sung at the other end were heard very distinctly at this.  A connection being made with the piano in Mr Henderson’s sitting room and some lively airs being played, word was promptly flashed back that the music was most appreciated and more was asked for.  Altogether a most interesting and enjoyable time was spent, a fitting sequel being the switching on of Adelaide at 12 noon, when the chimes of the clock and the boom of the big bell were heard in the Jamestown office.  Mutual ‘good mornings’ followed, and Mr Todd was thanked for his kindness in furnishing the very unusual entertainment.”
18 November 1880  -  “Sale of Stamps  -  To the Editor  -  Sir, Can you tell a bewildered individual why it is not possible to obtain postage stamps at the office during the sorting of the Adelaide mail?  I can find no notice of this rule in the Post-office regulations.  Are the three assistants all needed to combat the roaring traffic in letters and newspapers?  -  I am, Sir, etc, Nemo.  [We have made enquiries into the matter referred to by our correspondent, and have been informed that stamps are purchasable at any ordinary office hour at the telegraph receiving window.  The public letter delivery alone is closed for business during the sorting of the mails  -  Ed.]”
2 December 1880  -  “Birth  -  Henderson  -  On the 27th November, at Jamestown, the wife of T H Henderson, of a daughter.”


3 May 1882  -  “The attention of our readers is called to the new Post-office regulations now in force with regard to invoices.  The Postmaster -General has decided that invoices, after being receipted, must be sent under cover of a twopenny stamp instead of a penny one as hitherto.  The arrangement seems somewhat arbitrary.”
31 May 1882  -  “After the first June no mails will be sent for Jamestown except by rail.  letters from Mannannarie and Yarcowie will go via Yongala; this arrangement will ensure the delivery of the Adelaide mails to these towns about one hour earlier, though it will not be so convenient for the residents having business connections with this town.”
23 August 1882  -  “Birth  -  Henderson  -  On the 20th August, at Jamestown, the wife of T H Henderson, of a daughter.”
30 August 1882  -  “The annual meeting of the Jamestown Cricket Club was held at the Globe Hotel last night. ...... The following were elected :- Vice Presidents ...... T H  Henderson.”
4 October 1882  -  “Some rascally young larrikins have been playing the fool with the pillar boxes in Jamestown, especially in North Parade.  Stones, sticks, dirty paper and sausages are not intended for insertion in Her Majesty’s pillar boxes, and those who have been using them for that purpose may as well take the hint that there are eyes about to watch them, and that if they are caught the punishment will be no light one.”
25 October 1882  -  Private Henderson scored 72 points in a rifle match between the Jamestown and Orrorroo Rifle Companies fired on the Orrorroo range on Friday last.  Jamestown won, 460 points to 428.
8 November 1882  -  Private Henderson scored 85 points in a rifle match between the Jamestown and Caltowie Rifle Companies fired on the Caltowie range on Saturday.  The day was hot, and much too bright for good shooting, the light being extremely puzzling.  Caltowie won, 526 points to 478.


3 January 1883  -  “Captain Cockburn entertained the members of the Jamestown Rifle Company at dinner on Thursday evening last.  The usual loyal toasts were honoured, together with that of Colonel Downes and Captain Cockburn.  Songs and recitations were given by various members of the Company, and a most enjoyable evening was spent.”
25 April 1883  -  “A general meeting of the Jamestown Football Club was held on Wednesday evening last. ...... The following officers were elected for the ensuing year ...... Vice Presidents ..... T H  Henderson.”
4 July 1883  -  “Last Thursday evening a musical and dramatic entertainment in aid of the Jamestown Cricket and Football Clubs was given in the Institute Hall. ...... After the interval, there was a musical interlude, the accompaniments being played by Mesdames Clarke and Henderson.”
12 September 1883  -  “On Friday evening, the 7th inst., the RWDDGM and DGL Officers of Masons came to Jamestown to assist in the installation of the officers of the Victoria Lodge No 1921 EC, Jamestown, for the ensuing year. ...... After the Lodge closed, a banquet was provided in the Institute Hall ...... and upwards of forty sat down to the good things provided.  The following are the officers for the ensuing year :- ...... Secretary Bro T H Henderson.”
17 October 1883  -  “The Caltowie and Jamestown Rifle Companies met on the Jamestown range on Saturday last, and Jamestown proved victorious by 25 points.  The weather was favourable, although at times the light was very glaring, and the wind puffy.  Both teams were hospitably entertained after the match by Captain Cockburn, and a very pleasant evening was spent.”  Corporal Henderson scored 104 points.
14 November 1883  -  “Several rifle matches, got up by the Jamestown Rifle Company, were fired on Friday last [9th] (Prince of Wales’  Birthday).  Some handsome prizes were given by the principal tradesmen of the town. ...... In the first match (short range) Corporal Henderson came fourth, winning a roast of beef.  In the second match (long range) Corporal Henderson came third, winning a picture frame.  On aggregate over the two matches he came third, winning a pair of spurs.  In the all-comers’ match he came third, winning a meerschaum pipe.”


3 January 1884  -  “The alteration of the railway timetable has necessitated an alteration in the time of receiving and dispatching of mails, the particulars of which have been furnished us by our postmaster.  In future the mails for Adelaide and Terowie will close at 21.30 and 7.25 pm, for Port Pirie 9.55 am and 3.20 pm, for Belalie East 4 pm Tuesdays and Fridays; arriving from Adelaide at 10.30 am and 4 pm, from Port Pirie 1 pm and 8 pm.  For the delivery of letters after the arrival of the night train from Pirie the Post-office will open for fifteen minutes every week day, excepting Saturday.  The times for clearing the letter pillars will be : Railway Hotel 12.10 and 3 pm, Ayr Street corner 12.20 and 3.10 pm.  Post-office orders will be issued between the hours of 10 am and 5 pm.”
30 January 1884  -  “At a meeting of the Jamestown Rifle Company, held at Captain Cockburn’s residence on the 22nd instant, it was decided to disband.  There being no prospect of getting a sufficient number of recruits to bring the company up to its required strength, the members felt they had no alternative.  The full strength was only fifteen.”
30 January 1884  -  “Jamestown Athletics Club  -  A meeting was held at Vohr’s Hotel on Tuesday evening, the 22nd inst, to arrange for holding the annual sports in connection with this club. ...... The following names were submitted as officers of the club : ...... Committee ...... T  H Henderson.”
20 February 1884  -  “The letter pillars in Ayr Street and at near Railway Hotel have two additional clearances per day in time for the first train to Pirie and the last train for Terowie.  The times of clearing now are :- Railway Hotel 9.35 am, 12.10, 3 and 7.5 pm; Ayr Street 9.45 am, 12.20, 3.10 and 7.15 pm.  This concession is the result of an application made to the postal authorities by the Town Council.”
28 May 1884  -  “Catholic Church Entertainment  -  On Monday evening a musical and dramatic entertainment was given in the Institute Hall in aid of the Catholic Church building fund, when there was a full house.  The programme was in three parts, the first and second consisting of songs, recitations, a cornet solo, and overtures by the Jamestown String band, and the third part a farce “The Area Belle”. ...... Mrs T H Henderson assisted the String Band by piano accompaniments, and also played most of the accompaniments to the songs in her usual perfect style.”
10 September 1884  -  “Jamestown Cricket Club  -  The annual meeting of this club was held on Saturday evening at Vohr’s Hotel.”  T H Henderson was re-elected as a Vice President.
29 October 1884  -  “Birth  -  Henderson  -  On the 20th August [sic], at the Post-office, Jamestown, the wife of T H Henderson, of a son.”
Adelaide Observer 1 November 1884  -  “Births - Henderson - On 20th October, at the Telegraph Station, Jamestown, the wife of T H Henderson, of a son.”
17 December 1884  -  “The Annual Meeting of the Jamestown Mechanics’ Institute was held in the Institute Hall on Thursday evening last, at which about forty members were present. ...... Thos Henderson was elected as a member of the Committee for the ensuing year.”


14 January 1885  -  “The monthly meeting of the Jamestown Institute was held last Thursday evening, when there was present ...... T H Henderson.”
11 March 1885  -  “The Silver Star Minstrels  -  The first entertainment of this new organisation of amateurs was given in the Mechanics’ Institute Hall on Thursday evening last, before a crowded house, in aid of the Jamestown Hospital. ...... The troupe was initiated some two months ago, and since then they have spared neither time nor trouble to make themselves as proficient as possible in their different parts.  They have chosen the name “Silver Stars”, not with any idea of attempting to rival the great stars, but simply in the hope that as their sun of success gradually rises he may tip them with some of his fallen rays, and so make the results of their efforts of a more substantial nature. ...... The opening overture was “Roseland Galop”, in which Mrs Henderson (the pianiste of the club) displayed considerable manual dexterity. ...... “Bury me near the Old Home” is a very pretty and plaintive melody, in the rendering of which Mr Henderson disclosed a pleasant tenor voice, which acquaintance with his audience will much improve. ...... Mrs Henderson, as accompanist, gave unqualified satisfaction throughout the whole of the programme. ...... “Shall We Never Meet Again”, with violincello obligato, was certainly the number of the programme.  The solo, by Mrs Henderson, was most faithfully rendered throughout; her soft melodious voice being heard to considerable advantage in the suitably plaintive melody the composer chose for his work.  “The Old Brigade”, in which Mr Henderson and his raw recruits took part, was a very amusing contrast to the previous number, and was as loudly applauded. ...... After an overture from “Il Trovatore” by Mrs Henderson, and Messrs Walters and Vogt, the programme was brought to a close with a nigger sketch entitled “Grandmother’s Ghost”.  Aunt Chloe found a good substitute in Mr Henderson, while Messrs Evans, Gladwin, and Smith were quite at home as Jim, Sam and Henry respectively.”
1 April 1885  -  “The Silver Star Minstrels repeated their entertainment in aid of the Jamestown Hospital on Wednesday evening last at Caltowie.  The troupe left Jamestown in vehicles kindly lent for the occasion, accompanied by the Jamestown Brass Band, who performed a spirited galop as they left the town. ...... Mrs Henderson has a richly soft melodious voice, specially suitable for the rendition of similar compositions to the number selected (“Shall We Never Meet Again”), and she will always be a favourite with the public when consenting to appear before an audience.”
8 April 1885  -  “The ordinary monthly meeting of the Jamestown Institute committee was held on Thursday evening last.  Tenders were received for the construction of a gate and lamp, to be erected between the Institute building and Mr Foster’s office, ...... the tenders to be left to Messrs Lake and Henderson for decision.”
15 April 1885  -  “We acknowledge receipt of the following donations to the Jamestown Hospital :- ...... a parcel of books from Mr Henderson.”
13 May 1885  -  “Popular Entertainment  -  The first of a series of popular entertainments, in aid of the funds of the Jamestown Institute, was given in the hall of the Institute on Thursday evening last, before a very good audience, considering the committee had not taken the necessary precaution of selecting a moonlight night upon which to hold it, thus disposing of the chance of country people attending. ...... Mrs Henderson, who very kindly acted as accompanist throughout the evening, deserves the thanks of the Committee for the care and attention this lady always takes in the endeavour to ensure the success of such entertainment”
13 May 1885  -  “The ordinary monthly meeting of the committee of the Institute was held last Friday evening when there was present ...... Mr T H Henderson. ...... The chairman reported that 103 new books had been added to the library at a cost of about £20, in addition to which Mr Henderson had presented a work of some value.”
10 June 1885  -  “Silver Star Minstrels  -  The second performance of the Silver Star Minstrels was given in aid of the Jamestown Institute, in the Institute Hall on Wednesday evening last, before a good audience considering the number of local entertainments which have been lately given [entrance fee 2/- and 1/-]. ...... Mr Henderson followed with a song “Trusty as Steel”, which he delivered in good voice.  The musical scene “The Four Jolly Smiths”, with Messrs Vogt, Evans, Smith and Henderson, was very amusing. ...... Mrs Henderson did full justice to the singers as accompanist throughout the evening.  The Silver Star Minstrels successfully repeated their entertainment at Caltowie in aid of the local Institute there to a medium fair house, and had the weather not been so bitterly cold, and threatening a heavy downfall of rain, no doubt the attendance would have been considerably larger than it was.”
1 July 1885  -  “Jamestown Institute Entertainment  -  The third of the series of the entertainments in aid of the Institute took place on Wednesday evening last, and, considering the inclemency of the weather during the day, the attendance was considerably larger than the most sanguine supporter of the Institute had the courage to hope for. ...... The duet “To the Woods” followed, in which Miss Chanter and Mrs Henderson, respectively, sustained the soprano and contralto parts most faithfully, and the voices harmonising well throughout the number, was most deservedly encored, and the latter part of the duet repeated. ...... There is another matter we may as well refer to here, and that is the excessively bad taste exhibited by the Salvation Army in parading past our local band and causing the most disgracefully discordant noises on the nights of these entertainments. ...... We consider it an unwarrantable impertinence, and in many less well conducted places would lead to a breach of the peace for which the Army might and would be justly held responsible.”
29 July 1885  -  “The Silver Star Minstrels gave their third entertainment at the Institute Hall on Friday evening last, to a well-filled house.  The programme, as usual, opened with an introductory overture by Mrs Henderson and the two corner men, which, while somewhat short, went very briskly. ...... “Virginny” by Mr T H Henderson, was not the best song we have heard him sing, the melody and chorus is very pretty, and after the first verse, both went very well. ...... Mrs Henderson, as pianiste to the minstrels, accompanied the songs and choruses faithfully, and to the evident satisfaction of the audience and the members of the troupe.”
5 August 1885  -  The fifth of the popular series of fortnightly entertainments, given in the Institute Hall on Friday evening last, was not nearly so well attended as those of the series which preceded it. ...... The duet “The Sailor Sighs” by Mrs Henderson and Mr Vogt, was certainly the number of the programme and was accorded an encore.  It has always been, and always will be a favourite, especially when rendered so well as on this occasion, both the parts being well and distinctly preserved throughout.  Mr Henderson followed with a new patriotic song “Old England and the New”, and it was also well received.”
2 September 1885  -  “Jamestown Institute Entertainments  -  The seventh of the series of entertainments came off very successfully, considering the short space of time in which the major portion of the programme was arranged.  The attendance, however, was small, and not at all encouraging to the performers. ...... The piano and cornet duo “Myosotis Waltz” by Mrs Henderson and Mr E Vogt was most heartily received and encored by the audience, as it really deserved to be.  The composition of the melody is good, and the arrangement as a duet very pretty, when both performers do justice to their parts, as was the case in this instance.  “Bury me near the old House” by Mr Henderson, with a chorus from behind the scenes, was again as well received as when first rendered some months ago. ...... “The Old Brigade” by Mr Henderson and company, brought down the house, and on being repeated, brought the first part of the programme to a close.”
23 September 1885  -  “The members of the Jamestown Silver Star Minstrels assembled at the local Institute on Monday evening last for the purpose of presenting Mrs Henderson with a very handsome solid silver star brooch, bearing that lady’s monogram on the front, and the words “from the Silver Star Minstrels” on the back.  This was accompanied by a most tastefully and artistically designed, engrossed, and framed address by Mr S E Evans, in which the following words appear :-  “To Mrs Henderson, Jamestown : Dear Madam - We the undersigned members of the Jamestown Silver Star Minstrels will esteem it a lasting favour if you will kindly consent to accept the accompanying silver star brooch as a very slight memento of our high appreciation of the very valuable services rendered by you as pianiste since the formation of our troupe of minstrels.  With this expression of our heartfelt thanks, and wishing you every happiness in the future, believe us to be, dear madam, yours sincerely.”  Here follows the names of the members of the troupe headed by that of Mr W J Macgeorge, the president, who in a few well-chosen and appropriate words, presented the star and address to Mrs Henderson.  And in reply, Mr Henderson, on behalf of his wife, briefly expressed the great pleasure the reception of the presentation afforded them.  Three cheers for Mrs Henderson, and three for Mr Evans for his preparation of the address brought the pleasing ceremony to a close.”
30 September 1885  -  The annual meeting of the Jamestown Cricket Club was held at Vohr’s Hotel on Saturday evening.  Mr T H Henderson was re-elected as a Vice President.
30 September 1885  -  “Jamestown Institute  -  The last of the popular entertainments was given in the hall of the Institute on Wednesday evening last, before a very good audience. ...... The curtain rose to a very prettily arranged drawing room scene where sat the newly formed Surprise Party, accompanied by two coloured men, upon whom the ordinary joke telling devolved.  The Surprise Party consisted of nine performers, composed of four ladies [including Mrs Henderson] and five gentlemen [including Mr Henderson].  The appearance of the stage from the centre of the hall had a very pleasing effect, the ladies being engaged in knitting, needlework, chess and cards, the whole representing a very pleasant and agreeable private evening party, for whose special amusement the two minstrel corner men were supposed to have been professionally engaged. ...... Mr Henderson sang “The old log cabin in the lane” with considerable feeling, but the melody is too old and too generally well known to expect an audience to fall into raptures with it.”
16 December 1885  -  It was reported at the annual general meeting of the Jamestown Institute that Mr T H Henderson had attended 9 of the 15 general and special meetings held through the past year.  He was re-elected to the committee.
30 December 1885  -  “At the entertainment on Christmas night the Institute Hall was crowded. ...... Mrs Henderson sang two very pretty songs entitled “The Gates of the West”, and “Golden Love”, but the audience appeared to be very undemonstrative, and exceptionally meagre in their applause, not only in this case, but throughout the whole of the entertainment.”


23 June 1886  -  “A bazaar, teas and entertainment, in aid of the funds of St James’ Anglican Church, were held in the Institute Hall on Monday, and, all things considered, turned out more satisfactorily in every way than was first anticipated.  The ladies in charge of the bazaar were Mesdames Stephens and Henderson. ...... The programme of the entertainment given in the evening proved, as a whole, a marked success. ...... The song “Angels’ Serenade”, by Mrs Henderson, with a violincello obligato by Mr Vogt, and pianoforte accompaniment by Mrs Fletcher, was, without doubt, one of the best numbers of the evening.  It was admirably rendered throughout, and in response to a most hearty encore the last verse was repeated. ...... The accompaniments, many of which were difficult, were played by Mrs Fletcher and Mrs Henderson under the disadvantage of a very indifferent light, a defect which should be remedied in future.”
Adelaide Observer 4 September 1886  -  “Jamestown - An entertainment was given on Monday night in aid of the Institute to a moderate attendance.  A cantata entitled “The Picnic” was rendered with great credit.  Mrs Fletcher and Mrs Henderson presided at the piano. ...... The entertainment was a great success.”
8 September 1886  -  “We hear with regret that the Postal Department contemplate reducing the staff of the local post office by dispensing with the services of the junior or messenger.  We think that the small saving in expenditure effected by this reduction in no way compensates for the inconvenience that is likely to be caused to the public.  For instance, should a telegram arrive during the absence of the junior, caused by his being engaged in clearing the pillars, which happens four times a day, and takes at least half an hour each time, the telegram, no matter how important, must wait till his return, or the office will have to be closed, while the postmaster himself delivers the telegram.  The amount of inconvenience likely to be caused by either course is easily seen.”
15 September 1886  -  “Cake Fair  -  On Wednesday September 8 at the Institute, Jamestown, was held a Cake Fair in aid of the Wesleyan Church Funds.  This form of entertainment is entirely new to Jamestown though in the metropolis it has been la mode for some time past.  We think it a far more commendable method of augmenting a church’s funds than the time-worn bazaar; over this latter it possesses several advantages, not least amongst which is the emulation and friendly competition excited amongst the fair sex in one of the most important branches of the household, the cuisine, another advantage is the distribution of the expenditure for a substantial return. ...... The judging was done by Mesdames ...... Henderson. ...... Prize winners included : Class F, Swiss Roll.  Mrs Henderson, first prize, a glass water jug, amber.  This was a case in which the prize exhibit distanced all competitors.  Class J, Jam Sandwich.  Again was Mrs Henderson successful in gaining the verdict of the judges, receiving as the prize a frosted water jug.”
24 September 1886  -  “On Thursday night last an entertainment was given by the Silver Star Minstrels in the Institute, in aid of the Jamestown Hospital.  The attendance, though not quite as large as could be wished, was very fair considering the times. ...... The accompaniments throughout the evening were played by Mrs T H  Henderson, and to her is in a great measure due the success of the entertainment, for it is only by constant rehearsals that choruses can be rendered as smoothly and as well as those of the other evening. ...... In the ballad “Poor little Johnny” Mr T H Henderson was eminently successful, indeed this gentleman was throughout the entertainment in excellent voice. ...... The second portion of the program was commenced by Mrs Henderson on the piano.”
6 October 1886  -  “Up to the end of last month the Post-office was worked by three hands, including the post and telegraph master, an assistant, and a messenger, at a total cost in salaries of £306-4-0.  The staff has now been reduced by the discharge of the messenger, ...... the saving thus effected being about £30 a year.  On Monday the office had to be shut up no fewer than seven times during the day.”
13 October 1886  -  Mr T H Henderson was re-elected to the committee of the Jamestown Cricket Club.
15 December 1886  -  “On the evening of Tuesday December 7, an entertainment was given in the Baptist Church in aid of the church funds. ...... A novelty was introduced in the shape of tea and coffee and other light refreshments, which were handed round during the interval by the young ladies of the congregation, and seemed to be thoroughly enjoyed by the audience. ...... In her rendering of “Daddie” Mrs Henderson was scarcely as successful as usual, owing no doubt to the effects of a cold from which she was suffering.”
22 December 1886  -  Mr T H Henderson was re-elected to the committee of the Jamestown Institute.


12 January 1887  -  “The first meeting of the newly appointed Institute Committee was held in the ante-room at the back of the Hall on Thursday evening last.  Those present were ...... T H Henderson.”
2 March 1887  -  “On Thursday night last the sensational 4-act drama “The Octoroon” was performed by a strong company of amateurs. ...... Other [minor] characters were well filled by Messrs ...... T H Henderson. ...... During the intervals between the acts the string band, consisting of Mrs Henderson, piano; Mr J H Vogt, violoncello; Mr Batten, violin; and Mr E Vogt, cornet, rendered several musical selections very nicely and creditably, which tended greatly to relieve the tedium of waiting.  The performance is to be repeated tonight.”
13 April 1887  -  “At the usual monthly meeting of the Jamestown Institute Committee, it was resolved, after some discussion, that Messrs Henderson, Evans and Stephens be appointed a sub-committee to organise and arrange entertainments to be given in aid of the Institute.”
27 April 1887  -  “On Monday evening a vestry meeting in connection with St James’ Church of England was held for the purpose of ...... electing officers for the ensuing year. ...... Votes of thanks were carried unanimously to the organists, Mrs T H Henderson and Miss Julia Humphris.”
3 August 1887  -  “The first of a series of entertainments in aid of the Jamestown Institute was given in the Hall on Thursday last, and was in all senses, save the financial, a decided success.  The entertainment was both musical and dramatic, and in each very great trouble was taken to make it worthy of patronage, but the public are apparently too apathetic to appreciate the efforts of our local talent. ...... Mrs Henderson and Miss Hill were completely successful in their duet “The Wind and the Harp”, their voices blending and harmonising together very prettily, and their efforts met with most flattering tokens of approbation.”
24 August 1887  -  “The governing body of the University of Adelaide have decided to inaugurate a scheme of local examinations in music, such examinations to be held in any town where a sufficient number of candidates present themselves. ...... The regulations provide that junior and senior public examinations in the theory and practice of music may be held in any other place than Adelaide, but that such local examinations shall be held only under the supervision of persons appointed by the Council of the University.  The entrance fee for the examination is £1-1-0.  Certificates from the University will be issued to all successful candidates.”
5 October 1887  -  “A largely attended meeting of the leading cricketers of Jamestown was held on Wednesday last, at Cameron’s Globe Hotel, with the object of reviving the old Jamestown Cricket Club. ...... The election of officers resulted as follows :  Patrons, F W Holder Esq., MP, and W B Rounsevell Esq., MP, ...... Vice Presidents ...... T H Henderson.”
30 November 1887  -  “Lovers of music are not as plentiful in Belalie as one might reasonably expect, or surely a fuller house would have welcomed the “Surprise Party” at the Institute on Monday night. ...... “The Fisherman and his Child” was a pathetic ballad, admirably sung by Mrs Henderson; this singer invariably displays great taste in the selection of her songs, choosing those most in accord with the range and calibre of her voice.  For her song Mrs Henderson was deservedly encored, and repeated the last verse and chorus. ...... “When the Wind Blows” was the title of a duet, very effectively sung by Mrs Henderson and Miss Hill.”
21 December 1887  -  Mr T H Henderson was re-elected to the committee of the Jamestown Institute at the annual general meeting on Thursday last.


11 January 1888  -  “The first general meeting of the committee of the Jamestown Institute was held on Friday last.  Present ...... Mr Henderson.”
15 February 1888  -  “A meeting of the committee of the Jamestown Hospital was held on February 7. ...... It was desired to acknowledge the receipt of parcels of linen and clothing from the following ...... Mrs Henderson.”
4 April 1888  -  “Institute Concert  -  On Wednesday last a fair attendance assembled in the Institute Hall to enjoy a concert in which several strangers were billed to appear.  But they were doomed to disappointment for these same strangers or foreigners failed to put in an appearance and on this account half the programme had to be altered, and great praise is due to those ladies and gentlemen who came forward at a moment’s notice to fill the vacancies.  Throughout the evening Mrs T H Henderson played the accompaniments, several of which were new to her, excellently, and in a manner which evoked the hearty praise of both singers and audience. ...... The well known duet ‘Hear me Norma’ from the opera Norma was essayed by Mrs Henderson and Miss Hill, and considering that, owing to the impossibility of procuring another copy, the singers had to sing without the musical score, a very creditable success was achieved in this difficult composition. ...... Mrs Henderson and Miss Hill sang “To the Woods” with pleasant expression, and were well applauded.”
18 April 1888  -  “A meeting of gentlemen interested in the formation of a quadrille assembly in Jamestown was held last Tuesday when it was decided to hold a series of six dances at intervals of a fortnight beginning with Thursday April 19th.  A committee consisting of Messrs Henderson ...... was appointed to carry out all arrangements in connection with the series. ...... The hours of dancing are fixed at from 7.30 pm to 11 pm, and the subscription for the series is half a guinea.  Invitations to be issued only from and through the committee.”
9 May 1888  -  “The annual vestry meeting in connection with St James’ Church of England was held in the schoolroom on Monday evening. ...... Hearty votes of thanks were accorded to the retiring officers and to the members of the choir, special mention being made of Mrs Henderson ...... .  Mr T H Henderson was elected People’s Warden for the year.”
13 June 1888  -  “In answer to a communication from the North Adelaide lacrosse club, the Jamestown club have agreed to meet them at Riverton on the 20th inst.  It is the intention of the local men to drive to Yarcowie in time for the early train to Riverton, they will return from thence by the evening train, driving home in the moonlight of the same night. ...... The team will be picked from the following, who are requested to meet for practice whenever practicable :- ...... T H Henderson ...... .”
27 June 1888  -  “A bumper house assembled in the Institute last Thursday to witness the performance of the cantata “The Flower Queen” by the pupils of Mrs Fletcher [a local teacher of pianoforte and singing]. ...... Two diminutive performers, Miss Effie Henderson and Miss Rosie Hill went through their duet in a most possessed and correct style and were well rewarded for their efforts. ...... A chorus of tiny heatherbells (Misses Effie Henderson ...... Bessie Henderson ......) sang very prettily “We come from the hillside, we are the Heather-bells”.  Little Bessie Henderson received the plaudits of the audience for the graceful way in which she presented the newly crowned Flower Queen with her sceptre.”
8 August 1888  -  “The Lacrosse Minstrels  -  The entertainment given by the members of the Lacrosse Club on Thursday last in aid of the widow and children of the late John Westley, resulted in a most gratifying success. ...... Before referring to the male members of the company we should have mentioned the lady without whom the efforts of all would have been futile, we mean of course Mrs Henderson who played the accompaniments for the circle singers, and who had all the trouble of working up the choruses in the short space of two weeks and a half. ...... The martial song “A soldier and a man” was very well sung by Mr Henderson, and was well received. ...... A duet by Mrs Henderson and Miss Hill was very prettily and effectively sung, and the audience marked their appreciation of duet and singers by hearty applause.”
29 August 1888  -  “The Jamestown Lodge of Freemasons (Victoria Lodge No 26 SAC) held its annual installation ceremony on Wednesday evening last at the Jamestown Institute. ...... At the conclusion of the ceremony a most successful banquet was held at the Globe Hotel. ...... Proceedings were diversified by songs from Bros ...... Henderson.”
19 December 1888  -  “Jamestown Institute  -  There have been 15 meetings of the Committee held during the year, of which ...... T H Henderson attended 8.  Mr Henderson was re-elected to the Committee.”
27 December 1888  -  “Jamestown Choral Society  -  The Choral Society determined to make an effort to relieve the even monotony of the holidays by giving a concert in the Institute on Christmas night.  The entertainment proved a thorough success and the public showed their appreciation of the society’s efforts by attending in large numbers. ...... One of the best solos of the evening was “But Thou Did’st Not Leave”, admirably sung by Mrs Henderson, who appeared to be in her best voice.”


5 June 1889  -  “An advertisement announces that during yesterday a lady’s fur-lined cloak was lost on the road somewhere between Jamestown and Hornesdale.  The finder will be rewarded on returning to Mr T H Henderson, at the Jamestown Post-office.”
28 August 1889  -  “St James’ Church  -  A meeting of the members of the above church was held in the schoolroom on Thursday last. ...... The wardens [including Mr T H Henderson] reported that very satisfactory arrangements had been made for the future conduct of the services in the church, Messrs ......Henderson ...... having all promised their services as lay readers.”
11 September 1889  -  “Carnival at the Institute Rink  -  many pleasant evening entertainments have been provided at the Institute Rink [roller skating], but for attractiveness, splendour and general excellence, none can compare with the “Carnival” held there on Thursday last. ...... A profusion of evergreens and bright flowers, with here and there a gaudy Chinese lantern served to greatly enhance the effect of the dresses of the rinkers. ...... Amongst the “lords of creation” the following were most prominent :- ......Mr T H Henderson, “Lacrosse Player”.”
16 October 1889  -  Jamestown Art Exhibition  -  It was decided to hold an industrial and art exhibition in aid of the Belalie Agricultural Society.  A committee of ladies, including Mrs T H Henderson, arranged weekly sewing meetings at which a large amount of work was done by a number of township ladies and one or two from the district.  This exhibition or fair was opened on Wednesday last.  The prize list included :
Children’s Prize List :  Plain needlework - 1st Class, best hemmed handkerchief - Miss E                                            Henderson.
                                   Recitations - Under 12, Miss Bessie Henderson, 3rd
General :    Fancy and Needlework - wall pocket, Mrs Henderson, 2nd
                                                         fancy knitting, Mrs Henderson, 2nd
23 October 1889  -  “Lacrosse Dinner  -  The past season has proved so successful a one for lacrosse in Jamestown and Belalie that the members of both clubs decided to commemorate the event and wind up the season by holding a social dinner.  This was accordingly held at the Commercial Hotel on Saturday night when some five and twenty players sat down to a dinner provided in Host Murphy’s well known excellent style. ...... The following toasts were duly honoured :- ...... “The Game of Lacrosse” proposed by Mr T H Henderson. ...... The proceedings were greatly enlivened by songs from the following gentlemen, Messrs Henderson ...... .  The company dispersed at an early hour with the greatest harmony and good-fellowship prevailing.”
18 December 1889  -  At the annual general meeting of the Jamestown Institute it was reported that Mr T H Henderson had attended 16 of the 11 general and 8 special meetings held during the year.  He was re-elected as a Vice President.  “Mr Henderson thanked the subscribers, and promised to continue to take the same interest in the affairs of the Institute as he had ever done in the past.”


1890 - 1893  -  Mr T H Henderson was rostered to preach at St James’ Church on a regular basis.
16 April 1890  -  “Cake and Fancy Fair  -  During four days of last week a Bazaar, Cake and Fancy Fair in connection with St James’ Church of England was held in the Jamestown Institute, and a fairly substantial sum was realised by the effort of various ladies, who managed and carried out the whole affair. ...... The names of the ladies who were most active in their efforts to promote the success of the affair were Mesdames ...... Henderson.”
14 May 1890  -  Irish Relief Fund  -  Mr T H Henderson donated 5/- to the Fund “for the relief of the distress in Ireland, on the occasion of the visit to Jamestown of John Deasy, Esq, MP.”
22 October 1890  -  “Institute Entertainment  -  On Show night, October 8th, an entertainment was given in the Hall in aid of the local Institute ...... and a packed audience eagerly thronged the Hall. ...... Mrs Henderson, who is as noted for her taste in choice of songs as she is for the tasteful rendering of them, sang that touching ballad “The Little Hero” in a manner that almost brought tears to the eyes of many a listener of both sexes. ...... That pretty duet “When the Wind Bloweth in from the Sea” was excellently given by Mrs Henderson and Miss Hill, both ladies using to the best advantage their tuneful and flexible voices. ...... The proceeds amounted to some three and twenty pounds, the largest realised for a considerable time.”  [“Popular prices :-  2/- and 1/-.”]
12 November 1890  -  “On Tuesday evening, Dr Kennion, Anglican Bishop of Adelaide, will deliver a lecture in the Institute on ...... “Stanley’s Book on Africa”.  In addition to the address there will be vocal and instrumental music by several of our prominent musicians, amongst whom we may mention ...... Mrs T H Henderson.”
12 November 1890  -  “Mrs Fletcher’s Entertainment  -  For several weeks past the music pupils of Mrs Fletcher have been on the tiptoe of expectation with regard to an entertainment which was in active preparation.  The interest seems to have communicated itself to the adult population also, for a crowded audience assembled at the Institute last Thursday to witness the realisation of the hopes of the juveniles. ...... Miss Bessie Henderson appeared as “Little Bo Peep” and looked, sang and acted very prettily.  Miss Effie Henderson and Master Edgar Kruger sang admirably a little dialogue. ...... The “Humpty Dumpty” of Master H Henderson ...... was very good. ...... Mrs Henderson sang splendidly “Weep not for Friends Departed”. ...... The waxworks were a novelty, and the figures were exceedingly well got up, especially the ...... Mother Hubbard of Mrs Henderson.”
Adelaide Observer 22 November 1890  -  “Country Letters – Jamestown, November 19th.  Bishop Kennion delivered an exceedingly interesting and instructive lecture on “Stanley’s Book of Africa”.  The lecturer succeded in retaining the close attention of a good audience for two hours.  A magic lantern showing several beautiful scenes along the course of Stanley’s travel was greatly appreciated.  During the evening songs by Mrs Henderson and Misses Hill and Kruger were rendered.”
3 December 1890  -  “Our local post-office is again short-handed, and the postmaster, Mr Henderson, must find it highly inconvenient in being deprived of the services of his operator.  Mr Abell has had to go home on sick leave, suffering from rheumatic fever, ...... and it will be some time before he can resume his duties.”
17 December 1890  -  “Mr Henderson informs us that the local post-office will be closed on Thursday December 25, being Christmas Day.  On Friday December 26; Monday December 29; and Thursday January 1, being public holidays, the office will be closed from 10 am to 7 pm, but will be open from 9 am to 10 am, and from 7 pm to 8 pm.”
17 December 1890  -  At the annual general meeting of the Jamestown Institute it was reported that Mr T H Henderson had attended 6 of the 12 meetings held during the year.  He was re-elected to the committee.


14 January 1891  -  “From Mr T H Henderson, our genial and courteous postmaster, we have received several fine apricots grown on a tree of only a few years’ growth.  The fruit is well grown and of a fine flavour, and is an evidence of what can be grown here with comparatively little trouble.”
13 May 1891  -  “Cricket Club Concert  -  Last Wednesday was the day chosen by our local cricketers to present for the approval and delectation of the public the entertainment which they had organised with the very laudable desire of raising funds to pay off the liabilities of the old club.  In this they were fairly successful, but they would have been still more so had not a heavy shower of rain fallen just at the time when people would be about leaving home. ...... The pretty and tuneful ballad “Fiddle and I” was skilfully and tastefully rendered by Mrs Henderson, who was well received.”
22 June 1891  -  “The quarterly ruri-deaconal conference of clergy and delegates in connection with the Northern Anglican churches was held at Petersburg on Tuesday last.  Jamestown was represented by Messrs ...... T H Henderson.”
2 December 1891  -  “On Friday evening last the Mayor of Jamestown, Hon Wm Haslam MLC, gave a dinner to all those in any way connected in the administration of the Town Council since its formation.  About fifty guests accepted the invitation of His Worship. ...... Mr T H Henderson favoured the company with the song “A Soldier and a Man”.”  [Mr F W Holder also attended.]
16 December 1891  -  At the annual general meeting of the subscribers to the Jamestown Institute on Friday evening last, Mr T H Henderson was elected as President for the forthcoming year.  He attended 10 of the 13 meetings held in the past year.
23 December 1891  -  “Public School Concert  -  An innovation in connection with the Jamestown Public School was the entertainment given in the Institute Hall on Thursday evening last. ...... The performance consisted of songs, recitations, choruses and musical drills.  This last is a new feature in school entertainments, as far as Jamestown is concerned, and it formed one of the most attractive portions of the evening’s entertainment. ...... Miss Bessie Henderson sang the song “Happy New Year”.”  Among the prizes awarded was :- Second Class, girls :-  second prize, Bessie Henderson.


13 January 1892  -  “At noon on Monday there was a large gathering at the Institute to bid farewell to Mr John Newton, head teacher of the Jamestown Public School [who was being promoted to the Moonta school]. ...... Mr Henderson of the Institute bore testimony to the excellent work done by Mr Newton, and read a letter from the Institute Committee expressing their high appreciation of his services as treasurer of the institution.”
20 January 1892  -  “St James’ Anglican Church  -  At a meeting of the congregation held in the schoolroom on Thursday 14th inst., there were present Mr Henderson, Minister’s Warden, in the chair, and Mesdames ...... Henderson.  Mrs Henderson and Miss Humphris undertook to get assistance and carry out the canvassing for a Fancy Fair to be held in February.”
11 May 1892  -  The vestry meeting of St James’ Church was held on Tuesday May 3.  The incumbent, Rev K M Pitt, being in the chair.  A new Minister’s Warden was appointed, superseding Mr T H Henderson.  Mr Henderson handed Rev Pitt a cheque for £5-5-0 as an Easter offering from the congregation.
8 June 1892  -  “Chess  -  The following are the handicaps declared for the forthcoming Winter Tournament which begins on Tuesday night, 14th June.  Three prizes are to be given, and some very close games are anticipated.
Class A gives Class B pawn and move.
Class B gives Class C pawn and move, Class B gives Class D rook.”
Mr Henderson was handicapped as a Class B player.
15 June 1892  -  “Chess  -  On Monday night the Winter Tournament of the Jamestown Chess Club was started.  The following games were played : ......
T H Henderson, Class B, beat H H Kruger, Class B”
29 June 1892  -  “Chess  -  On Tuesday night the Winter Tournament of the Jamestown Chess Club was continued.  The following games were played : ......
T H Henderson, Class B, beat A R Mill, Class A”
6 July 1892  -  “Chess  -  T H Henderson, Class B, beat R A Holmes, Class A.”
13 July 1892  -  “Chess  -  T H Henderson, Class B, beat B Rust, Class D.”
20 July 1892  -  “Chess  -  A L Haslam, Class B, beat T H Henderson, Class B.”
27 July 1892  -  “On Wednesday afternoon last a number of Mrs Fletcher’s music pupils were examined in pianoforte piece and scale playing in the upper room of the Institute.  Some five and twenty presented themselves for examination, and the majority acquitted themselves in a highly creditable manner, and gave evidence of careful and accurate training.  Mesdames Holmes and Henderson, and Miss B Macdonald acted as examiners, and they all expressed themselves as being very pleased at the manner in which the children played both scales and pieces, the former especially coming in for great commendation.  The following are the awards of the examiners :- ...... First Class, second division - Daisy Humphris and Effie Henderson.”
27 July 1892  -  “Chess  -  W Baker, Class A, beat T H Henderson, Class B.”
3 August 1892  -  “Chess  -  T H Henderson, Class B, beat R Llewellyn, Class C.”
10 August 1892  -  “Chess  -  T H Henderson, Class B, beat S W Dickson, Class D.”
17 August 1892  -  “Chess  -  A  W Gage, Class D, beat T H Henderson, Class B.”
17 August 1892  -  “The Flower Queen  -  On Friday evening last a concert was given by Mrs Fletcher’s pupils, assisted by local talent, in aid of the Institute.  The first part of the programme was taken up with a rendering of that evergreen cantata “The Flower Queen”.  The children were very prettily and attractively dressed - that, together with the tasteful decorations on the stage, formed a very pretty and spectacular scene when the curtain rose, and was deservedly appreciated by the audience, who signified their unqualified approval by rounds of applause.  The Misses ...... Henderson (2) sang their solos equally well.”
24 August 1892  -  T H Henderson was mentioned as one of the most serviceable players in a lacrosse match played by Jamestown against the Knightsbridge team last Saturday.
7 September 1892  -  “Chess  -  T H Henderson, Class B, beat W A Hawke, Class B.”
21 September 1892  -  “On Tuesday last the chess tournament which has now been in progress for some months past was brought to a close, and resulted in a win for Mr W Baker, who has suffered only two defeats.  Messrs Holmes, Henderson, Mill and Gage tied for second place with three losses each.  They will play off for second and third places.  In the match between the Jamestown and Gladstone clubs on Wednesday last, T H Henderson beat A Richardson.  At the conclusion of the play, refreshments were partaken of, and Mr Moyse, on behalf of Gladstone, expressed his pleasure at having met the Jamestown men at the “king of games”, and hoped for better results at the return match.”
5 October 1892  -  “Jamestown District Ball  -  The committee appointed to arrange all details in connection with the District Ball held last Thursday certainly deserve very great praise for the completeness of these arrangements, for in every particular the Ball may be regarded as having been a distinct success. ...... The music was provided by a contingent from Setaro’s Canary String Band.  The floor was in excellent condition, and a fairer bevy of dames and damsels it would be hard to find, and the prettiness and effectiveness of the various costumes was a source of universal comment. ...... Present were ...... Mr and Mrs Henderson, Mrs Henderson dressed in black bengaline with buttercups watteau.”
19 October 1892  -  “Show Night Entertainment  -  On Wednesday evening last, Show Night, a musical and dramatic entertainment was given in the Jamestown Institute by local amateurs. ...... Mr T H Henderson excelled himself in the time-honoured “Vicar of Bray”, and narrowly escaped an encore.  He was in good voice and sang with appropriate life and vigour.”
26 October 1892  -  “Chess  -  The Winter Tournament was completed last Tuesday.  A R Mill, R A Holmes, T H Henderson, and A W Gage tied for second place.  In the playoff for second and third places R A Holmes beat T H Henderson.”
16 November 1892  -  “Chess  -  On Tuesday night the 8th inst, a party of eight chess players came over from Gladstone to try conclusions with the local team.  After some very close and exciting games the match ended in a draw, each side having won four games.  At the conclusion of play the guests were entertained at a tastefully laid out supper, and their wants were admirably attended to by Mesdames Henderson, Holder, Holmes ...... .  T H Henderson beat A Richardson of Gladstone.”
23 November 1892  -  “Chess  -  Jamestown played Petersburg in the upstairs room of the Institute on Wednesday evening last.  The Petersburg men arrived by the afternoon train, and having to get away early, a start was made at six o’clock.  After several close and exciting finishes, the match ended in a win for Jamestown by four games.  T H Henderson beat T J Barrett.”
21 December 1892  -  “Chess  -  Jamestown v Petersburg  -  Some few weeks ago the Petersburg chess players paid a visit to Jamestown to try conclusions with the local men.  On that occasion victory rested with the home team, who rather unexpectedly won six games to their opponents’ two.  On Thursday last a return visit was paid to Petersburg, when ten of our players went to the junction town, with the full conviction that they would have to do their utmost to hold their own.  And so it proved, for although at the finish they were two games to the good, they had to contest some very stiff games, and the result was in doubt until almost the last moment.  T H Henderson lost to C Judell.”
29 December 1892  -  “Jamestown State School Concert  -  In this age of progression, when men and women are alike struggling to make headway in the battle of life, it is necessary that our children should have good training, both mentally and physically, to enable them to endure the tension that is likely to be placed upon them.  The State Schools of the present day train both mind and body, and the school concert on Friday night gave evidence of the care taken in so doing.  A large attendance greeted the performers, and keen interest was displayed by the audience throughout. ...... Little Bessie Henderson greatly amused the audience and herself by her rendering of “Mary had a Little Lamb”, with a medley chorus by the boys.”


25 January 1893  -  “Jamestown Institute  -   The annual meeting of the subscribers of the Jamestown Institute was held in the Hall on Friday evening, when the President Mr T H Henderson occupied the chair. ...... He was re-elected as President for the forthcoming year.”
5 April 1893  -  “Cricket Concert  -  On the 22nd ult., a musical and dramatic entertainment was given in the Institute, in aid of the funds of the Jamestown Union CC, which were in a somewhat low condition owing to the expense incurred in laying down an asphalt pitch.  The attendance, though not phenomenally large, was enthusiastic and appreciative, and nearly every item on the programme had to be repeated, and encores were the order of the evening. ...... “Love’s Old Sweet Song” by Mrs Henderson was highly appreciated, and the gifted songstress was compelled to repeat the last verse. ...... The club will benefit to the extent of five pounds.”
28 June 1893  -  “Chess  -  On Wednesday evening last, ten chess players from Petersburg and Yongala visited Jamestown to try conclusions with the local men, but owing to but eight being expected, only nine match games could be arranged.  Play commenced promptly at 8.30 o’clock.  The first game was won by Jamestown within twenty minutes of the start, and Petersburg won the next one a few minutes later.  After some close and interesting games, victory rested with the home team, who won five games to their opponents’ four.”  T H Henderson lost to W Spencer.
12 July 1893  -  “Hospital Entertainment  -  Perceiving the financial difficulties under which the Jamestown Hospital was labouring, Miss Macdonald of Glenorchy, Belalie, hit upon the idea of giving an entertainment in aid of the funds.  With an energy quite refreshing in these days of inactivity and depression, this young lady, with the assistance of several of her friends of both sexes, organised and presented the whole affair within a fortnight of taking it in hand.  The entertainment, which consisted of vocal and instrumental music, varied by a number of artistic tableaux, duly “eventuated” on Friday evening last, in the presence of a numerous and highly appreciative audience. ...... Mrs Henderson ascended the platform and sang in excellent taste the ballad “Three Wishes”, receiving well-merited applause. ...... We understand that a sum of nearly eight pounds has been handed over to the committee.”
23 August 1893  -  “Chess  -  On Wednesday last eight players of our chess club visited Gladstone to try conclusions with their local exponents of the game.  A scientific and exciting match was the result, and after the toughest of battles the games were even, each side winning four.  After the match the visitors were hospitably entertained at supper by the Gladstone ladies.”  T H Henderson beat Mr Williams.
30 August 1893  -  “Masonic  -  On Friday evening Mr H Boucaut was installed as Worshipful Master of the Victoria Lodge, which has its headquarters at Jamestown.  The ceremony was excellently and impressively performed by PM James Goodes, assisted by PM’s Henderson ...... in the presence of between 35 and 45 brethren.  After the installation a banquet was held at the Globe Hotel, the proceedings at which passed off most successfully.”
13 September 1893  -  “Northern and Midland Public Schools Exhibition  -  The annual exhibition in connection with the Northern and Midland Public Schools was held at Jamestown on Thursday and Friday, August 31st and September 1st, and was in every respect the most successful that has yet been held, surpassing as it did all predecessors in the number quality of the exhibits, and in the attendance of the public.”  Among the prizes won were :
Ferns in box - First, Effie Henderson, 1/-.
Buttonhole bouquet - First, Effie Henderson, 6d,  second B Henderson, 6d, third, E Henderson, 6d.
Stocking bag - First, Effie Henderson 1/-.
Scrap album  -  Second, Bessie Henderson, 1/-.
Scones - First, Bessie Henderson, 1/6.
25 October 1893  -  “The departure of our courteous and obliging postmaster, Mr T H Henderson, is regarded with universal regret, but with the regret is mingled a feeling of satisfaction that Mr Henderson is receiving an advancement to which over 14 years’ service in Jamestown has justly entitled him.  He leaves at the end of the month for Strathalbyn, where he succeeds the late Mr M J O’Brien.  During their long stay, Mr and Mrs Henderson have become exceedingly popular with all sections of the community, and various steps are being taken to give some evidence of the regard which is felt for them both.  On Friday evening the local Freemasons entertained Mr Henderson at a supper, at which the toast of his health was enthusiastically drunk with musical honours.  On Friday evening next a complimentary dance is being tendered by the Jamestown Quadrille Assembly.  It is announced that Mr H R Holder of the Port Adelaide office will succeed Mr T H Henderson as postmaster at Jamestown.  Mr Holder’s fame as a bass singer is well known, and he will prove a valuable addition to local musical circles.  We understand that Mr Holder is to take charge on the 1st prox.”
1 November 1893  -  “On Friday evening last a complimentary dance was tendered to Mr and Mrs T H Henderson by the members of the Jamestown Quadrille Assembly.  About 50 ladies and gentlemen were present, and a thoroughly enjoyable evening was spent, dancing being kept up until shortly after midnight.  After the dance, “Auld Lang Syne” was sung by the whole company, and many heartfelt wishes were expressed for the welfare and happiness of Mr and Mrs Henderson.  Today Mr H R Holder takes charge of the Jamestown Post-office in succession to Mr T H Henderson, who has left for Strathalbyn.”
 1 November 1893  -  “Presentation to Mr and Mrs T H Henderson  -  On Monday a large number of ladies and gentlemen gathered in the Institute Hall for the purpose of bidding farewell to Mr and Mrs T H Henderson upon the eve of their departure for Strathalbyn.  Advantage was taken of the occasion to present them with a souvenir of their long stay in Jamestown, which took the form of a handsome porcelain and gilt afternoon tea tray bearing the following inscription “Presented to Mr and Mrs T H Henderson by their many friends as a mark of their high appreciation after 14 years residence in Jamestown.”  Mr H Boucaut, Mayor of Jamestown, in making the presentation, spoke of the high appreciation in which Mr and Mrs Henderson were held, and that the value of the gift was not intrinsically great, but he felt sure it would be treasured by the recipients when they knew that it was most heartily subscribed for by a very large number of friends who esteemed them very highly.  He personally had been connected with Mr Henderson in various public matters for many years.  In freemasonry he had taken an active and a leading interest.  As a committee man and president of the Institute he had been a painstaking, efficient worker.  He had always been ready and willing to assist in any other matters for the good of the town.  Of Mrs Henderson he felt he could hardly say enough in her praise.  It was unusual to find both husband and wife taking such an active interest in all good works.  In leaving Jamestown they could feel that they were parting with really true friends who respected and esteemed them.

    “Mr T H Henderson, in replying, said that he felt very deeply the kind feelings which prompted the gift and though going to a place which possessed many advantages he could not suppress the sorrow he felt at parting with so many old and true friends.  He thanked them for their many kindnesses and trusted that though leaving them, he would not be forgotten.  (Prolonged applause.)  Mr G H Lake, MP, said that the highest praise that could be said of Mr Henderson was that during fourteen years’ faithful service he had not made a single enemy.  In business he was most courteous and obliging, and as a man he was good and true.  The fact of his rank and knowledge as a mason would ensure him a warm welcome in his new home.  Of Mrs Henderson he could say that she was a really good woman, as a mother, as a townswoman and as a member of the church she had always done all in her power and had given perfect satisfaction.  He trusted that the recollection of their life in Jamestown would ever remain green in the memories of Mr and Mrs Henderson, to whom he wished every success and happiness.  While there he desired to welcome the incoming postmaster, Mr H R Holder, whom he regarded as one more connecting link between this portion of the district and the senior member for the Burra.  If Mr Holder did as much for the town as the Hon F W Holder had done for the district they would be well served indeed.  He extended a hearty welcome to Mr and Mrs Holder, and trusted their stay among them would be a happy and pleasant one.  Mr Jas. Wilkinson JP, desired to add his testimony to the many others.  He had been long associated with Mr Henderson in social and other circles.  They were old comrades in arms and had had many a jolly time together.  As a member of the Institute committee he had worked well and assiduously and the same might be said of his work in all departments.  He had been associated with Mrs Henderson in musical circles where she had been held in high estimation; she had been a material and willing helper in clearing off the debt of the Institute.  He knew many a time she had gone out of her way to assist in charitable and other undertakings.  All would feel the loss of Mr and Mrs Henderson, but they trusted they would succeed in life and be happy in their new home.

    “Mr T Carter JP, as an old resident of the town, recognised in Mr Henderson a thoroughly useful and capable man.  As a civil servant he was one of those who recognised that the service was created for the convenience of the people and not vice versa.  In his various capacities he had demonstrated abilities of no mean order.  It had always been a pleasure to be in the Hall when Mrs Henderson was on the platform, and, he was sure, that she had often appeared at considerable personal inconvenience.  He could assure their successors that if they could only satisfy the people as well as Mr and Mrs Henderson they themselves would be well satisfied with their stay in the town.

    “Mr H R Holder, who was greeted with cheers, desired to thank those present for the very hearty welcome accorded to Mrs Holder and himself.  The position was one of difficulty, for, having to follow such a popular couple as Mr and Mrs Henderson they would have to do their utmost to succeed nearly as well, however, they would do their best.  After singing “Auld Lang Syne” the gathering terminated.”
24 January 1894  -  At the annual meeting of the subscribers of the Jamestown Institute, held on Thursday last, “the committee placed on record their appreciation of the services rendered to the Institute by Mr Henderson, and regarded his departure as a distinct loss, not only to this body, but to the town generally.”

    Strathalbyn had been established over forty years when Thomas Henderson was transferred there as the Post Master.  The fine office and residence on Commercial Street, next to the offices of “The Southern Argus” newspaper, had been built in 1861, and was used until 1912.  One of the earliest Church of England ministers in the town (1872-4) was the Reverend Slaney Poole, who officiated at the marriage in Adelaide of  Fanny Clarke and Herbert Holder in 1883.

    The Southern Argus of Thursday 9th November 1893 welcomed the Hendersons:
    OUR NEW POSTMASTER - Mr and Mrs T H Henderson come to Strathalbyn with an enviable reputation, and if we may judge of them by the popularity they appear to have enjoyed at Jamestown they will be decidedly useful and energetic townspeople.

    The Hendersons quickly settled into the new town, and the Argus of 28th December 1893, reporting on an evening of children’s entertainment held in the Institute on the 21st, noted that “The programme was opened by Miss Bessie Henderson singing the sabre song from the Grand Duchess. ...... After a short interval Miss Bessie Henderson gave the ‘Song of the Glass’, the clinking chords being given well by her companions.  The song very narrowly escaped an encore. ......”  This entertainment was repeated on the evening of 4th January, with “..... Miss Bessie Henderson’s ‘Song of the Glass’ being loudly encored.”


    Further reports in the Southern Argus chronicled their busy life in the country town :
5 April 1894  -  T H Henderson was elected one of the vice-presidents of the Strathalbyn Football Club at its Annual General Meeting on Saturday evening last.
3 May 1894  -  “A LETTER STAMPER  -  A new machine for the obliteration of stamps is at present being tried at the General Post Office.  It is claimed for the machine that it will stamp 700 a minute of the general work, but dealing with even matter, for instance, postal cards, it will stamp 900.  The other day 7800 long letter circulars were stamped in 20 minutes.  Up till recently all machines designed for stamping mixed letters turned out badly, but for some little time past one has been very successfully employed in the London Office.”
21June 1894  -  Past-Master T H Henderson attended the ceremony of installing a new Master at St John’s Lodge No 15 SAC.
28 June 1894  -  On Tuesday last, at the Strathalbyn Institute Annual General Meeting, T H Henderson was elected to one of eight vacancies on the committee.  “The committee took some time to decide on, twelve gentlemen being nominated for the eight vacant places; and the mode of election causing quite a heated discussion, at times amusing, at times acrid.”
23 August 1894  -  “WANTON MISCHIEF  -  For some weeks past difficulties have been experienced by the telegraph operators in working the line between here and the city, though the cause could not at once be discovered.  Subsequent examination showed that between twenty and thirty insulators had been wantonly broken, presumably by stone-throwing, between the fifth and sixth milepost from here on the Macclesfield road.  The mischief done was so palpably intentional that the Department put the matter into the hands of the police, who are endeavouring to track the guilty parties.”
6 September 1894  -  On 1st September T H Henderson was elected one of the vice-presidents of the Strathalbyn Cricket Club.
27 September 1894  -  Mr T Henderson and others gave songs at the annual dinner of the Strathalbyn Football Club at the Victoria Hotel last Thursday evening.
11 October 1894  -  “A really excellent entertainment was given in the local Institute Hall on Monday evening last, in aid of the funds of Christ Church, and it is pleasing to record that there was an excellently large audience present to enjoy it, the large hall being filled in every part.”  Tableaux were presented, “including ‘Where are you going?’, by Mr R C Graham and Miss Mather, Misses Effie and Bessie Henderson singing the words.”
1 November 1894  -  “A full house enjoyed the entertainment at the Institute Hall on Thursday evening last, and fully £20 was taken at the door.”  In the second part of the program was a performance of the operetta “Trial by Jury”, with T H Henderson as “the Giddy old Foreman of the Jury”.  “Mr Henderson’s capital assumption of the part of the Foreman of the Jury made one regret that he had not a far more important part to fill, for he was certainly one of the big successes of the evening.”
22 November 1894  -  A dance was held at “Peshawur”, the home of Dr and Mrs Shone, attended by Mr Henderson, Mrs Henderson in black lace, and Miss Henderson in cream. “The large drawing room was converted into a ballroom, the floor being nicely waxed and polished, and the lighting very prettily arranged, chinese lanterns and fairy lights shedding soft lights from amongst a wealth of floral decorations.  Good music was supplied and as the night was a simply delightful one, bright almost as day, and neither hot nor cold, guests, dancers and non-dancers alike, spent a very pleasant night .....  A programme of 20 dances, including a cotillon, was gone through with very great spirit, as well as one or two extras, and about 2 am “Auld Lang Syne” was sung and the party dispersed.”
29 November 1894  -  “A very successful meeting of cyclists was held in the Rechabite hall on Friday evening last for the purpose of forming a local cycling club.  .....  Several Strath wheelmen are now getting mounts of the very latest style made to order by Mr V Lewis, so by about Christmas things should ‘hum’ with the Strathalbyn cycling community.  .....  The colours of the club are dark and pale blue.”  T H Henderson was elected as a vice-president of the new club.
29 November 1894  -  At the Annual Strawberry Fete held for the Christ Church Sunday School yesterday afternoon, Mrs Henderson was in charge of the tea and cake stall.
29 November 1894  -  T H Henderson donated 5 shillings towards the cost of a clock (for the tower of St Andrew’s Church).
13 December 1894  -  “Very pretty and very busy did the local Institute Hall look on Tuesday evening, when the Cricket Club ‘Social’ was conducted, and very gratifying was the result of the work done by the ladies who got the affair up.”  Misses E and B Henderson assisted as flower girls.


7 February 1895  -  “There was an excellent attendance of ladies at the adjourned meeting held on Tuesday afternoon last, to arrange details for the proposed art exhibition and fancy fair in aid of the Institute decoration and renovation fund.”  Committee members included Mrs Henderson.
9 May 1895  -  The Fancy Fair in aid of the Institute Hall renovation fund was held on Friday and Saturday (3,4 May).  The sweet stall along the front of the stage was in the care of the Misses Henderson among others.  Mrs T H Henderson was a manager of the produce stall.  In the evening an entertainment of “living pictures and statuary, interspersed with musical numbers” was given.  The statuary figures were depicted by Miss B Henderson among others.
27 June 1895  -  T H Henderson was re-elected to the Committee of the Strathalbyn Institute.
5 September 1895  -  “Children’s Entertainment  -  For some months past Mr and Mrs Elliott had been training a company of children for an entertainment, and on Thursday evening last the result was made evident at the Institute Hall, where a large gathering assembled to see and hear the programme provided.  An adaptation from the “Flower Queen” ...... formed the opening piece, ...... the most successful number was a pretty quartette sung by B Henderson etc.  Mrs T H Henderson gave valuable service at the piano.  The entertainment was repeated on Saturday evening.”
3 October 1895  -  T H Henderson is organising a social evening to farewell the Rev W J Bussell of Christ Church on 31 October.
7 November 1895  -  “The farewell Social to the Rev W J Bussell held on Thursday evening last, was a great success, between two and three hundred guests meeting to bid the reverend gentleman goodbye.  The committee who were entrusted with the arranging of the social worked hard, but with Mr T H Henderson as secretary ...... success was ensured.  Mrs T H Henderson sang a song, “Three Wishes”, receiving thoroughly well-merited applause for her finished execution of it.”
5 December 1895  -  The annual Strawberry Fete was held yesterday by the Church of England people.  Mr Henderson assisted the organisation of the fete.  Mrs Henderson assisted on the tea, coffee and refreshments stall, and the Misses Henderson on the sweet stall.


23 April 1896  -  Mr Henderson was elected to the Patronage Committee of Christ Church.
2 July 1896  -  T H Henderson was re-elected to the committee of the Strathalbyn Institute.
9 July 1896  -  “On Holidays  -  Our Post-master, Mr T H Henderson, goes away on a holiday jaunt today, his annual leave commencing this morning.”
29 August 1896  -  H Henderson sent in correct answers to 5 of 15 questions in the Children’s Column of the Argus (simple arithmetic).
South Australian Government Gazette  -  “Chief Secretary’s Office, Adelaide, September 28 1896.  His Excellency the Governor in Council has been pleased to appoint Thomas Hall Henderson Esq to be Returning Officer for the Electoral District and Division of Mount Barker, vice Blue, deceased.”
1 October 1896  -  “Children’s Dance  -  At the Institute Hall on Tuesday evening last a party of juveniles was entertained by Misses Tapley and Castle, who issued invitations for a children’s dance, which were very eagerly accepted, about fifty young people assembling at the Hall, and spending two or three hours unalloyed and delightful amusement. ...... A long programme of dances was gone through in capital style, Mrs T H Henderson doing the lion’s share of the work at the piano.”
8 October 1896  -  “The Returning Officership  -  Following the precedent they have recently established the Government have appointed Mr T H Henderson, postmaster of the chief polling-place (Strathalbyn), as the Returning Officer for the Electoral District and Division of Mt Barker vice Dr Blue, deceased. ...... The new appointment is on the whole popular, and at any rate puts local jealousies out of court.”
19 November 1896  -  “Christ Church Strawberry Fair and Fete  -  ...... A heavily-loaded produce stall was run by Mrs T H Henderson. ...... A mysterious fish pond was attended by ...... Misses Henderson.”
24 December 1896  -  “Children’s Bazaar  -  ...... a number of little folk in the town have been for some time past working with a view to holding a little bazaar, entirely of their own management, in aid of some charity. ...... The entire arrangement and getup of the little affair was the work of children, not a single adult being allowed to have a say in the matter, and the little ones are highly pleased with their success. ...... The idea ...... got the assistance of ...... D Henderson.”


15 April 1897  -  “The Children’s Entertainment included a quartet “The city girl’s lament” sung by ...... B Henderson.  Misses Emmie Elliott and Bessie Henderson sang in character “I don’t want to play in your yard”, their really good performance well deserving the encore demanded.  An exhibition of fancy club swinging was given by ..... B Henderson.”
18 November 1897  -  Stallholders at the Strathalbyn Cricket Club Strawberry Fete included Miss Henderson on the sweets stall, and Mrs Henderson on the refreshments stall.  Entertainment was given by Miss B Henderson (club swinging) and Miss Henderson (piano solo).
25 November 1897  -  “Church of England  -  Strawberry Fetes are the rage at this time of the year, and by the way they are attended their popularity is not on the wane.  Whether it be better to eat one’s dish of the luscious fruit al fresco with the surroundings of a picnic, or in the quietude of one’s own dining room has, like the flowers that bloom in the spring, nothing to do with the case; indeed we have heard of strawberry fetes at which there was an entire absence of strawberries, to say nothing of the attendant cream.  Yesterday two such festivals were held - one at Goolwa and one here, to neither of which the ill-report applies, for there was at each a bountiful supply of the berries, as well as the etceteras which are deemed requisite and necessary. ...... The Strathalbyn fete was held on the Vicarage grounds during the afternoon, the garden being very nicely arranged for the occasion. ...... In the shadehouse Mesdames J L Stirling and T H Henderson dispensed strawberries cum cream or sans cream as desired.”
[An idyllic description of a typical strawberry fete appeared in The Critic of 11 December 1897  -  “...... a band, flags flying, tents and marquees, a Maypole with coloured streamers and wreaths of flowers, gaily dressed children dancing round it; the popping at a shooting gallery, the shouts of youngsters, the evident enjoyment of small boys in short jackets and large collars over plates of strawberries and cream, the tooting of a penny trumpet, bicycle races, flower stalls, sweet stalls, book stalls, presided over by various flowery and sweet young ladies ......”]
2 December 1897  -  “Successful Student  -  Miss Effie Henderson secured a pass in junior theory, taking a second-class certificate in the Musical Examinations at the Adelaide University.”
Adelaide Observer 4 December 1897  -  “Musical Examinations – Junior Public Examinations in Theory - Second Class – Effie Jessup Henderson (teacher Miss Sheppard).”
23 December 1897  -  “Post Office Hours  -  On and after January 1st the post offices in the colony will open at 8.30 instead of at 9 am, and close correspondingly early, viz at 7.30 pm.  On Saturdays the hours will be from 8.30 to 5.30.  Letters will be delivered at the window every night as usual, but no other post office or telegraphic business will be transacted after the ordinary hours of closing.”


6 January 1898  -  Miss Guli Hack (soprano) and her sister Ethel gave a concert at Srtathalbyn last Thursday night.
31 March 1898  -  F W Holder visited the town and gave a lecture on federalism (see Chapter 4).
5 May 1898  -  “The Mount Barker Election  -  Nomination of candidates to fill the vacancy in the representation of Mount Barker caused by the resignation of the Hon Dr Cockburn were declared at the Local Courthouse on Monday.  Mr T H Henderson, the returning officer, presided.”
19 May 1898  -  “Mount Barker Election  -  The declaration of the poll took place at the Court House, Strathalbyn, at noon yesterday, the Returning Officer of the district, Mr T H Henderson, declaring Mr C M R Dumas duly elected, there being a large attendance of electors present to hear the official announcement of the results of the voting.  Mr Dumas, who was very cordially received, moved the usual vote of thanks to the Returning Officer, from whom he and Mr Robinson [the unsuccessful candidate] had received most courteous treatment, and by whom the election had been most carefully conducted. ...... The vote having been acknowledged, cheers for the Queen concluded the proceedings.”
14 July 1898  -  At the Annual General Meeting of the Strathalbyn Institute, T H Henderson was elected Vice President of the Committee.
24 November 1898  -  “University Examinations in Music  -  It is gratifying to note Miss Effie Henderson’s (daughter of our much respected postmaster) success, the value of which is much enhanced by the fact that the young candidate for musical honours was, whilst undergoing her exam, almost in a state of prostration through a severe neuralgic attack.  Miss Henderson’s teacher was Miss Sheppard.”
Quiz 1 December 1898  -  “The Misses Hugall gave a successful fancy dress ball in the Strathalbyn Institute Hall on Tuesday November 22nd.  There were at least a hundred different characters represented.  Some of the ladies’ dresses were most elaborate, and particular mention must be made of ...... Miss N Byrne, Motteran & Williamson’s biscuits.”
24 November 1898  -  Among the list of the most prominent attendees at a recent Fancy Dress Ball was N Byrne, dressed to represent Williamson’s biscuits.
8 December 1898  -  “Strathalbyn Cricket Club  -  Miss Henderson assisted in running the strawberry and cream depot at the Strawberry Fete held in the Institute Hall last night.”
15 December 1898  -  A lad of 8 drowned in King’s waterhole in the Angas River, and another little baby girl narrowly escaped the same fate.  A letter to the editor of the Southern Argus from W Vernon Shone suggested that an association be formed to instruct children in swimming.
22 December 1898  -  At a meeting held at Dr Shone’s residence on Monday evening, an association was formed along the above lines.  “Mr T H Henderson was elected as secretary to the committee of the association.  A small subscription fee was decided on with a view to securing the services of Mr Bastard of the Adelaide baths for the instruction of the local instructors in the most approved method of teaching children to swim. ...... Parents who desire to have their children taught to swim are requested to send in names to Mr Henderson (who is also empowered to collect subscriptions).”


    Reports of swimming classes for both boys and girls (after a new changing shed was built) appeared throughout January and February 1899.  An old photo shows Thomas Henderson giving swimming lessons to a group of young girls at Jeff’s waterhole in the River Angas.  His simple but effective method consisted of dangling a girl in the water by a rope tied to the end of a pole, like a worm on the end of a fishing line!  The Argus of 23 February noted that at the girls’ class on Monday, the instructors, including T H Henderson, had 42 pupils to attend to, and the use of the pole was mentioned.

12 January 1899  -  Misses Rankine and Henderson provided afternoon tea at half-time at a polo match held in Mr A Rankine’s paddock on Saturday afternoon last.  Effie’s future husband, M G Rankine, was one of the players.
20 April 1899  -  “Open Air Concert  -  A very large crowd assembled in front of the Southern Argus office on Saturday evening last to hear a musical programme provided by Mr and Mrs Elliott given from the balcony, which was prettily lit up by Chinese lanterns etc.  A number of songs and choruses were given, and several instrumental pieces (piano, violin, flute and cornet), the principal performers being Mrs T H Henderson, ...... E Henderson, ...... and Master H Henderson, the programme occupying about an hour.”
20 April 1899  -  “The Children’s Bazaar, organised by Emmie Elliott  -  First in importance of the stalls came the Fancy Stall, which was in the charge of ......Miss Doris Henderson.”
4 May 1899  -  “The declaration of the poll [for the General Election held on 29th April] took place at noon yesterday at the Courthouse, Strathalbyn, where, despite the wintry condition of the weather, a large gathering took place, including electors from all parts of the district, far and near.  The successful candidate (Mr C M R Dumas) proposed a vote of thanks to the Returning Officer. ...... Holding the Referendum on the same day as the election had entailed a great deal of extra work on Mr Henderson and his deputies, and the way everything had been carried out reflected the greatest possible credit on him.”
15 June 1899  -  “Musical  -  At the recent primary examination in practice of music at the Adelaide University, Miss Bessie Henderson (teacher Miss Sheppard) passed with credit.”
31 August 1899  -  A welcome home to Dr and Mrs Shone was organised by a committee including Mrs Henderson (secretary), who also performed a piano solo.
The Critic 7 October 1899  -  “Mr and Mrs Berry Smith gave a most enjoyable dance at their residence, Dunreath, Strathalbyn, on Wednesday September 27. ...... Among the guests were ...... Miss Henderson, cream, Miss Bessie Henderson, white and blue.”
23 November 1899  -  At the Strathalbyn Cricket Club Social Evening, the sweet stall was in the charge of Miss B Henderson.
30 November 1899  -  Miss B Henderson gave valuable assistance at the Christ Church Strawberry Fete.
28 December 1899  -  A Transvaal Patriotic Fund was raised for the benefit of the widows and orphans of Brtish soldiers killed in the Transvaal.  Mrs T H Henderson was among the volunteers to canvas the district for subscriptions.  Mr Henderson donated 10/6, and his wife and Miss Tapley collected a total of £4-9-9 for the Fund.


1 February 1900  -  “The Patriotic Fund  -  The Entertainment arranged for in connection with this branch took place on Tuesday evening last, and was in every way successful, a handsome sum being the net result. ...... Prior to the opening Tableaux being displayed, a band of Red Cross nurses [including Effie Henderson] disposed of a large number of the pretty souvenir programmes provided, their skill in purchasing sales being well demonstrated. ...... Mr Gemmell Rankine sang “Tommy Atkins” with a good deal of go, the “Nursing Sisterhood” and, indeed, the audience joining heartily in the chorus. ...... After the interval the curtain rose on Gilbert and Sullivan’s sparkling operetta “Trial by Jury”, in which ...... Mr Wyatt played the counsel and Mr Henderson the foreman of the jury.”  (C L A Wyatt assisted on the committee of organisers.)
The Critic 24 March 1900  -  “A farewell dance was given to the Misses Tapley at the Strathalbyn Institute on Friday evening last, which was a pronounces success.  Amongst those present were Mrs Henderson, ...... Misses Henderson (2), ...... and Mr Henderson.”
12 April 1900  -  T H Henderson was re-elected as a Vice President of the Strathalbyn Football Club.
10 May 1900  -  “Christ Church Sunday School  -  A sale of gifts in aid of the library fund of this school was held yesterday afternoon. ...... Miss Bessie Henderson attended the Fancy Stall, Miss Doris Henderson the Tea Stall.”
31 May 1900  -  “Patriotic Meeting in Strathalbyn  -  A large and enthusiastic assemblage of ladies and gentlemen took place in the Classroom of the Institute on Tuesday evening last.  The Mayor, Mr J W Elliott, presided, ...... for the purpose of deciding whether there should be a public demonstration held in the Town on the occasion of the investiture of Pretoria by the Imperial Army. ...... The Rev H Wyllie proposed that a public demonstration be held to commemorate the termination of the war now raging in South Africa.”  He proposed that a committee of ladies and gentlemen be formed for the purpose of carrying out the details of the demonstration, including Messrs T H Henderson and C L A Wyatt.  “Mr T H Henderson proposed that the Town Clerk be invited to at once ascertain the cost of a suitable flagpole, necessaries and flags, and that the consent of the Corporation be obtained for the erection of the pole on the peninsula.  Seconded and carried.”  Mr Henderson was appointed to the children’s sports committee.
28 June 1900  -  “Strathalbyn Social Club  -  On Friday evening last an adjourned meeting of the promoters of the Strathalbyn Young Men’s Club was very well attended. ...... The adjourned meeting took place on Tuesday evening and was very largely attended.  It was resolved to form “The Strathalbyn Social Club”, the objects of the Club are to provide accommodation where the members may, within certain specified times and hours, and under certain conditions, amuse themselves by reading, playing games of skill, including cards, dominoes, chess, backgammon, draughts etc, also the practice of single-stick and boxing.”  Mr Henderson was elected to the interim committee of the Club, and was later elected to the first official committee.
5 July 1900  -  “Farewell  -  At the Institute on Friday evening a large and representative gathering assembled at the invitation of a committee of ladies to say goodbye to Mrs John McFarlane, who has removed to Adelaide. ...... The Hall was very prettily decorated, set out in the customary drawing-room style, and a very pleasant hour was spent, a short musical programme being provided in which Mesdames Elliott and Henderson, and Misses Henderson (2) and Wyatt, and Messrs W F Adams, Elliott, Henderson, Montgomery and Wyatt took part.”
16 August 1900  -  “Strathalbyn Hunt Ball  -  The visit to Strathalbyn of the Adelaide Hunt Club last week was made the opportunity for making its members some return for the pleasure they had annually afforded local people, a most enjoyable and successful dance being given in the Institute Hall on Friday evening last.  The organisers of the affair were ...... Mr and Miss Henderson ......  There were some very beautiful dresses worn, a better frocked party being rarely seen at even the dressiest of city dances, many of the costumes being very much admired.”  Miss Bessie Henderson wore white.
The Critic 18 August 1900  -  [After a successful day’s hunt by the Adelaide Hunt Club] “A most successful dance was held in the evening in the Strathalbyn Institute, which was very prettily decorated.  A very nice supper was served on the stage, the tables being tastefully decorated in pink, in honour of the occasion.  Great credit is due to the ball committee for the success of the evening’s entertainment.  The Committee consisted of ...... Miss Henderson and Mr Henderson.  The ball committee-men wore very suitable small white horseshoes in their buttonholes, as a distinguishing badge.”
4 October 1900  -  “Christ Church Strathalbyn  -  At the evening service at this place of worship on Sunday last there was a very full congregation, the Church being uncomfortably filled, the announcement that Professor Ives, Mus Bac., of the Adelaide University, had kindly consented to play attracting a great many members of other churches.  The service was fully choral. ...... Mrs T H Henderson sang “He shall find His flock” very pleasingly.”
4 October 1900  -  The prize list for pictures at the Strathalbyn Show included Miss Bessie Henderson, and she also received first prize for an “arrangement of cut flowers as centrepiece for a dining room table”.
18 October 1900  -  “Christ Church  -  The annual picnic in connection with this Sunday School was held yesterday on the Hon J L Stirling’s property. ...... Amongst those who lent loyal aid entertaining the little ones the names should be mentioned of Mrs Henderson ...... and ...... Miss B Henderson.”
15 November 1900  -  Mrs Henderson assisted on the fancy goods stall at the annual Strawberry Fete for Christ Church yesterday afternoon.
22/29 November 1900  -  “Adelaide University Music Exams  -  Miss Bessie Henderson has been successful at the exams, passing second in piano playing, Miss Sheppard of Adelaide being her teacher.  She scored better still in the theoretical tests, securing a first-class in the junior department, a fact on which the young musician can be heartily congratulated.”
22 November 1900  -  “Cricket Club’s Social  -  ...... Miss B Henderson assisted on the sweets stall.  The ladies in attendance at the stalls wore white frocks with streamers of red and blue ribbon (the club colours).”
6 December 1900  -  Mr T H Henderson donated 2/6 towards the stocking and working of the Parafield farm for Aged and Infirm Deaf Mutes.


24 January 1901  -  “The ‘Peace’ Medals which were to have been distributed on the 21st inst in the various schools throughout the colony have not yet been received by the Board of Advice, a good deal of disappointment being thus caused to the children, who have looked forward to receipt of the token, though ‘peace’ is not yet apparent.”  (The medals were distributed to metropolitan schools, but a problem with the die caused a delay in the production of the medals for country schools.)
7 March 1901  -  “A Well-deserved Promotion  -  Friends of Mr T H Henderson, of Strathalbyn post office, will be pleased to learn that he has been promoted from the fifth to the fourth class in the Civil Service, the office here rising a step accordingly.”
4 April 1901  -  “The Federal Elections  -  The election of six members for the Senate and seven for the House of Representatives, as South Australia’s quota to the Federal Parliament, took place on Saturday last. ...... The returning officer for the district (Mr T H Henderson) as usual, had everything most fully and carefully arranged for, and had his scrutiny completed with very commendable celerity.”
18 April 1901  -  Mr T H Henderson was elected a Vice President of the Strathalbyn Football Club.
30 May 1901  -  Miss Doris Henderson assisted on the Fancy Stall at the Children’s Bazarette held on Thursday last.
6 June 1901  -  “A festival was held on Monday last to celebrate the opening of the Federal Parliament.  Mr T H Henderson assisted on the Sports Sub-committee, Mrs Henderson on the Refreshments Sub-committee.  Miss Henderson assisted in the refreshment room, Mrs Henderson working hard with her bevy of helpers to attend to the little ones’ wants, big baskets of lollies being emptied after the more solid ‘goodies’ had been apportioned.”  D Henderson won second prize (2/-) for the “Best Garland carried by a girl” in the procession (Mr Henderson was one of the judges).
The Critic 15 June 1901  -  “An interesting croquet tournament was played off at Dr Shone’s residence, Strathalbyn, on Saturday June 1st, against a team from Mount Barker, which resulted in a win for Strathalbyn.  The following played for Strathalbyn :- Mesdames Henderson ...... .”
The Critic 6 July 1901  -  “A most enjoyable dance was given by Mrs Berry Smith, at her residence, Dunreath, Strathalbyn, on Friday evening last.  Dancing took place in the main hall, and supper was served in the dining room.  Amongst those present :-  Mrs Henderson, black silk with lace and bugle trimmings; Miss Bessie Henderson, white silk skirt, pink crepon bodice; Miss Henderson, black with steel trimmings; Messrs T H Henderson, C L A Wyatt.  The music was rendered by Mrs Henderson ...... .”
15 August 1901  -  “Strathalbyn Hunt Ball  -  Mr and Mrs T H Henderson served on the committee which organised the ball on the occasion of the annual visit of the Adelaide Hunt Club.”  [The Critic 17 August 1901  -  “The Strathalbyn annual ball held last Friday in honour of the visit of the Adelaide Hunt Club was a great success.  The guests were received by Mesdames ...... Henderson.  The following were present :-  Mrs Henderson, black broche; Miss B Henderson, white silk.”]
29 August 1901  -  Mr T H Henderson was re-elected as a Vice President of the Strathalbyn Cricket Club.
The Critic 31 August 1901  -  “A very successful progressive euchre party was given on Tuesday August 20th by Mrs Henderson in honour of her daughter Miss Bessie Henderson’s birthday.  Amongst those present were Mr and Mrs and the Misses Henderson ...... .  The prizewinners were Miss Wyatt and Mr C L A Wyatt.”
12 September 1901  -  Mr T H Henderson was chosen as a Hall Steward for the Strathalbyn Agricultural Show, to be held on the 26th September.
3 October 1901  -  Miss B Henderson won third prize for an arrangement of flowers as centrepiece of a dining room table.  Miss Henderson won a prize for a picture which she exhibited.
14 November 1901  -  “Strathalbyn Cricket Club  -  The annual Strawberry Fete in connection with the Strathalbyn Cricket Club will be held on the 27th inst in the Institute Hall.  Mrs Henderson, with the assistance of about 22 other ladies, has the affair in hand, and great preparations are being made to ensure its being a financial success.”
14 November 1901  -  “ ‘The Serious Family’  -  This highly amusing comedy, which was given at Strathalbyn on show night, was performed at Mount Barker on Monday evening by the same amateur company.  There was a splendid attendance, the hall being well filled, and the performance appeared to give every satisfaction to the audience, roars of laughter testifying to the success of the amateurs in placing the funny situations in amusing lights.  The characters in the comedy included ...... Miss Bessie Henderson as Emma Torrens and Mr C L A Wyatt as Captain Murphy Maguire.”
21 November 1901  -  “Mr T H Henderson, who has been away on his annual leave, returned to Strathalbyn on Tuesday, but does not take up duty again till Saturday.”
28 November 1901  -  “Strathalbyn Cricket Club  -  One of the most popular fixtures of its kind held here is the annual strawberry fete and social arranged in connection with the cricket club, and last night at the Institute Hall, when this year’s fete was held, that popularity was again abundantly evinced.  A strong ladies’ committee, under the presidency of Mrs T H Henderson, arranged for the stalls. ...... Mrs Henderson was in charge of the strawberry stall, Miss B Henderson of the sweets stall.  During the evening ..... Mrs Henderson sang a pretty coon song.”
12 December 1901  -  “Strathalbyn Institute  -  The usual monthly meeting of committee was held on Tuesday evening, Mr T Henderson, the vice-president, presiding in the president’s absence.”
19 December 1901  -  “Echunga Institute  -  A concert party from Strathalbyn played at the newly re-opened Echunga Institute on Friday last.  The programme included :
    Coon song with chorus : Hush ho, ma Honey, Mrs T H Henderson and Company
    Vocal Duet : The Sailor Sighs, Mrs T H Henderson and Mr C L A Wyatt
    Song : Whisper and I Shall Hear, Mrs T H Henderson with violin obligato by Master H Henderson.”


30 January 1902  -  “Croquet Tournament  -  Strathalbyn v. Mount Barker  -  On Saturday last the second of a series of tournaments was played off at Strathalbyn, Dr and Mrs Shone again allowing the use of their lawn. ...... Among the scores : Mr Henderson and Miss L I Graham beat Mrs Dumas and Miss Follett 22-7, Mrs Henderson and Mrs Shone beat Miss T Paltridge and Mrs F Chapman 16-8.”
6 March 1902  -  “Entertainment at Meadows  -  As a close to the day’s festivities on Thursday last, when the Meadows annual show took place, a very successful and enjoyable entertainment was given in aid of the Agricultural Society’s funds.  There was a capital attendance, the Hall being filled to its utmost extent, a number of city visitors to the township being included in the audience. ...... The programme opened with a concerted number - two pianos and violin - played by Mrs T H Henderson and Mr Elliott (pianos) and Mr C L A Wyatt (violin). ...... Mrs Henderson supplied the gem of the evening, by her sympathetic singing of “Hush yo, ma honey”, aided by the part song accompaniment of the refrain - the best song chorus of the evening, well meriting the hearty applause bestowed. ...... Mrs Henderson and Mr Wyatt sang the well known duet “The Sailor Sighs”.”
13 March 1902  -  “Rifle Shooting  -  On Saturday next at the local ranges, a match is to be fired by the Strathalbyn Club against a team from the “Register” office, at 200 and 500 yard distances.  The visiting team will come by the morning train, and will be entertained at luncheon on the ground by the Strathalbyn club, returning to the city by the 3.55 ordinary.  The team selected to fire for Strathalbyn will comprise ...... H Henderson, ...... T H Henderson.” (H O Henderson scored 69 points, his father 64, and Strathalbyn won by 570 points to 526.)
20 March 1902  -  “Presbyterian Church  -  At a ‘social’ held in the Institute Hall in connection with the anniversary festival of the Presbyterian Church, a ping pong tournament was got off, the prizes falling to the lot of Miss E Castles and Mr H Henderson.”
3 April 1902  -  “ELECTORAL  -  Mr C W Colman JP ..... has been appointed as Returning Officer for the new District of Alexandra for the Assembly, and the No 2 (Southern) District for the Legislative Council. ...... Mr T H Henderson (Mt Barker), by the exigencies of the new Constitution, thus is relieved of office, general regret being felt at his retrenchment.  From the moment Mr Henderson took up the duties from the late Dr Blue, he performed them faithfully and well, the various elections conducted under his charge having been carried out through with marked success, not a detail, no matter how insignificant, having escaped his attention, and in very few cases in the history of electoral matters in the State, have returns been more promptly furnished than those Mr Henderson has been responsible for, nor in any case have they been more scrupulously exact.  To all of the officials under him he has been exceedingly courteous and considerate, their every suggestion meeting with his most careful concern, and their pleasant performance of their duties, with due regard to their punctilious observance of their duties, made a study.  No officer retires from the electoral service with higher respect than Mr Henderson has won, nor with more regret felt that his retrenchment has been made necessary. ...... Like Mr Henderson, Mr Colman is a great stickler for routine.”
10 April 1902  -  “A sprained elbow  -  Master Harry Henderson, of this town, had a painful accident on Saturday last, falling from his bicycle and badly spraining his right elbow.  Dr Shone’s attention was secured, and the injuries are under his care rapidly mending.”
8 May 1902  -  “Back from the War  -  Public Reception at Strathalbyn  -  At the Institute Hall, Strathalbyn, on Thursday evening last a public reception was given to the local members of the contingent of Australian soldiers who had just returned to the State, and never had a more enthusiastic gathering assembled in this building than that which then welcomed home the boys who had been away fighting for the Empire.  The Hall was almost uncomfortably crowded, the company representing all parts of the district, and with the pretty decorations, flags, banners and mottoes, the scene was a very brilliant one. ...... Following the public reception, a musical programme was given very successfully, the performers being Mrs T H Henderson, Misses Wyatt, Henderson and others.”
15 May 1902  -  “Strathalbyn Institute  -  The usual monthly meeting of committee was held on Tuesday evening, Mr T H Henderson presiding. ...... It was decided to resume rinking for the winter season, arrangements as made last year being readopted, except as regards Wednesday evenings at present.  A committee consisting of Messrs Henderson, Elliott, and McFarlane was appointed to make full arrangements, and act at their own discretion as to extra nights and all other details.”
The Critic 31 May 1902  -  “A very enjoyable dance was given by the Misses Smyth at their residence, “Balrath”, Strathalbyn, on Thursday evening, May 22nd.  Among those present were Misses Bessie Henderson, ...... Messrs [H O] Henderson, ...... .”
5 June 1902  -  “Entertainment  -  At the Institute hall on Saturday evening last, in aid of Christ Church Vicarage Fund, a very enjoyable entertainment was given, consisting of dramatic and musical items, the former contributed by a company of city amateurs, the latter by city and local ones.  There was a large attendance, despite the wintry weather, the hall being well filled. ...... After a short interval, a musical interlude occupied attention, a couple of instrumental selections being given by Mrs and Miss B Henderson, Miss Wyatt, and Messrs Wyatt and Montgomery.”
12 June 1902  -  Rifle Shooting  -  H O Henderson shot a score of 63 in a match against Murray Bridge on Monday last, over ranges of 200, 500 and 600 yards.
26 June 1902  -  “Ping Pong  -  At the Strathalbyn Institute on Saturday evening a very successful ping pong social was given by the members of the Ping Pong Club. ...... A tournament was arranged, and visitors and members alike were allowed to participate.  Some 30 or 40 aspirants competed for the prize, and in the final round the names were reduced to three, viz Miss J Castle, Mr B Castle and Mr H O Henderson.  Mr Henderson won from Miss Castle 4-3, and then succeeded in getting a love set from Mr B Castle, thereby winning the tournament.”
26 June 1902  -  “Strathalbyn Defence Rifle Club  -  The first general meeting of this club was held at the Institute on Tuesday evening. ...... Mr T H Henderson was selected as a deputy officer to attend the range during class firing etc.”
26 June 1902  -  “St John’s Church, Macclesfield  -  Despite exceedingly unfavourable circumstances, the night being the most wintry and squally of the year, there was a gratifyingly large attendance at the Institute Hall, Macclesfield, on Thursday evening last, when a musical and dramatic entertainment was given by a company of Strathalbyn amateurs in aid of the above church.  The first part of the programme was of concert nature, opening with a well-played piano duet by Misses Wyatt and Henderson, that old favourite the “Qui Vive gallop” being selected by them. ...... An orchestra consisting of Mrs and Miss Henderson and Messrs Wyatt and Adams contributed a pretty little march. ...... Miss Henderson’s tastefully-given number, “Fiddle and I”, which had a violin obbligato, was encored.”
26 June 1902  -  “Strathalbyn Institute  -  The annual general meeting of subscribers to the Institute was held in the class-room on Monday evening last, Mr T H Henderson (Vice President) presiding over a small attendance. ...... The election of officers for the ensuing year resulted as follows :- President - Mr T H Henderson, ......”
3 July 1902  -  “Entertainment  -  A popular programme, musical and dramatic, was given in aid of the football club by local amateurs at the Institute Hall on Thursday night last.  Misses Wyatt and B Henderson opened by playing a piano duet.”
31 July 1902  -  “Ping Pong  -  Mr H Henderson scored 104 points of a total of 721 when Strathalbyn beat Ashbourne (559) in an exciting series of games on Saturday evening last.”
14 August 1902  -  H Henderson shot a score of 84 over ranges of 200, 500 and 600 yards in a competition between seven rifle clubs on Saturday last.
21 August 1902  -  “Successful Children  -  Some months ago the Bishop of Adelaide (Dr Harmer) offered a number of valuable prizes for encouraging work in the Sunday-schools in the diocese, among them being several for essays by the children on subjects dealt with in class. ...... A little Strathalbynite of tender years, (Miss Doris Henderson, youngest daughter of Mr T H Henderson), was classed equal with another competitor for second prize.  Miss Henderson owes a good deal of success to the careful training her Sunday-school teacher, Miss Olive Sanders, has given her.”
4 September 1902  -  “Croquet  -  This popular pastime has a number of devotees in Strathalbyn, some really expert players being included in the list.  There is an existing club, but the membership of it is strictly limited to twenty members, the founders wisely deciding not to enrol more than can practice comfortably.  Mis L I Graham (principal of the Girls’ Collegiate School) has since the formation of the club allowed the use of her ground, and thereon some very spirited matches have been played.  On Saturday last a very keenly-fought match was played between teams selected by Mr T H Henderson (red) and Mr G D Reed (blue), some really first-class play being show, the party captained by Mr Henderson ultimately winning by one point.”
4 September 1902  -  “Ping Pong  -  On Tuesday last a return match was played between the Strathalbyn and Ashbourne players, a most enjoyable afternoon being spent.  Finnis Flat was the scene of the contest, Mr T Kirkham’s large dining room being utilised, and the home team had the satisfaction of reversing the Strathalbyn record.”  The Strathalbyn players included Miss B Henderson (74 points) and Mr H Henderson (98).
11 September 1902  -  Mr T H Henderson was re-elected a Vice President of the Strathalbyn Cricket Club.
18 September 1902  -  “Rifle Shooting  -  Five members of the Strathalbyn Defence Rifle Club went to Adelaide on Monday to take part in the annual rifle matches, a large number of other country clubs taking part also in the contests.  At the short ranges our team [including H Henderson] did very well, but at the 600 yards they broke down and pulled down their average so considerably that they only secured a low place on the list.  Had they done well at the long range they would have occupied a high one instead, and lately they have been doing excellent work on the local ground from the 600 yard mark.”
9 October 1902  -  “Mr J W Elliott, the present Mayor of Strathalbyn, and Mr T H Henderson, the post and telegraph station master, were both educated by Mr J Young of Parkside, and in common with all that gentleman’s pupils, entertain a high regard for their old master.”
16 October 1902  -  At the Strathalbyn Show Miss D Henderson won a prize in the section for plain needlework by a girl under 13 years, and Miss B Henderson won the section for a smocked child’s dress.
23 October 1902  -  “On Holiday  -  Mr T H Henderson, the Strathalbyn Post and Telegraph Stationmaster, left here yesterday on his annual leave.”
13 November 1902  -  “Strathalbyn Defence Rifle Club  -  First Annual Prize Match.  On Monday last the first of the club’s prize matches was conducted, a complete novitiate, Mr H Henderson, a lad of 18 years of age, scooping no less than seven of the prizes offered for the day, coming second in the championship, as well as scoring well in the regular matches.”  He won a .303 rifle, suitably inscribed, given by the President, and 100 cartridges, in the Club Handicap, and a silver medal in the Championship.  He also won special prizes for shooting at 300 yards and 500 yards.
20 November 1902  -  “Christ Church Fete  -  Mrs T H Henderson assisted on the produce stall at the annual strawberry fete on Saturday last.”
4 December 1902  -  “Strathalbyn Cycling Club  -  Mr H O Henderson was elected secretary of the Strathalbyn Cycling Club formed at a meeting on Monday night last.”
4 December 1902  -  “Juvenile Dance  -  A very successful juvenile dance was given in the Strathalbyn Institute on Friday evening last by the pupils of Mrs Cameron’s (of Mount Barker) class. ...... Amongst those present was Miss Henderson.  There were also present several adults who assisted Mrs Cameron in her programme for the juveniles, and who afterwards enjoyed an extra hour or two’s dancing to the playing of Mrs Henderson’s music, which needless to say was much appreciated.”
25 December 1902  -  “Postal  -  Post Offices will be closed entirely on Christmas Day, and on tomorrow, Monday, and New Year’s Day, they will be closed from noon until 6 pm.”


26 February 1903  -  “The Polo Carnival at Strathalbyn  -  The Gymkhana  -  The Button Race caused a good deal of excitement, and furnished one of the most interesting items on the programme, there being 15 starters.  M G Rankine on Leda got away at the lead, and managed to get his button sewn on first [by Miss Henderson], ...... and won by a couple of lengths.”
12 March 1903  -  Mr and Mrs T H Henderson and Miss Bessie Henderson played in a croquet tournament on the Strathalbyn Croquet Club grounds on Saturday last.
South Australian Government Gazette  -  “Chief Secretary’s Office, Adelaide, March 18 1903.  His Excellency the Lieutenant-Governor in Council has been pleased to appoint Thomas Hall Henderson, postmaster and telegraph stationmaster at Strathalbyn, to be a substitute to act temporarily in the place and stead of Charles Wilson Colman, Returning Officer for the Southern Electoral District, Legislative Council, and District Returning Officer for the Electoral District of Alexandra, absent on leave.”
26 March 1903  -  “Mr T H Henderson, postmaster and telegraph stationmaster at Strathalbyn, has been appointed to act temporarily in the place of Mr C W Colman, returning officer for the Southern electoral district, Legislative Council, and district returning officer for the electoral district of Alexandra, who is absent on leave.”
26 March 1903  -  “Bicycle Sports  -  The Strathalbyn Cycling Club ...... ran off half a dozen events last Saturday.  Mr H O Henderson, the youthful secretary, with the help of the committee, distinguished himself by the way in which the sports were carried out.  Henderson made things warm in the 440 yard sprint, and won with little to spare.”
25 June 1903  -  Mr T H Henderson was re-elected President of the Strathalbyn Institute, reference being made to his many services to the Institute.
2 July 1903  -  Mr H O Henderson was re-elected secretary and treasurer of the Strathalbyn Defence Rifle Club.
23 July 1903  -  “The final game of the Strathalbyn Croquet Club’s tournament was played off on their grounds yesterday in the presence of a goodly crowd of spectators, the contestants being Messrs T H Henderson and G J Reed.  After a very keen struggle, and amid a great deal of excitement, the former secured victory by seven points.  The winner was very heartily congratulated on his victory.”
The Critic 22 August 1903  -  “The Strathalbyn Institute was the scene of a juvenile dance on Friday last given by the pupils of Miss Crowder’s dancing class.  Among those present were Mesdames ...... Henderson, Misses ..... Henderson, and Messrs ..... Henderson.”
8 October 1903  -  “Federal Elections  -  Mr T H Henderson of this town, ...... has been appointed Returning Officer for the new Federal District named as Barker, ...... of which extensive area Mr Henderson will in future have control for Commonwealth elections, with probably an assistant at Mount Gambier. ..... Mr Henderson, who in the performance of the duties of the lesser offices, gave evidence of his worth, may naturally feel proud at his elevation to the higher one, a pride which will be shared by his many friends, with whom we join in offering him a most hearty congratulation.”
15 October 1903  -  Miss D Henderson won a prize for plain needlework by a girl at the Strathalbyn Show.
29 October 1903  -  “Mr T H Henderson is now on his annual leave.”
The Critic 7 November 1903  -  “A juvenile dance was given at the Strathalbyn Institute on Thursday evening last.  The music was supplied by Mrs Henderson and Miss Smyth.  Among those present were the Misses ...... Henderson and Messrs ...... Henderson.”
19 November 1903  -  Mrs Henderson was in charge of the croquet matches, and Mrs Wyatt the sweet stall, at the Christ Church Strawberry Fete.
3 December 1903  -  “Langhorne’s Creek  -  The strawberry fete in connection with the Church of England Mission at this place was held on Thursday evening last.  During the evening a musical programme was engaged in, a party from Strathalbyn giving several items, including Mr and Mrs C L A Wyatt.”
South Australian Government Gazette  -  “Chief Secretary’s Office, Adelaide, Dec 9 1903.  His Excellency the Lieutenant-Governor in Council has been pleased to add the names of the following gentlemen to the Commission of the Peace, viz :
Thomas Hall Henderson of Strathalbyn”
17 December 1903  -  “Mr H O Henderson has resigned the secretaryship of the Strathalbyn Cycling Club.”
17 December 1903  -  “Mr T H Henderson, Strathalbyn, returning officer for the division of Barker in the Commonwealth electorate, has, with the other divisional officers in the State, been appointed as a Justice of the Peace.”
31 December 1903  -  Mrs and Miss Henderson performed at a surprise party to the section of the Scottish Corps at their encampment at the rear of Glenbarr homenstead last Monday.


28 January 1904  -  “Mr T H Henderson leaves here today on a brief holiday, which he intends to spend on the Coorong, where Messrs G G Rankine, R C Stopp and C L A Wyatt and the Rev H H Wyllie are already “in camp”.”
11 February 1904  -  “Messrs Henderson, Rankine and Wyatt, and the Rev H H Wyllie returned on Monday from their holiday trip on the Coorong, having had a very enjoyable time.  An old resident, Mr R C Stopp, accompanied them.”
26 May 1904  -  “On Saturday last a few little children gave a penny concert at Mr Elliott’s residence under Miss Elliott’s care, a programme of about a dozen items being provided by Miss Doris Henderson and others. ...... The pennies collected were placed in a money box for handing to the Salvation Army, about 3/- being secured by the little ones.”
30 June 1904  -  Mr T H Henderson completed his term as President of the Strathalbyn Institute, and remained on the committee.
The Critic 27 July 1904  -  “On Wednesday morning Christ Church, Strathalbyn, was crowded with a large attendance of visitors from the town and district to witness the marriage of Miss Emmie Fife Elliott, eldest daughter of Mr J W Elliott, proprietor of the Southern Argus, to Mr Joseph Mann Yelland, elder son of Mr J H Yelland of Adelaide and late of Point Sturt. ...... The guests, to the number of between 70 or 80, welcomed the newly married couple on their return from church to Mr Elliott’s house, where breakfast was partaken of. ...... Among the many guests were ...... Mr and Mrs T Hall Henderson.”
22 September 1904  -  “Industrial Exhibition  -  An industrial and floral exhibition in connection with St Andrew’s Presbyterian Sunday School took place on Saturday last in the Agricultural Hall. ...... Mrs T Hall Henderson, who judged the plain and fancy work, had a most difficult task, and finally concluded to give two extra special prizes.”  Among the prizegetters was D Henderson, for a table centre decoration (under 15 years), and the nail driving competition (all comers).
17 November 1904  -  “Strawberry Fete  -  During the afternoon a Croquet Tournament under the management of Mrs T H Henderson was played, Mr T H Henderson (the local club’s champion) winning easily.”
17 November 1904  -  “On Friday last, November 11th, the head teacher of the Strathalbyn School (Mr F N Leak), accompanied by his assistants (Misses Harfield, Vickery, and Doris Henderson) left by morning train for the city, taking with them 56 scholars, ten of the number having never previously seen the capital.  Visits were paid to the Museum, Art Gallery, Zoo, and Schools’ Exhibition, a very enjoyable time being thus provided.  Half of the scholars returned the same evening, whilst the remainder stayed in the city with friends.”
24 November 1904  -  “Messrs D Taylor and H O Henderson, with Miss Taylor, had an unpleasant experience while driving home from Milang on Tuesday evening, the axle of the dogcart they were in snapping.  Happily they were nearly home, and as the horse, generally rather restive, behaved well, no further misfortune befell them.”


2 February 1905  -  “Mr T H Henderson, post and telegraph Stationmaster at Strathalbyn is on his annual leave.  Messrs Henderson and Wyatt, and the Rev H H Wyllie are spending a holiday on the Coorong, where this year game is very abundant and fishing excellent.”
20 April 1905  -  “On Sunday afternoon last, while crossing the “Mill” bridge, near this office, Mrs C L A Wyatt, who was wheeling a perambulator, had a very unpleasant experience, a snake about four feet long, which had apparently been sunning itself, crossing the road and getting under the wheels of the perambulator, but being more frightened than hurt, the reptile made off with all speed, contenting itself with a few hisses at its unwilling aggressor.”
27 April 1905  -  “Miss Doris Henderson, after twelve months’ service in the Education Department, has resigned her position to the Strathalbyn State School, and was made the recipient of a handsome presentation by her old scholars last week.  The presentation was made by the head teacher (Mr F N Leak) who spoke highly of Miss Henderson, and wished her a happy and bright future.”

    When Thomas Henderson was transferred from Strathalbyn to Balaklava in July 1905, the Argus ran the following stories :
6 July 1905  -  “POSTAL CHANGES  -  Mr T H Henderson, who for the past twelve years has had charge of our post and telegraph office, received intimation from headquarters on Saturday of transfer to the Balaklava office, of which he is to assume charge on the 13th inst.  The change means promotion and very much easier times for Mr Henderson, the duties all round being much lighter, and as he will be relieved of the heavy responsibility and labours of the returning-officership of the Federal district of Barker, his friends all heartily congratulate him on the compliment paid to him, however much regretting his removal from the south.  During his long residence here Mr Henderson has faithfully and well carried out all the duties of his various offices, both to the public and to the departments under which he has been working, being ever courteous and obliging, and almost ultra-cautious in the management of office affairs.  On the death of the late Dr Blue he was appointed R.O. for the Assembly electoral district of Mt Barker, and deputy R.O. for the Legislative Council, which positions he filled with complete success.  Upon the re-arrangement of the electoral districts, and the taking over of the postal departments by the Federal government, he vacated these offices, but was entrusted with the greater one of R.O. for the Federal district of Barker, holding it still, and working it with equal success.  In local matters Mr Henderson has also been conspicuous, taking active part in almost every public institution in the town.  On his arrival here he identified himself at once with the Institute, and has ever since been connected with it, filling the presidential chair for two years.  The Agricultural Society, the Rifle Club, the Croquet Club, and many other organisations have been given loyal and valued service by him and his family, and the Anglican Church has had invaluable support in almost every possible way.  Mrs Henderson has so much more than seconded her husband’s successes that it is no mere figure of speech to say that by her removal one of the most popular townswomen the town has ever known will be lost to us.  In every social function she has taken a leading part, her exceedingly sunny disposition, her charming manner, and her zeal in whatever cause she espoused, making her a favourite in all classes, while her musical abilities have made her most useful in many directions, the choir of Christchurch losing by her removal one of its chief pillars of support.  Like themselves, Mr and Mrs Henderson’s daughters have grown up to such popularity that of the three two are left behind in homes of their own (Mrs M G Rankine and Mrs C L A Wyatt), Miss Doris being as yet too young to take on the cares and joys of married life, and their son, Mr Harry Henderson, bids fair to follow well in the good example set by his parents.  He remains in the Strathalbyn office for the present.  It could scarcely be permitted that after their long residence in our midst Mr and Mrs Henderson should go without some tangible evidence being given of the town’s appreciation of them and its regret at their removal, but at Mr Henderson’s express wish no public demonstration of any kind is to be made.  However, at an informal meeting, called by the Mayor (Mr E J Tucker) for Tuesday evening, and largely attended, a small committee was appointed to make a suitable presentation to Mr Henderson, and we understand that the ladies of Christchurch and other institutions with which Mrs Henderson has been identified have followed a similar course.

    “The Mayoress, Mrs E J Tucker, will entertain a large number of ladies at The Briars this afternoon, to give opportunity to say goodbye to Mrs Henderson, who, as mentioned elsewhere, is leaving Strathalbyn next week for Balaklava.

    “Wanted - information as to the process under which the new “classification of offices” has been arrived at by the Civil Services Commission.  Strathalbyn post office has practically doubled its business of late years, has the third highest savings bank record in the state, has to deal with a population double the number of that of Balaklava, receives and dispatches more than double the number of mails, and does an all-round business probably treble the extent of the post-office there, and yet under the new regulations is graded a degree lower!  Mt Barker post-office, and the Strathalbyn and Mt Barker schools enjoy similar anomalous grading, why, no one seems to know.  Our postmaster, Mr Henderson, is shifted to the Balaklava office, where he will not have anything like the same business to transact in any department, because his salary is higher than the larger and more important office here is graded for!!”

13 July 1905  -  “On Monday last, Mrs T H Henderson, who has been a most valuable worker for Christ Church and the choir and who is leaving the town for Balaklava, was presented with a very handsome cabinet writing table and desk combined - a beautiful specimen of the wood-craftsman’s art [which was handed over with a letter from the vicar (Rev H H Wyllie)] - a silver-mounted crystal ink bottle with her initials engraved, a silver-mounted crystal gum bottle, and a silver pen, as gifts from the members of the choir and congregation [through the conductor (Mr C L A Wyatt)], as a mark of their appreciation of her services and as a token of the esteem in which she is held.  Today she is to receive a presentation from the croquet club, of which she was one of the founders and one of its most enthusiastic workers.”

    “On Tuesday afternoon in the smoking room of the Terminus Hotel, half a dozen representative townsmen met to say goodbye and wish good luck to Mr T H Henderson, who today takes over charge of the Balaklava post-office.  The Mayor, Mr E J Tucker, said that at Mr Henderson’s own expressed wish the little gathering was a purely informal one at which speechmaking would be strictly tabooed.  The residents of the town felt, however, that appreciation of Mr Henderson’s long and valued services should in some practical manner be testified to, and on their behalf he handed him a letter expressive of that appreciation and also expressive of the regret felt at the removal of the family, a purse of sovereigns accompanying the letter, with which it was hoped Mr Henderson would procure some memento of his many friends here.  “Health and prosperity” to the departing family was then honoured, after which Mr Henderson, who was very deeply affected, briefly acknowledged the gift, expressing his pleasure at the kindly feelings evidenced to him and his and the hope that he might eventually return to Strathalbyn.  To the letter which read as under, a list of subscribers was appended, showing that, only small sums having been asked for, the town generally was fully represented :- “We beg to express our sincere regret that you and Mrs Henderson are leaving Strathalbyn.  As soon as notice of your removal was made known, your attention to duty, thoroughness and unfailing courtesy became the subject of general remark and the opinion was expressed that some steps should be taken to show the public appreciation of your services during your long residence amongst us.  At a meeting of the townspeople held on Tuesday last we were appointed a committee to make some suitable presentation on behalf of the subscribers.  having found it difficult in the circumstances to fix upon anything which would be quite useful and appropriate, we have decided to ask your acceptance of the accompanying purse of sovereigns in the hope that you will obtain some memento which will remind you of your friends in Strathalbyn and of the days spent here.  We append a list of subscribers, but it is only fair to add that as the time has been so short many residents outside the town have not had the opportunity of subscribing to the fund.  Wishing Mrs Henderson and yourself much happiness in your new home, we are, yours faithfully, on behalf of the subscribers, E J Tucker (mayor), James Bell, Charles L Taylor, Henry H Formby, and Henry H Butler.”

20 July 1905  -  “We understand that our young townsman, Mr M G Rankine, has taken up land between Albury and Wagga Wagga, and will be shortly leaving this district for his new home.  Mr Rankine, who recently married the eldest daughter of Mr T H Henderson (late postmaster here), will be a good deal missed, having been an active member of several institutions, notably of the polo club and the Institute.”
27 July 1905  -  “Mr H O Henderson, who for several years has been engaged at the local post office as operator, is about, like his father, to sever his connection with Strathalbyn, joining his brother-in-law, Mr M G Rankine, who is leaving shortly for New South Wales, where he has taken up land.  Mr Henderson severs his connection with the service about the 20th August.”
24 August 1905  -  “Mr and Mrs M G Rankine and Mr H O Henderson, who have just left Strathalbyn for their new home at Henty, New South Wales, have been entertained at various gatherings during the past week.  The polo club, of which Mr Rankine has been secretary, gave him a farewell on Friday, at the Terminus Hotel, entertaining him at an oyster supper.  Sir Lancelot Stirling presided over a nearly full attendance, and in a brief, but eulogistic, speech proposed health and prosperity to Mr and Mrs Rankine.  The toast was most heartily received and acknowledged suitably by the guest.  Songs and recitations were contributed by several gentlemen, a very pleasant evening being spent by all.  Mr Henderson was similarly honoured on Wednesday evening at the residence of Mr D Taylor.  Mr Henderson, who was the assistant at the post and telegraph office, has severed his connection with the Commonwealth service.  He will be much missed in the town, and the Defence Rifle Club, of which he acted as secretary, will lose a good officer.  On Monday evening at the residence of Mr James Bell, Mr Rankine was again entertained, and presented with a handsome parting gift from his fellow townsmen, this being only one of many presentations made to him and his wife.  Mr Bell proposed the guest’s health, and the toast was honoured in bumpers.  Songs and music, little speeches and chat made up a most enjoyable evening.  At Braemar, Mr and Mrs M Rankine last week gave an At Home, to give Mrs Rankine’s many friends a chance to say good-bye to her and wish her godspeed, and the invitation was very freely accepted.”

    Post 1905

The Critic 8 August 1906  -  “Hunt Ball at Strathalbyn - The townspeople of Strathalbyn spared neither trouble nor expense in the preparation and arrangements of the Hunt Ball which took place on Friday evening last at the Strathalbyn Institute. ...... The furnishings in charge of Mrs C L A Wyatt and Miss Crowder could not be improved on. ...... Among those present were Mrs C L A Wyatt, white silk, ...... .”
The Critic 24 October 1906  -  “Mr C L A Wyatt of Strathalbyn has purchased a 7 hp Oldsmobile.”
The Critic 28 November 1906  -  “Strathalbyn - Mr C L Wyatt is a leading chemist in the town, and has taken a prominent part in advancing the town’s welfare.  His business premises are in High Street, and the place is well stocked with fancy goods, stationery etc, and a fine range of drugs.  Mr Wyatt is reasonable in his charges, and commands a large and increasing trade. ...... The Institute, which is practically the Town Hall, is a commodious building, and the seating accommodation is but rarely overtaxed.  The present President is Mr C L A Wyatt.”

    A new Post Office was built at Strathalbyn at a cost of £2100, and was opened without official ceremony in early January 1913.  February 1965 saw the demolition of the old Post Office, which had been converted into two flats, one for the Postmaster, and the other for a telephone technician.

    Florence Julia Elliott, wife of Joseph William Elliott, died on 5th January 1936, of senile decay at the Old Folks’ Home, Magill, at the age of 72.  Her usual residence was Strathalbyn, she had been married at the age of 40, and had no children, so the children mentioned in the newspaper articles above must have been from their father’s first marriage.

    The family’s story was taken up by the Balaklava Producer, which, unfortunately, did not include as much local news and gossip as the Strathalbyn paper.  The edition of Friday 21st July 1905 welcomed the family to the town, and printed a condensed version of the farewell presentations at Strathalbyn.
15 May 1908  -  “Benevolent Society  -  A meeting to discuss the formation of the above society was held in the Institute Lodgeroom on Friday evening of last week.”  Mr and Mrs T H Henderson were elected to the Committee.
3 July 1908  -  “Presentations to Mr and Mrs Henderson  -  On Friday evening, June 26th, the congregation of Christ Church met at the rectory by kind invitation of the Rev W H Winter to bid farewell to Mr T H, Mrs and Miss Henderson, on the eve of their leaving the district.  Mr Winter said that as Postmaster Mr Henderson had won by his kind consideration and attentive discharge of his duty the esteem of all townsmen, while as Warden of their church he had rendered invaluable service.  During his year of office the acetylene gas had been introduced and paid for.  Mrs Henderson as Assistant Organist and member of the Ladies’ Sewing Guild had won high praise, while Miss Doris, as SS teacher and member of the GFS had well performed her duty.  Mrs Henderson had been presented with lace handkerchiefs by the ladies, Miss Doris with a gold brooch ornamented with pearls and sapphires by the members of the GFS.  An address, beautifully illuminated and splendidly mounted by our artistic townsman, Mr S B Marchant, was then handed to Mr Henderson on behalf of the congregation by Mr Oehlmann, to which Mr Henderson (who was greatly affected) made a suitable reply.  Mr Henderson has gone to reside at St Peters, Adelaide, where he will act as Postmaster.
    On Monday afternoon, Mr, Mrs and Miss Henderson left for their new home at St Peters, to which office Mr Henderson has been transferred.”
The Central Advocate, Balaklava  3 July 1908  -  “At the Croquet Courts on Saturday afternoon, the occasion was availed of to bid goodbye to Mr and Mrs Henderson, who had been instrumental in introducing the modern game in Balaklava.  There was a number of members present besides visitors.  Afternoon tea was provided by the lady members, and full justice was done to the good things provided.  At the conclusion of tea, Mr E J Walker, the Secretary of the club, presented to Mr and Mrs Henderson on behalf of the members, an enlarged group of the club handsomely framed.  During his remarks he referred to the many pleasant afternoons they had spent together.  While it was a pleasing duty he had to perform, they all regretted that the club was losing two such keen players, and should their guests at any time feel inclined to bring a croquet team to Balaklava, the club would do its best to give them a good game.  In asking Mr Henderson to accept the picture on behalf of Mrs Henderson and himself, as a small token of the respect and esteem in which they were held, [he] hoped that it would remind them of the many enjoyable games they had played together.  Mr Henderson suitably replied.”

The Critic 12 June 1918  -  “On Saturday evening a social was tendered at the Rubeo Cafe, Pulteney Street, by the Postmasters’ Association to Mr T H Henderson, the retiring postmaster of Unley.  Mr Bramble, Deputy Postmaster-General, presided.”

    Catherine Elizabeth Adams Grey Henderson, of 8 Church St, Highgate, died at her home on 11th December 1927, aged 69, and was buried privately at St Saviour’s Church, Glen Osmond the next day.  Thomas Hall Henderson of Strathalbyn died on 25th October 1934 at Strathalbyn, at the home of his daughter Mrs Wyatt, aged 81, and was buried at the same church on the following afternoon, the Rev C F Hall officiating.

    The Strathalbyn Southern Argus advised of Mr Henderson’s death in its issue of 1st November 1934 :
    “Death has been busy amongst our residents and old residents during the past week.  On Thursday there passed away after a somewhat protracted illness Mr Thos. H Henderson, who was for many years postmaster in our town, returning officer for Alexandra Assembly District, for the Southern district of the Legislative Council, the holder of many local offices, and with his late wife and family were extremely popular and useful members of our community, Mesdames C L A Wyatt and M G Rankine of Strathalbyn, being two of his daughters, and Mrs W F Robbins of Highgate, another, and Mr H O Henderson of Cooke’s Plains, an only son.  He passed away quietly on Thursday night, and was laid to rest at the Glen Osmond Church of England Cemetery on Friday afternoon.  His death, though not unexpected, came as a great shock to his family, who were a very devoted one, and for whom deep sympathy is felt.  A biographical sketch of the deceased’s busy life may be given next week.”  [This did not appear.]

    Effie Jessup Henderson

    On Tuesday 5th April 1904 Effie married Matthew Gemmell Rankine, known as “Gem”, the son of Matthew and Jessie Rankine, and grandson of Captain James Rankine, one of the original settlers at Strathalbyn.  The occasion was reported in the Argus:
    “On Tuesday afternoon last a large party of relatives only assembled at Braemar, Strathalbyn, to witness the marriage of Mr M Gemmell Rankine, second son of Mr M Rankine JP, Strathalbyn, to Miss Effie Henderson, eldest daughter of Mr T H Henderson JP, of the Strathalbyn Post Office.  The bride was attired in a simple, but exquisitely trimmed, costume of muslin and lace, with customary veil and orange blossom, her bridesmaid (Miss Doris Henderson) being similarly frocked.  Mr Jack Rankine, brother of the bridegroom, acted as groomsman, and Mr Henderson gave his daughter away.  The marriage ceremony was performed by the Rev H H Wylie.  After the rites a large party partook of luncheon, at which congratulatory speeches were indulged in, and very hearty good wishes expressed for the future of the couple, who shortly afterwards drove off down south on their honeymoon tour.  Mr and Mrs Rankine were given a large number of most beautiful presents, some being of unusually valuable nature, including gifts from various bodies with which each had been associated.  It might be added that the wedding cake, which was very beautifully got up, was the work of Mr W Woolfitt, of this town, who turned out a triumph of the confectioner’s art, quite equal to any city firm’s best work.”

    The couple went to New South Wales for a time, before returning to live at “Rushmore” in about 1912.  Matthew Gemmel Rankine of “Rushmore”, Strathalbyn, died on 25th July 1946 aged 70, and was buried at Strathalbyn.  His wife Effie Jessup Rankine died on 20th January 1962, aged 81, and was buried with him.  The birth of their daughter Jessie Gray was registered at Albury, NSW, in 1906.  Jessie Grey Rankine, who was born deaf, died on 22nd June 1970 aged 63, and was buried with her parents.  The Argus published the following obituary  on 1 August 1946 :
    “Obituary  -  Mr M G Rankine  -  The death occurred at his home, “Rushmore”, Strathalbyn, on Thursday last, of Mr Matthew Gemmell Rankine, after an illness extending over some time.  The late Mr Rankine was a son of the late Mr Matthew Rankine, of “Braemar”, who was one of the earliest settlers in this district.  Mr Gemmell Rankine in his younger days was a great horseman, and his polo playing was a byeword amongst the followers of that sport.  He was married to Miss E Henderson, of this town, and she, with one daughter, survive.  The funeral was conducted privately by the Rev Beecher [St Andrew’s Presbyterian Church] on Friday last at the Strathalbyn Cemetery.”

    Bessie Henderson

    In Strathalbyn, Bessie Henderson attended a private school run by Christina Blue, daughter of one of the first doctors in the town.  On Wednesday 8th July 1903 Bessie married Charles Luther Augustine Wyatt, born at Hindmarsh on 24th April 1870 to William Wyatt, a dentist, and his wife.  His grandfather had arrived on the “John Renwick” in 1837.  Charles was a chemist and dentist, and had spent six years at Mount Barker before coming to Strathalbyn in 1898, opening a shop in High Street.  He had previously been married in 1897 to Elizabeth Barbara Robson Richardson, who died the next year.  The Southern Argus reported the marriage:
    “WEDDING BELLS - At Christchurch, Strathalbyn, yesterday morning, a very pretty wedding took place, for the occasion of which Lady Stirling and a number of the young ladies of the congregation had decorated the interior of the church most beautifully, violets being predominantly employed in the scheme, a most artistic blending of leaf and bloom giving an exceedingly pretty effect.  The contracting parties, Miss Bessie Henderson (second daughter of Mr T H Henderson, post and telegraph stationmaster here) and Mr C L A Wyatt, are not only highly popular personally, but zealous church workers, Mr Wyatt being choirmaster, and his bride an active member of it; and it was but fitting that the congregation took a great interest in the wedding, the church, despite the somewhat early hour fixed, being crowded.  The ceremony was performed by the vicar, Rev H H Wyllie, the choir giving all the musical assistance that the service allows, as well as singing the hymn, “The voice that breathed o’er Eden”, and a psalm.  The bride wore an exceedingly pretty frock of white voilé, the bodice of which was trimmed with rich silk lace and insertion, the skirt being banded with white satin; she wore also a beautiful picture hat of white straw, charmingly millinered, and altogether made a very pretty bride.  Miss Doris Henderson, her younger sister, acted as her bridesmaid, Mr Henderson giving her away.  Mr W F Adams was Mr Wyatt’s groomsman.  Mrs Wyatt was the recipient of a very large number of presents, some of which were particularly pleasing, that from the choir (a beautiful travelling clock in Russia-leather case) being one in point, as being a gift always to be valued from its associations.  Mr and Mrs Wyatt left on their honeymoon tour yesterday afternoon.”

[Quiz 6 May 1897  -  “The marriage of Miss Elizabeth Richardson, third daughter of the late Mr Adam Richardson, to Mr Charles L A Wyatt was celebrated in Christ Church, Mount Barker, on Wednesday April 28th.”]

    Charles Wyatt was prominent in civic affairs, and was Mayor of Strathalbyn from 1908 to 1912.  He died on 24th May 1943 aged 73, while his wife died on 14th September 1963, aged 81, both being buried in the Strathalbyn Cemetery.  A lengthy obituary appeared in the Argus on 27 May 1943 :
    “Obituary  -  Mr C L A Wyatt  -  It is with sincere regret that we publish the death of an old and highly respected Strathalbyn resident - Mr Charles Luther Augustine Wyatt - at the age of 73 years.  His death took place early on Monday evening after a somewhat lengthy illness at his home.  The late Mr Wyatt was born at Hindmarsh on April 24, 1870, and was the second son of the late Mr William Valentine Wyatt, who came to South Australia in the ship “John Renwick” in 1836.  Mr Wyatt was educated at a private school at Hindmarsh and at the Grote Street Public School.  He served his apprenticeship to the dentistry profession with his father, who was one of the first to practice in South Australia.  Afterwards he qualified in chemistry with Messrs Long & Co., Chemists, of Hindley Street, Adelaide, with which firm he remained for some six years.  After a short period with Messrs F H Faulding & Co., Mr Wyatt went to Mount Barker to take the management of a dental and chemistry business for Mrs Richardson, removing to Strathalbyn six years later (in 1898), taking over the well-known chemistry business formerly carried on by Mr Francis Miller.  Since that year Mr Wyatt has been identified with the town of Strathalbyn, not only in his profession, but he took a considerable interest in the different organisations, musical and otherwise, of the district.  He was a past president of the Institute, and in 1906 was elected to the Corporation.  Two years later he was chosen as Mayor, a position which he held until 1912.  He was a member of the Lodge of St John, and was closely associated with the Anglican Church at Strathalbyn, and for some considerable time was choir master and warden.  Mr Wyatt was first married to Miss Richardson, of Mount Barker, in 1896, and who died in 1897 [actually 1898].  His second marriage took place in 1903 to Miss Bessie Henderson, second daughter of the late Mr T H Henderson, who was at that time postmaster in the town.  Besides his wife, Mr Wyatt leaves three daughters - Mrs F W Hall (Rose Park), Mrs D Caldwell and Mrs H Koennecke (both of Strathalbyn).  One sister, Mrs Gavin Rankine (Prospect), and a brother, Mr V A L Wyatt (WA), also survive.  The remains were privately interred on Tuesday.”  [Rev M C W Gooden officiated.]  [Lillian Sylvia Matilda Wyatt married Gavin Gemmell Rankine of Glenbarr, Strathalbyn.]

    The Wyatts were enthusiastic musicians, both having been members of the Church of England choir before their marriage.  A 1914 photo of the nine-person Strathalbyn Orchestra shows Bessie with a violin and her husband with a double-bass.  They had three daughters :
  • Gwladys Gray, born on 25th September 1904,
  • Katherine Elizabeth Gray (Kit), born on 2nd April 1907, and
  • Lulu Aileen, born on 29th June 1908, died on 30th September 1998
    The Wyatt children were pupils at a private school for Anglicans, run by Olive Sanders in the Church hall in 1913-4, and a later photo shows Lu and Kit as students at Strathalbyn High School in 1922.

    On 6th May 1936 Kit, aged 29, married David Sharp Caldwell, born in 1899, the son of Alexander and Ann (nee Anderson).  He was born at Strathalbyn, and at the time of his marriage was a storekeeper’s assistant at Naracoorte.  The marriage was conducted by the Rev T Percy Wood, at St John’s Church, Morialta, and the witnesses were L Wyatt (home duties) and A Caldwell (carpenter).  The couple had a son Graham.  David Caldwell’s death notice appeared in the Advertiser on 20 September 1989 :
“Caldwell.  David Sharp.  -  Died Tuesday September 19, 1989.  Aged 90 years.  Loved and loving husband of Kit and father of Graham, father-in-law of Ann, grandfather of Andrew and Carol, David and Melissa.  Uncle of Crissie and Norm Harden.”  He was cremated at Strathalbyn.

    On 19th December 1936, at the Christ Church, Strathalbyn, Lu Wyatt married Ernest Harry Koennecke, born in 1906, the son of August Herman and Amy (née Ansell), farmers in the Dry Plains district.

    Gwladys Gray Wyatt married Frank Wisdom Hall on 8th March 1937 at St Cuthbert’s Church, Prospect.  He was 27 years old, the son of Frank Linley Hall.

    Harry Osmond Henderson

    Harry Osmond Henderson married Christiana Dorothy Marles at the Meningie Methodist Church on 18th March 1920.  His bride was born on 14th February 1899 at Langhorne’s Creek, to John Absalom Marles and Elsie Emma, née Duffield.  Harry Osmond Henderson, “husband of C Dorothy and father of Albert and Harry”, died on 22nd February 1959, and is buried at Meningie.  Osmond Albert Henderson was born in Adelaide on 23rd March 1923.

    Doris Daphne Henderson

    Doris Daphne Henderson married Walter Fellows Robbins at St Augustine’s Church, Unley, on 16th October 1917.  The groom was 27 years old, the son of Uriah Fellows Robbins and Louisa, née Liddiard.  Their children were :
  • Thomas Fellows, born on 7th September 1918 at North Unley,
  • Peter, born on 5th May 1920 at North Unley,
  • Barbara Gray, born on 19th November 1921 at Unley Park, and
  • Fred, born on 29th November 1923 at Hyde Park.

    William Hall Henderson

    A biography of Thomas Henderson’s brother, William, appeared in H T Burgess’ Cyclopedia of SA :

    “William Hall Henderson, accountant, estate agent, and manager.  Among the representative men in this class there are few who can show more rapid progress in their profession than William Hall Henderson, who carries on business in the Australian Mutual Provident Buildings, King William Street, Adelaide.  He is a native of this State, having been born at Glen Osmond in the year 1858.  When a boy he attended at one of the leading commercial colleges of those days, controlled by Mr John Whinham, and known as the North Adelaide Grammar School, and there he acquired an excellent scholastic training.  He was but a lad when he ended his educational career, and entered the office of Mr Frederick Stanley, just about the time that gentleman’s business was converted into that of The Original Wine and Spirit Company, Limited, which had quarters next the South Australian Register Office.  For some six years he made gratifying headway with this firm, and on March 1, 1879, he joined Sir (then Mr) E T Smith as accountant in the Kent Town Brewery, which was disposed of by Sir Edwin in 1888, and it was then that Mr Henderson was offered the onerous post of Secretary to the new brewery, which was created by the amalgamation of the Kent Town and other concerns, the new enterprise trading under the name of “The South Australian Brewing Company, Limited”.  His old chief, however, expressed a desire that the new Secretary should devote his time and talents principally to his interests.  Mr Henderson therefore relinquished his newly found position and became Manager and Commercial Secretary to Sir Edwin, a post he still retains, besides carrying on the practice of his own profession.  In 1897 Mr Henderson became a member of the Institute of Accountants of South Australia, and he is at present a member of its Council.  At the time of writing (1906) the honour of Worshipful Master of St Peters Masonic Lodge, No 47, SAC, has just been conferred upon the subject of our notice.  His mother Lodge was the Friendship, No 1, SAC.  Mr Henderson was married in 1884 to Clara Emilie, youngest daughter of Mrs J M Wendt, of Adelaide, and has two sons and two daughters.  He resides at “Athol Lodge”, St Peters, in which suburb he is regarded as a leading spirit in everything that pertains to the advancement and well-being of the district.  Particularly may be mentioned his efforts on behalf of the St Peters Institute, of which he has been President.  The collection of books in the library attached to this much-appreciated institution is among the best to be found in South Australia, and is a significant indication of the intellectual capacity of the residents.  In matters of recreation, Mr Henderson enjoys a quiet game of bowls or lawn tennis.  He is a member of the Lawn Tennis Tournament Committee, and was one of the first committeemen of the Adelaide Oval Bowling Club.”

    Several items about William Hall Henderson and his family appeared in the Adelaide papers :
Adelaide Observer 29 March 1884  -  “Marriages - Henderson-Koepper-Wendt - On the 5th March at St John’s church, by the Rev Slaney Poole, William Hall, youngest son of the late Thomas Henderson of Glen Osmond, to Clara E Koepper (sic), daughter of J M Wendt of Adelaide.”
The Critic 17 May 1905  -  “Mrs Hall Henderson, of Athol Lodge, East Adelaide, is giving a dance at her residence on Wednesday May 24th.”
The Critic 22 November 1905  -  “Victoria Park presented a brilliant spectacle on Thursday afternoon when the Mayor and Mayoress (Mr and Mrs Theodore Bruce) entertained about 3000 guests at a garden party.  Among those present :- Mrs W Hall Henderson, black crepe-de-chine and lace, black toque; Miss Henderson, cream dress and dainty hat of cream to match.”
The Critic 24 January 1906  -  “Mr and Mrs W Hall Henderson and family are staying at the St Leonard’s Inn,  Glenelg.”
The Critic 31 January 1906  -  “The engagement is announced of Miss Louie Henderson, eldest daughter of Mr W Hall Henderson of St Peters, to Dr Frank Magarey.”
The Critic 21 February 1906  -  “Mr William Hall Henderson is one of the leading auditors in this city.  For many years now he has acted as secretary to Sir Edwin Smith, and is on many boards of directors.  He is one of our prominent veteran tennis players, and always takes an active part and keen interest in the interstate tennis matches played here.  He is also an enthusiastic supporter of bowls.”
The Critic 2 January 1907  -  “Mr and Mrs W Hall Henderson and family are staying for the summer months at St Leonards.”
The Critic 6 February 1907  -  “Mr and Mrs W Hall Henderson have returned from Glenelg.”
The Gadfly 22 May 1907  -  “Some grand opera enthusiasts at the Adelaide Royal during the past week were ...... Mr and Mrs Hall Henderson, Miss L Henderson and Dr Magarey.”
The Gadfly 5 June 1907  -  “The marriage of Dr Magarey to Miss L Henderson, eldest daughter of Mr W Hall Henderson, of Fourth Avenue, EA, will take place at a very near date. [3rd July]”
The Gadfly 12 June 1907  -  “Mrs W Hall Henderson, Athol Lodge, St Peters, has issued invitations for an ‘at home’ on June 11.”
The Critic 10 July 1907  -  “Allsouls Church was prettily decorated on Wednesday afternoon [3rd July].  The aisle was adorned with arches of white flowers and the chancel and altar with wattle blossom to celebrate the marriage of Miss Louie Henderson, eldest daughter of Mr W Hall Henderson of East Adelaide to Dr Frank Magarey, the incumbent officiating.  [The article continued with a detailed description of guests and dresses.  The bride’s sister was Vera Henderson.  The groom, Frank William Ashley Magarey, was 29, the son of Sylvanus James Magarey.  The bride, Louise Koeppen Henderson, was 22.]
The Critic 28 August 1907  -  ““Ariel” Dance - A most enjoyable committee dance was given on Tuesday evening in the St Peters Town Hall.  The ballroom was prettily decorated with foliage and arum lilies, the stage being arranged as a drawing-room.  The chaperones who received the guests were Mrs W Hall Henderson, handsomely gowned in black silk and lace. ...... Among those present were :- Miss Henderson, pale blue silk frock with lace; Mr W Hall Henderson; ...... .”
The Critic 25 September 1907  -  “Mr W Hall Henderson, the new Chairman of the Adelaide Oval Bowling Club, is the right-hand-man of Sir Edwin Smith, to whom for many years he has been secretary.  Like master, like secretary, in this case.  Mr Henderson is fond of all manly games.  He plays a fair game of tennis and a fair game of bowls, brilliant in neither, but, as one would expect from a man with his build and firm jaw, is solid and tenacious.  The acme of courtesy, Hall Henderson is generally liked.”
The Gadfly 9 October 1907  -  “Mr and Mrs W Hall Henderson, ‘Athol Lodge’, St Peters, gave an enjoyable ‘bridge’ evening recently.”
The Gadfly 9 October 1907  -  “The President of the Adelaide Oval Bowling Club (Mr W Hall Henderson) has issued invitations for the opening of the Club’s season on Saturday 12th [at 2.30].”
The Critic 16 October 1907  -  “The Adelaide Oval Bowling Club held their opening day of the season on Saturday afternoon. ...... A string band added to the general enjoyment. ......  Among those present were Mrs W Hall Henderson, the President’s wife, smartly gowned in black crepe de chine and black hat; Miss Henderson in pale blue looked dainty, but must have been a little cool, owing to the keen wind; Mrs Frank Magarey ...... .”
The Critic 25 December 1907  -  “Mr and Mrs W Hall Henderson and family, of St Peters, go down to St Leonards, Glenelg, after Christmas.”
The Critic 5 February 1908  -  “Mr and Mrs W Hall Henderson have reason to be proud of their small son Jeff’s achievement last Saturday, when at the Amateur Swimming Competition in the Glenelg Baths he carried off the prize for best dive against older and more experienced performers.”
The Gadfly 12 February 1908  -  “Mr and Mrs Hall Henderson and family, who have been staying at Glenelg for some weeks past, have returned to Athol Lodge, St Peters.”
The Gadfly 15 April 1908  -  “Mrs M Heutzenroeder has returned to Tanunda, her niece, Miss Vera Hall Henderson, accompanying her on holiday bent.”
The Critic 15 July 1908  -  “A crowded house witnessed the first presentation in Adelaide of “Brewster’s Millions”.  Among those present on the opening night were ...... Mr and Mrs W Hall Henderson, Miss Henderson.”
The Critic 3 September 1908  -  “The Appendreena Amateur Dramatic Club again entertained their numerous friends on Saturday evening when the Walkerville Hall was crowded with a large and enthusiastic audience, who evinced the greatest interest in the farcical comedy “The Guv’nor”. ...... Among those present :- ...... Mr and Mrs W Hall Henderson, Miss Henderson.”
The first child of Frank and Louise Magarey, Ashley Henderson Magarey, was born on 3rd September 1908 at North Terrace, Adelaide.  His father’s occupation was “medical practitioner”.
The Gadfly 4 November 1908  -  “Mrs W Hall Henderson of St Peters, entertained a number of her friends at tea at the Kiosk on Thursday last, in honour of her sister, Mrs Heutzenroeder of Tanunda.”  [Clara Henderson’s mother, Mrs Koeppen, married Mr J M Wendt after the death of her first husband.]
The Critic 10 February 1909  -  “Mr and Mrs W Hall Henderson and family have returned to their residence at St Peters after spending some weeks at Glenelg.”
The Critic 10 March 1909  -  “Women’s Branch, Australasian National League - There was a very large attendance of political ladies in the Town Hall on Thursday afternoon, notwithstanding the heat. ...... The following ladies were selected to act as delegates at the League Conference on Friday :- Mesdames ...... W Hall Henderson.”
Quiz 25 June 1909  -  “Dr and Mrs Frank Magarey have taken a house at Marlborough Street, St Peters.”
The Critic 1 September 1909  -  “Miss Vera Henderson goes to Tanunda this week on a visit to Mrs Moritz Heuzenroeder.”
The Critic 30 November 1910  -  “On Saturday afternoon a very successful garden fete was held at the residence of Mr W Hall Henderson, St Peters, in aid of All Souls Church, Mrs Harry Pickford performing the opening ceremony.  Numerous entries for the decorated sunshades resulted in a very pretty show. ...... Afternoon tea, which was in great demand, was under the active management of Mesdames Henderson, ...... .”
The Critic 25 January 1911  -  “Mr and Mrs W Hall Henderson and family are staying at Glenelg.”
The Critic 3 April 1912  -  “Mr and Mrs W Hall Henderson are going to reside with Mrs Frank Magarey, Marlborough Street, St Peters,, for the winter months.”  [Dr Frank Magarey died of consumption early in 1912, at the age of 30 (?34).]
The Critic 24 April 1912  -  “General and genuine distress was felt among commercial circles in Adelaide last Saturday morning at the news that Mr Hall Henderson had died suddenly the previous evening.  He had shown signs of overwork for some time past, but had seemed better since taking the Gulf trip at Easter, and was planning a further change.  However, he was playing bowls at St Peters on Wednesday evening, and at the Oval on Thursday, and was to have taken part in a match on Saturday.  At 6 o’clock on Friday he parted from a friend at his own garden gate in apparently his usual health, but on entering he complained of faintness, and soon became unconscious, passing away at 11 o’clock the same night.  Mr Henderson - who was only 53 - was perhaps best known by his long association with Sir Edwin Smith, but he found time also to be the auditor for the Church Office, the SA Brewing Company and other institutions, director in several companies, and agent, trustee or attorney for a host of friends.  His word was his bond, the trust placed in him was universal, and he had not a single enemy.  He leaves a widow (nee Koeppen Wendt), and four children; Messrs Rupert and Geoff Henderson, who are taking up land; Mrs Frank Magarey, whose husband died only a few weeks back; and Miss Vera Henderson, who has just left on a visit to relatives in Germany.  In his younger days the late Mr Henderson was a dashing rider to hounds, and a consistent member of the Glen Osmond tennis club.  Only last month he won, for the first time, the Oval Bowling Club’s championship.  Deep sympathy will be felt also for Sir Edwin Smith in the loss of his right hand man.  When he retired from business in 1888 - only to take up even harder work in trust and charitable affairs - Mr Henderson was the only one of his former staff to accompany him, declining an offer of the secretaryship of the newly-formed SA Brewing Company to do so; and ever since the business relationship between them has been of the closest and most friendly nature.”
The Critic 10 December 1913  -  “Miss Vera Henderson returned by the mail boat on Saturday from Germany, where she has ben studying music for the past two years.”
The Critic 17 December 1913  -  “Mrs W Hall Henderson has gone to spend Christmas with her sons on their station; her daughters Mrs Magarey and Miss Vera Henderson joined her this week.”
The Critic 3 June 1914  -  “Mrs Hall Henderson of Tintinara is spending a few months with Mrs J M Wendt of Wakefield Street Adelaide.”
The Critic 17 June 1914  -  “Miss Vera Henderson is staying in town on a visit from Tintinara.”
The Critic 16 February 1916  -  “At home at Grand Central - On Thursday afternoon Mrs Jule Wendt gave a most enjoyable “at home” at the Grand Central Hotel, to give her niece, Miss Vera Henderson, an opportunity for saying farewell to her numerous friends before her marriage with Mr Leslie Russell, and prior to her departure for her new home in Queensland. ...... Miss Vera Henderson was in dainty frock of white pinspot muslin made with double skirt effect mounted over white silk, having scalloped edge outlined with frills of narrow valenciennes lace, wide brimmed white silk hat with one red rose in the front.  Mrs Hall Henderson was wearing black china silk embroidered coat and skirt, small black hat trimmed with black lace.  Mrs Frank Magarey was in dark blue crepe de chine coat and skirt, small black hat.”
The Critic 31 May 1916  -  “Mrs W Hall Henderson and her son Sgt Geoffrey Henderson left for Tintinara last week on a brief visit.”
The Critic March 1920  -  “Robert Henderson of “The Acacias”, Tintinara, is visiting his sister, Mrs Leslie Russell of Brisbane.”
The Critic 19 December 1923  -  “Mrs Hall Henderson, with her daughter Mrs Frank Magarey, left last week for the eastern states en route for England, via America”

    Fanny Clarke

    Fanny Clarke married Herbert Reuben Holder, also employed in the Post and Telegraph Office.  Perhaps she met him through her brother-in-law?  She had a great pride and admiration for her husband, and a few months after his death, she noted that her son, Leslie, would inherit “Father’s Masonic regalia, to prize and care for, and to live up to Father’s reputation; no one can say a disrespectful word of him.”

    Fanny Clarke's married life with H R Holder is recorded in Chapter 4.

Adelaide Observer 12 January 1884  -  “Marriages - Holder-Clarke - On the 15th December at St John’s, Adelaide, by the Rev F Slaney Poole, Herbert R, third son of J Morecott Holder, Norwood, to Fannie G, second daughter of the late Edward Clarke, Manchester, England, and niece of the late John Henry Clarke, South Australian Railways.”

    Fanny Holder suffered a stroke in the 1920’s and after that time was unable to fully care for herself.  Her eldest daughter, Muriel, lived with her at 65 Carlisle Road, Westbourne Park, and looked after her, until Fanny’s death, on 28th November 1947, at the age of 86.

    The Grays

    About 1902, Fanny reopened links with her family in England, and for many years after, maintained a correspondence with her aunt, Hannah Hampson, cousin Violet Gray, and Richard Clarke.  She obtained an amount of family information and details of her family tree from these relations, which was entered in a special book, along with newspaper cuttings from both England and Australian papers.  Her mother’s family, the Grays and Adams, were of special interest, as Fanny was convinced that the Gray family was descended from the family of Lady Jane Grey, and this idea recurs repeatedly in the notebook and other papers.  The family name changed from Grey to Gray because “two brothers, Thomas and William Grey, quarrelled, and Thomas, (my great-great-grandfather) changed his name to Gray.”

    In 1903 Fanny wrote to the vicar of All Saints Church at Newtown Linford, Herbert Hampson, and received the following reply:
                                                                                            The Vicarage,
                                                                                                Newtown Linford,
                                                                                                        Dec 30th 1903
    Dear Sir
        I enclose your certificate of register of burials related to the Gray family.  I cannot give you any further information, but probably this will be all that is necessary.  The usual fee independent of searching is 2/6 for each entry, & so if Mr Holder can afford to pay please forward the fees 12/6, but if not I will remit the fee.
                                                                        Yours faithfully
                                                                         H Hampson
PS.  There are no Grays living in the neighbourhood now, but as I am in doubt from your letter whether Mrs Holder wishes to trace her present living relatives I will make enquiries from some of the old people, and if I can gather any information I will forward it on to you.
    Name                Abode                    When buried              Age      By whom the ceremony
                                                                                                                was performed
 Thomas Gray    Newtown Linford        Dec 29th 1822        62 years        Robert Martin
 William Gray     Newtown Linford        Mar 29th 1826        73 years        Robert Martin
 Alice Gray         Newtown Linford        June 18th 1831       72 years        Robert Martin
 Mary Gray        Leicester                     May 10th 1849        78 years        Robert Martin
 William Adams  Newtown Linford        Sept 28th 1855        23 years       Peregrine S Allen
    I certify that the above is a correct copy of entries in the register of All Saints Church, Newtown Linford.
                                                                          H Hampson
                                                                               Dec 30th 1903

    Another letter from Fanny’s cousin James Henry Clarke in Adelaide offers tantalising snippets of family information:
                                                                                                N. Unley
                                                                                                July 2nd /03
    Dear Cousin Fanny
            Your kind letter to hand dated June 24th, I had just been thinking you did not put yourself about very much to try and see me, but perhaps I shall be at home the next time you call on your holidays.  I was very pleased to learn you had a letter from cousin Emily Seddon.  I will be very glad if you can send me cousin Richard Clarke’s Address as early as possible.
    Your Grandfather Clarke lived with your Father at the White Lion Hotel in Deans Gate Manchester and died there.  Cousin Bates worked as a turner at Fairbairns when I was serving my time and a very nice Christian he was, but I don’t know anything about him now or his fortune.  Your Aunt Gray was very well to do, Grace says we went to see them when we were in England but I don’t remember, your Grandfather Gray was a well to do farmer, I should think James Clarke could obtain their address for you.
    I have no doubt we all loved dear old Aunt Mary but her Husband I am sorry to say was very much disliked for his bad habits, that was the reason your Uncle as your Guardian kept you aloof from the Tonkses’, and I have no desire to open up the acquaintance with James Tonks but I liked his sisters Etty and Mary Ann.  Any other information you may require I shall be very pleased to supply to the best of my ability.
    We have had a very fine season so far, as you say with glorious rains and it looks as though we shall have a good season, my trees suffered very much the last two dry seasons but hope to have better results this time.
    We saw Bessie & Kate this time when they were down.  Bessie called & told Grace she was going to be married and we could hardly believe it.
    Grace joins in kind love to Bert & the family and will write to you shortly & believe me,
                                                             Your Affectionate Cousin
                                                                        J H Clarke

    A letter, which is possibly incomplete, from Aunt Hannah Gray (nee Hampson), in florid handwriting, hints at an old family scandal.  The letter appears to have been written by Violet Gray, at her grandmother’s dictation :
                                                                                            Beech House
                                                                                                Queens Road
                                                                                                 Nov 7th /05
    My dear Niece
            Many thanks for your letter.  I was very pleased to get it.  I think you are under a mistake in thinking that the farm ever belonged to your Grandfather.  It belonged to Lord Stamford.  After his second marriage they gave him notice to leave.  It caused a great trouble to all the family; they never seemed to recover it after.  It was the ruin of all the family, your Grandfather’s getting married again.  Everything went down & down after that.  He died in Leicester near to your Aunt Rudkin’s.  I don’t know whether Kate remembers much of her Grandfather.  She stayed there.  I have not heard from Lily Rudkin lately.  Your Grandmother’s family was named Adams & they were a very large farm.  Your Great-Grandfather was the Head Keeper at Bradgate Park.  Your Great-Uncle Adams was the Head Keeper at Dunham Park (his name was Stephen Adams) about 4 miles from here.  Why had Kate to leave the place she loved so much? [Strathalbyn ?]  I would like to know.  Was she compelled to leave on account of her health?  I am sorry she had to leave as it was such a trial to her.  Please give my love to her.  My son Harry’s second son has something the matter with his throat just at present.  We had a large family but there are only 3 of us left (3 sisters).  I am going on a visit to my sister, Mrs Wood, at St Anne’s-on-the-sea, which is a seaside town in Lancashire about 2 hours journey from here.  ......

    On the back of this letter, in a different hand, is another short letter (possibly from Hannah herself):
    My dear Fanny
            I don’t like your letter going without my sending you a line.  I often wish I could see you if only for a short time.  That is impossible; the distance is so great.  I am sending you a Xmas card - it is very plain.  I am very pleased to hear such a good account of all your family.  I hope your children will be a blessing to you both.  Give my love to your husband and children; if I have not seen them I feel to know and love them.  God bless and keep you and yours is my earnest wish, with love to you from your loving Aunt.

    Fanny Holder and her daughter Muriel corresponded with Violet Gray until her death in 1909. Violet sent several photographs of her grandmother, brother and sister, and their home at Beech House, Queens Road, Ashton-on-Mersey.  Another photo showed the “old family house of the Grays for generations” in Newtown Linford.  When I visited the village in May 1990 I found the house, on the main road opposite the cricket ground near the church, virtually unchanged.  The present occupants told me that the house now belonged to the church, and was used as the vicarage.  It is on the south-eastern corner of Bradgate Road and Groby Lane.  The Church sold the house in 1998, and it is now a private residence.

    William Gray

     A William Grey, the son of Thomas Grey and Margaret, was christened at Enderby on 26th June 1720, but he possibly married Charity Shaw there on 23rd March 1750.

    In the churchyard at Newtown Linford I found the gravestone of William Gray, his wife Mary, and their unmarried daughter Sarah.
to the memory of
William Gray
he died June 5th 1795
aged 75 years.
Also Mary his wife
she died Sept 18th 1804
aged 76 years.
Likewise Sarah Gray
daughter of William and Mary Gray
who died Nov 27th 1796 Aged 21 years
They lived in the fear of God, and Died
in hope of Eternal Bliss thro’ Christ.

    There appears to have been two families of Grays living in Newtown Linford with parents called William and Mary, who had similarly-named children within a few years of each other.  The children of one couple were registered under the name Gray, while those of the other couple were listed as “Greay”.  This family had at least six children:
  • Thomas, baptised on 13th March 1760,
  • Hannah, baptised on 11th December 1762,
  • Ann, christened on 3rd May 1765,
  • John, christened on 17th September 1770,
  • Joseph, christened on 17th November 1773.  He possibly married Sarah Hardy (father John Hardy, farmer of Grooby) at Ratby on 10th September 1801, and was a joiner and carpenter at Melton Mowbray.  Their children, all christened at Melton Mowbray, were :
  • John, born on 30th October 1802 and christened on 14th November,
  • Hannah, born on 1st March 1804 and christened on 14th March,
  • Joseph, born on 22nd October 1805 and baptised on 9th November, who must have died young,
  • Joseph, born on 26th December 1806 and baptised on 10th January 1807,
  • William, born on 14th August 1808 and christened on 24th August,
  • Thomas, born on 2nd September 1809 and christened on 6th September,
  • James, baptised on 5th March 1814,
  • Mary, baptised on 1st November 1815,
  • Henry, baptised on 7th May 1815,
  • unnamed child christened on 27th February 1819, and
  • Elizabeth, christend on 2nd February 1820.
  • Sarah, baptised on 19th September 1776.

    Thomas Gray

    Thomas Greay married Mary Herrick at Newtown Linford on 7th August 1796, and their children, all registered under the name Gray except the first, included:
  • Sarah, christened on 28th May 1797,
  • William, christened on 17th March 1799.  A William Gray died at the age of 81 in the December quarter of 1880 in the district of Grantham.
  • Thomas, christened on 11th January 1801,
  • Joseph, baptised on 9th January 1803,
  • John, baptised on 15th June 1805, and
  • Mary, baptised on 20th December 1807, who never married.
    Thomas Greay was a farmer and also Church Warden, and lived with his family in the Vicarage at Newtown Linford, the house which I visited in 1990.

    A Mary Herick was christened at Stoke Golding on 10th June 1772, the daughter of Richard and Mary Herick.  A Richard Heyrick married Mary Ladkin on 18th May 1761 at Desford, Leicestershire, and their children were :
  • James, christened on 7th March 1762,
  • Martha, christened on 23rd January 1764, and
  • Richard, christened on 10th August 1766, who married Elizabeth Cowper on 31st December 1792 at Desford.
    It is possible that Mary Herick was also their child, as Stoke Golding is only a few miles from Desford.  However, two Richard Herricks were born in 1737, either of whom could have been her father.  One, Richard Heyrick, was born at Desford on 21st September, to James and Mary.  The other, Richard Heirick, was born at Stoke Golding to Thomas and Elizabeth on 26th April and christened on 6th May.

    The gravestones of Thomas, his wife Mary, and their daughter Mary are still in the village churchyard:
Here rest in peaceful slumber the mortal remains of
Thomas Gray
who resigned this life
the 26th of December
aged 62 years
The Righteous hath
hope in his death
            Prov XIV v32
Mary relict of
Thomas Gray
who died May 6
Them also which
sleep in Jesus will
God bring with Him
           1 Thess 4.14

remembrance of
Mary Gray
(of this place)
who departed this life
March 3rd 1868
Aged 60 years.
A sinner saved by Grace

    Joseph Gray

    Joseph Gray was a farmer, and married Elizabeth Adams in Newtown Linford on 25th November 1828.  The connection with the Adams family was evidently highly valued as all their children carried their mother’s surname name as their second name:
  • Hannah Adams, born about 1829,
  • Elizabeth Adams, baptised on 4th November 1830, who never married.  She died in the June quarter of 1893 in the district of Leicester, aged 63, but I could not find her in the 1881 Census records.  She and Hannah were witnesses at the wedding of their sister Fanny in 1857,
  • William Adams, baptised on 13th May 1832, and
  • Fanny Adams, baptised on 20th April 1834.
    In the 1851 Census Joseph, 48, Elizabeth, 46, and William, 18, were living at Rothley in the district of Barrow on Soar.

    Joseph and Elizabeth’s grave is still at Newtown Linford:
affectionate remembrance of
third son of the late
Thomas Gray
who died December 4th 1871
aged 68 years
Elizabeth the wife of
Joseph Gray
of this place
and eldest daughter of the late
Henry Adams
of Bradgate Park
who departed this life
June 10th 1857
aged 52 years
He will swallow up death in
victory; for the Lord hath spoken it.
        Isaiah C25 V8
                       T Rudkin   Groby Quarry

    Joseph Gray died in the district of Leicester (not Barrow on Soar) as mentioned in Hannah Gray’s letter above.  After the death of Elizabeth, Joseph evidently remarried, causing the considerable distress also mentioned in the letter.  It is strange that Joseph is buried with his first wife, with a loving inscription, if his second marriage caused such problems.

    Hannah Adams Gray
    According to Fanny Holder’s informants, Hannah Gray married Harry Rudkin, a hotel-keeper, and had at least four children, R Walter, Elizabeth, Louise and Joe, the latter two dying young.  Hannah died about 1901.  Fanny Holder corresponded with Elizabeth (Lily) Rudkin in Leicester for several years, and Lily sent her a photograph of her mother, Hannah, as a young girl.

    However the 1881 Census has slightly different information about the family :
Residence : 185 Humberstone Road, Leicester St Margaret, Leicestershire
    Richard Rudkin            H        M        49    Book-keeper (Unemployed)                             Groby, LEI
    Hannah                        W        M        52    Book-keeper’s Wife                                          Newton Linford, LEI
    Richard W                    S         U         15    Hatter’s Errand Boy                                          Leicester
    Florence L                    D         U         14    Scholar                                                                Leicester
    Hannah E                     D         U         12     Scholar                                                                Leicester
    Joseph                          S         U           9     Scholar                                                                Leicester

    Hannah Adams Gray married Richard Rudkin in the December quarter of 1858 in the district of Barrow on Soar (which includes Newtown Linford).  Richard Rudkin died in the June quarter of 1884 in the district of Leicester, aged 52.  Richard Walter Rudkin was born in the June quarter of 1865, Florence Louisa Rudkin was born in the March quarter of 1867, Hannah Elizabeth Rudkin was born in the March quarter of 1869, and Joseph Thomas Rudkin was born in the March quarter of 1872, all in the district of Leicester.

    Richard Rudkin was christened on 24th September 1831 at Ratby, near Groby.  His parents were Thomas Rudkin and Elizabeth, whose children were :
  • Emma, christened on 31st May 1829, who married Richard Nathaniel Willson (or Wilson) at Ratby on 1st January 1857.  In 1881 the family lived at Castle Donnington :
Residence : High Street, Castle Donnington, Leicestershire
    Richard N Wilson        H        M        48        School master                             Kirby Muxloe, LEI
    Emma                            W        M        51        School master’s wife                 Groby, LEI
    George Sills                   S         U        13        School master’s son                  Castle Donn., LEI
    Herbert Hook                S         U        12        School master’s son                  Castle Donn., LEI
    Annie Gertrude            D         U          9        School master’s daughter         Castle Donn., LEI
    Florence Mary             D         U          6        School master’s daughter         Castle Donn., LEI

plus a governess for the Wilson children, two domestic housemaids, a domestic cook, an errand boy, an assistant school master and 21 boarders (scholars).
    Richard Nathaniel Willson died in the December quarter of 1890 in the Nottingham district, aged 57, and Emma Willson died in the December quarter of 1892 in the same district, aged 63.  In addition to the children listed in the 1881 Census, the couple had three others, all christened at Castle Donnington :
  • Fanny Elizabeth, christened on 22nd October 1857, and died on 24th February 1858,
  • Arthur Richard, baptised on 12th July 1859, and
  • Fanny Elizabeth, baptised on 30th June 1860, and died on 9th August 1865.
    George Sills Willson was married in the June quarter of 1893 in the district of Derby, possibly to either Alice Baxter or Milly Roydes.  In 1901 Florence Wilson, aged 26, was living in the parish of Bowdon, Cheshire, as a music teacher, and Herbert Willson, aged 32, was living in the parish of Nottingham, as a banker’s clerk.
  • Richard, christened on 26th September 1830, who died on 8th October 1830,
  • Richard, baptised on 24th September 1831,
  • John, baptised on 15th April 1833.  He and his family were listed in the 1881 Census :
Residence : 96 Lupin Street, Aston, Warwick
    John Rudkin                H        M        48        Commission agent                       Ratby, LEI
    Sarah                           W        M        47        ---                                                    Market Bosworth, LEI
    Elizabeth A                  D         U        22        Schoolmistress                             Ratby, LEI
    Sarah F                         D         U        19        Teacher of music                          Swithland, LEI
    Edward Wildman  Nephew   U        22        Outfitter’s assistant                     Swithland, LEI

    John Rudkin married Sarah Drackley at Market Bosworth in the December quarter of 1857.  Eliza Anne Rudkin was christened at Groby on 27th February 1859, and Sarah Frances Rudkin was christened at Swithland on 1st September 1861.  Edward Wildman was baptised at Swithland on 16th January 1859.  His parents were Edward Wildman and Frances Drackley, who were married in the June quarter of 1856 in the Barrow on Soar district, and his siblings included Nathaniel Hooke, baptised on 5th July 1857, and Frances Ann, baptised on 28th October 1860.  In 1901 the family lived in the parish of Harborne, Birmingham :
    John Rudkin                        67                    b. Groby, LEI                                No occupation
    Sarah                                    68                         Osbastone, LEI
    Sarah                                    39                         Swithland, LEI                         Sweet shop keeper

  • Sophia, baptised on 7th August 1836, who married John Frederick Jeyes at Ratby on 20th June 1865.  In the 1881 Census the following details were recorded :
Residence : 45 Humberstone Rd, Leicester St Margaret, Leicester
    John F Jeyes               H        M        42        Grocer                                              Bruntingthorpe, LEI
    Sophia                        W        M        44        Grocer’s wife                                   Groby, LEI
    Margaret                      D        U         12        Scholar                                            Leicester, LEI
    William Frith         Boarder    U         28        Grocer’s assistant                         Desford, LEI

    John Frederick Jeyes died, aged 53, in the September quarter of 1892 in the district of Leicester.  In 1901 Sophia Jeyes, aged 64, lived in the parish of Leicester, formerly St Margaret’s, and Margaret Jeyes, aged 32, a teacher of music, was living in the same parish.
  • Thomas Deacon, christened on 29th March 1840, who died on 1st December 1840,
  • Sarah Annie, christened at Groby on 1st December 1842, who died on 19th November 1852, and
  • William Henry, christened at Groby on 5th May 1844.
    In the 1881 Census the family was recorded as :
Residence : Village Street, Desford, Leicestershire
    Elizabeth Rudkin                H        W        75        Grocer                                                       Ibstock, LEI
    William H                            S          U        36         Grocer                                                      Groby, LEI
    Thomas D                           S          U        39         Clerk (Commercial)                                 Groby, LEI

    Elizabeth Rudkin died in the June quarter of 1885 in the Leicester district, aged 79.  William Henry Rudkin was married in the March quarter of 1891 in the district of Leicester, possibly to either Annie Elizabeth W Clarke or Fanny Wilson Manby.  In 1901 Thomas Rudkin, aged 59, a commercial clerk, lived in the parish of Leicester, formerly St Margaret’s, so Thomas and Elizabeth must have had another son, Thomas, born about 1842.  A William Deacon Rudkin died at Ratby on 24th May 1835.

    Florence Louisa Rudkin was born in the March quarter of 1867 in the Leicester district, and died in the March quarter of 1898 in the same district, aged 30.

    A Joseph Thomas Rudkin died in the March quarter of 1886 in the Leicester district, aged 14.

    Fanny Gray’s address book contains the name of a Miss Elizabeth Rudkin, of Humberstone Road.

    In the 1901 Census the following people were listed in the Parish of Leicester, formerly St Margarets :
    Hannah Rudkin                            72                             b. Newtown Linford
    Richard W Rudkin                       35                                  Leicester                            Insurance agent
    Hannah E Rudkin                         32                                  Leicester                            Hosiery machinist

    Hannah Adams Rudkin died, aged 72, in the December quarter of 1901 at Leicester.

    William Adams Gray and his children
    William Adams Gray married Hannah Hampson in the September quarter of 1853 in the district of Altrincham (near Manchester), and they had two sons before he died at Newtown Linford at the age of 23 in the September quarter of 1855 :-
  • Harry Adams, and
  • Joseph William, both baptised on 22nd June 1856.
(In the 1881 Census Harry’s age is given as 27, and Joseph’s as 26.)  Henry Adams Gray was born in the December quarter of 1853, and Joseph William Gray in the June quarter of 1855, both in the district of Leicester.

    His gravestone still stands:
In affectionate remembrance
William Adams
only son of
Joseph and Elizabeth Gray
(of this place)
who died
September 25th 1855
aged 23 years
In the midst of life we are
in death.
                                 T Rudkin

    Hannah Hampson was born on 11th August 1829 and christened on 20th September 1829 at the Wesleyan Chapel, Sale Moor, Cheshire.  Her parents were Edward Hampson and Sarah Marsland (or Maryland or Worsland), who were married on 24th September 1820 at Manchester.  Her siblings included :
  • ? Esther, christened on 24th June 1821 at Ashton Upon Mersey,
  • Thomas, born about 1823, and
  • John, born on 17th January 1827 and christened on 11th February at the Wesleyan Chapel, Sale Moor.
    In the 1841 Census the family is living in the Altrincham district (the ages of the adults are rounded to the nearest 5 years) :
    Edward Hampson                       45                                       b. Altrincham
    Sarah                                            45                                            Altrincham
    Thomas                                        20                                            Altrincham
    John                                             14                                            Altrincham
    Hannah                                        10                                            Altrincham

    Edward and Sarah Hampson are listed in the 1851 Census, aged 58 and 54, at Wilmslow, Altrincham, and in the 1861 (ages 67 and 65), and 1871 (ages 77 and 70) Census records at Altrincham.  An Edward Hampson died, aged 80, in the December quarter of 1873 in the Altrincham district.

    In 1881 the widowed Sarah Hampson was possibly living with a son-in-law :
Residence : 384 City Road, Stretford, Lancashire
    Patrick Sharcott                H        M        52        Professor of Music                               Ireland
    Ann                                   W        M        57        Dressmaker                                            Manchester, LAN
    Sarah Hampson             MinL    W        82        ---                                                             Chorlton, LAN
    Robert Hampson         Nephew  --         14        Scholar                                                   Manchester, LAN
    Mary J Gaytor        Servt    U    16    Domestic servant        Nantwich CHE

    (Chorlton was probably Chorlton-cum-Hardy, near Sale.)  Patrick Sharcott and Ann Hampson were married in the June quarter of 1870 in the district of Manchester.
    In the 1851 Census, Hannah is probably listed as living at Lymm, in the Altrincham district.

    After her husband’s death in 1855, Hannah probably moved back to the Sale district to be with her own family, as in the 1861 Census she was living at Stretford, a suburb of Manchester, with son Joseph.  In 1871 she is living at Altrincham, and in 1881 she is living with her brother Thomas, a very successful grocer :
Residence : Cross St, Ashton-on-Mersey, Cheshire
    Thomas Hampson        H       U        58        Grocer employing 10 men                              Sale, CHE
    Hannah Gray             Sister   W        50        Housekeeper                                                   Sale, CHE
    Thomas Peat           Servant   U        36        Van Man (Carter)                                            Leicester, LEI
    Albert Hampson    Nephew   U        19        Assistant grocer                                            Altrincham, CHE
    Emma Smith             Servant   U        18        General servant                                              Ashton-on-Mersey

    In the 1901 Census, Hannah Gray, aged 71, born at Sale, Cheshire, did not have any more details recorded.  Hannah Gray died in the December quarter of 1915, aged 86, in the district of Bucklow (which includes Sale).

    The 1881 Census lists Hannah’s brother John :
Residence : 156 Northenden Rd, Sale, Cheshire
    John Hampson              H        M        53        Florist                                                             Sale, CHE
    Ellen                               W        M        44        Florist’s wife                                                 Wales
    Henry P                           S         U        17        Florist’s son (No occ)                                  Sale, CHE
    Sarah E                            D        U         15       Florist’s daughter                                         Sale, CHE
    Martha A                        D        --         11        Scholar                                                           Lymm, CHE
    Esther                              D        --           9        Scholar                                                           Lymm, CHE
    Edward J                         S         --           4        Scholar                                                           Lymm, CHE
    John                                S         --            1        ---                                                                    Sale, CHE

    Henry Price Hampson was born in the March quarter of 1864, Sarah E in the March quarter of 1866, Martha Ann in the June quarter of 1870, Esther in the March quarter of 1872, Edward James in the September quarter of 1876, and John in the March quarter of 1880, all in the district of Altrincham.

    According to Fanny Holder’s informants, Harry Adams Gray was a grocer near Manchester.  He married, and had ten children, Lily, Walter, William, Edith, Harry, Leonard, Mabel, Percy, Elsie and one other who died.  In the 1881 Census Harry’s family is listed as :
Residence : St Ann’s Terrace, Ashton-on-Mersey, Cheshire
    Harry Gray                    H        M        27        Grocer’s Assistant                                         Leicester, LEI
    Elizabeth                       W       M        30        ---                                                                      Broadheath, CHE
    Lilly                                D        --          4         ---                                                                      Ashton-on-Mersey
    Thomas W                    S         --          2         ---                                                                      Ashton-on-Mersey
    Joseph W                      S         --          1         ---                                                                      Ashton-on-Mersey

    Broadheath, Cheshire, is near Altrincham, on the south-east outskirts of Manchester, close to Ashton-on-Mersey.  A Henry Gray married Elizabeth Stewart at Salford in the December quarter of 1875.

    In the 1901 Census the following persons were listed :
    Henry Gray                47               b. Leicester                                CP : Sale        Grocer shop keeper
    Elizabeth                    50                    Altrincham                                    Sale         ---
    Lily                             24                    Ashton-on Mersey, CHE            Sale         ---
    Thomas W                22                    Ashton-on-Mersey, CHE            Sale        Grocer’s assistant
    Joseph W                  21                    Ashton-on Mersey, CHE            Sale        Grocer’s assistant   
    Edith                           19                    Ashton-on Mersey, CHE            Sale        ---
    Harry                          15                    Ashton-on Mersey, CHE            Sale        ---
    Leonard                     12                    Ashton-on Mersey, CHE            Sale        ---
    Florence M               10                     Sale                                                 Sale        ---
    Percy                           8                     Sale                                                 Sale        ---
    Elsie G                         6                     Sale                                                 Sale        ---

    Lily Gray was born in the Altrincham district in the June quarter of 1877.  Thomas William Gray was born in the September quarter of 1878, Joseph Walter Gray in the March quarter of 1880, Edith in the March quarter of 1882, Harry in the June quarter of 1885, Leonard in the June quarter of 1888 and Percy in the September quarter of 1892, all in Altrincham district.  Florence Mabel Gray was born in the September quarter of 1890, and Elsie Gertrude Gray in the September quarter of 1894, both in the Altrincham district.

    Joseph William Gray also married, and had three children, Bert, Violet and Lillian.  When his wife died, the children were looked after by their grandmother Hannah Gray.  Bert married and had a son, also named Bert.  Violet married and had a daughter, Violet Mona, before she died on 21st February 1909.  In 1881 Joseph lived near to his brother :
Residence : 16 Essex Road, Sale, Cheshire
    Joseph W Gray            H        M        26        Wood Engraver (Artist)                         Newton Linford, LEI
    Maria                            W        M        29        ---                                                                Shirley, DBY
    Thomas B                     S          --          6         Scholar                                                      Manchester, LAN

    In the 1901 Census, Joseph Gray and his family were listed in the Parish of Ashton Upon Mersey :
    Joseph W Gray            46                            b. Newtown Linford                    Wood engraver
    Thomas B                     26                                 Manchester                              Railway shipping clerk
    Violet M                        16                                 Sale, CHE
    Lillian G                         14                                 Sale, CHE
    (?)Frank                        9m                                 Sale, CHE

    Joseph William Gray married Maria Goodall in the March quarter of 1875 in the district of Ashbourne, which includes the village of Shirley.  A Maria Goodall was christened at Shirley on 10th or 20th March 1849 (parents John Goodall and Maria), and yet another Maria Goodall was christened at Shirley on 21st October 1849 (parents George Goodall and Leah).  [A Mary Sarah Goodall was born on 28th May 1851 and christened on 24th August 1851 at St Oswald’s, Ashbourne, Derby.  Her parents were Gilbert Goodall and his wife Elizabeth.  Their other children were Thomas, christened on 17th December 1852, and Agnes, born on 26th March 1854 and christened on 21st April.  Mary Sarah Goodall married Henry Thomas Chadfield in the June quarter of 1873, and in 1901 was a farmer’s wife living in the parish of Cubley.]

    A Maria Gray died in the March 1887 quarter in the Altrincham district, aged 37.

    Thomas Bertram Gray was born in the June quarter of 1875 in the district of Chorlton.  A Thomas Bertram Gray was married in the June quarter of 1896 in the district of Pancras, London, probably to Constance Browne.  In the 1901 Census Thomas B Gray, aged 26, was a railway shipping clerk in the civil parish of Ashton Upon Mersey.  A Charlotte Gray, aged 26, born in Bloomsbury, London was also living in that parish, as was Florence M Gray, aged 4, who was also born in Bloomsbury, Joseph B Gray, aged 2, who was born in Camden Town, London, and Frank Gray, aged 9 months, born at Sale, Cheshire.  Florence Mabel Gray was born in the December quarter of 1896 in the district of St Giles, which includes Bloomsbury.  Joseph Bertram C Gray was born in the December quarter of 1898 in the district of Pancras.

    Violet Mabel Gray was christened on 5th October 1884 at Sale, Cheshire.  She married Owen Richard Jones in the Conway district in the March quarter of 1908, and died on 21st February 1909, aged 24, after giving birth to a daughter, Violet Mona, born in the March quarter in the district of Conway.

    Lilian Goodall Gray was christened on 26th June 1887 at St Anne’s, Sale.

    A Frank Gray was born in the Bucklow district (which includes Sale) in the September quarter of 1900.

    The Adams

    Henry Adams served the Earls of Stamford on their estate of Bradgate Park, at Newtown Linford, near Leicester, and rose to be head gamekeeper.  His brother Stephen was head gamekeeper at Dunham Park, Cheshire, four miles from Hannah Gray’s home at Ashton-on-Mersey.

    The Greys of Groby Manor rose to prominence in 1457, when the beautiful Elizabeth Woodville married Sir John Grey.  After he was killed in the Wars of the Roses, she married Edward IV, and one of her sons, Thomas Grey, was created Marquis of Dorset, and he began building a mansion at Bradgate Park about 1490.  His grandson, Henry, married Frances, daughter of the Princess Mary, sister of Henry VIII, and Charles Brandon, Duke of Suffolk.  Henry eventually succeeded to the title of Duke of Suffolk, and Lady Jane Grey was his daughter, born in 1537, possibly at Bradgate House, where she spent much of her childhood.  In 1553, on the death of Edward VI,  she was the pawn in a plot by the Duke of Northumberland to place her on the throne to thwart the accession of Mary, and ensure the Protestant succession.  She was crowned at the Tower of London on 10th July, but was Queen for only nine days before popular acclaim swept Mary to power.  Jane was beheaded in the Tower on 12th February 1554, at the age of 16.

    The mansion at Bradgate Park fell into ruin in the mid eighteenth century, but the tower where Lady Jane is said to have studied Greek and Latin texts still stands, adjacent to her family’s private chapel.  The remnants of the palace’s great banqueting hall, its bakery, buttery and brewery, and its servants’ quarters and kitchens, still survive, as does a walled Tudor garden.  In the parkland that surrounds Bradgate, herds of deer graze, as they have done since the eleventh century.  The estate, including the villages of Newtown Linford and Groby, was sold by the Grey family in 1925, and two years later it was presented to the City and County of Leicester.  Today it is a public park.

    Henry Adams married Hannah Hurt at Newtown Linford on 6th August 1804, and their children were:
  • Elizabeth, baptised on 25th February 1805, who married Joseph Gray on 25th November 1828,
  • William, born on 23rd December and baptised on 29th December 1806,
  • Frances, christened on 4th December 1808.  A Frances Adams married Thomas Renals in the March quarter of 1843 in the district of Barrow on Soar.
  • Henry, born in 1811,
  • Hannah, christened on 19th February 1813, who married Richard Matts in the district of Barrow on Soar in the December quarter of 1839,
  • Mary, christened on 7th April 1815,
  • Stephen, baptised on 21st April 1817,
  • Ann, christened on 25th January 1819, who married William Matts in the district of Barrow on Soar in the December quarter of 1840,
  • Louisa, baptised on 27th September 1821 who married Joseph Hooley Matts on 28th December 1852 at Anstey, Leicestershire,
  • Thomas, baptised on 5th February 1824, who possibly married either Martha Hodge or Mary Ann Ruford in the district of Barrow on Soar in the December quarter of 1842.
  • Sarah, christened on 4th May 1826, who married George Shipley Matts on 19th October 1847 at Anstey, Leicestershire.
    Hannah Hirt was the daughter of Joseph Hirt (or Hurt) and Ann Wainwright, who were married at Newtown Linford on 7th July 1776.  Their children were :
  • Thomas, christened on 20th June 1779, who must have died young,
  • Thomas, christened on 11th February 1785.  He married Mary Smart at Newtown Linford on 18th February 1806.
  • Hannah, also christened on 11th February 1785, (does not coincide with her age on her tombstone),
  • Mary, baptised on 28th June 1787 (or 1788), and
  • Sarah, baptised on 6th March 1790.
    Henry and Hannah Adams were buried in the churchyard at Newtown Linford:

affectionate remembrance of

Henry Adams
late keeper of
Bradgate Park
under three of the
Earls of Stamford
in which capacity
he served them
faithfully upwards
of sixty years.
he departed this life
April 27th 1847
aged 77 years.
The best of husbands lies
interred here
And he was to his tender
Children dear
Great was their loss for
his eternal gain
But hope in Christ that we
shall meet again.
Hannah, relict of
Henry Adams
who departed
this life
July 16th 1852
Aged 72 years.
Oh Death that
separated here
A loving Mother
from her Children dear
Who was a tender
Mother in her life
And to her husband a
most devoted wife
Her days she ended here
in grief and pain
In hopes of everlasting
Joys to gain

    The fate of their eldest son is recorded on his gravestone:
to the memory of William
Son of Henry and Hannah Adams
of Bradgate Park
& one of the Gamekeepers of
The Earl of Stamford and
Amiable in his deportment &
faithful in the discharge of his
Duty, he lived universally
respected, & lost his life on the
30th May 1829
in assisting to drag a fishnet
through the Culvert in this Village
Aged 22 years

    Their second son also pre-deceased his parents:
affectionate remembrance of
Henry, second son of
Henry and Hannah
of Bradgate Park
Who departed this life
November 4th 1846
Aged 35 years
A flower cut down just in the prime
And withered now am I
Young people all take care in time
Prepare yourselves to die.

    Stephen Adams married Elizabeth Johnson on 29th February 1844 at Newtown Linford.  In the 1851 Census Stephen, aged 34, and Elizabeth, aged 31, were living at Wilmslow, in the district of Altrincham.  An Elizabeth Adams died in the March quarter of 1859 in the Altrincham district.  By the 1861 Census Stephen was 44 and living at Ibstock, near Market Bosworth.  In 1871 he was 54, and living at Rothley, Barrow on Soar.  He died in the December quarter of 1876, aged 59, in the district of Barrow on Soar.

    George Matts and his wife Mary Ann had the following children baptised at Newtown Linford :-
  • Richard Shipley, christened on 20th September 1817,
  • George Shipley, christened on 13th June 1820.
    Children of Richard Shipley Matts and Hannah Adams, all christened at Thurcaston, were :-
  • George Shipley, christened on 14th January 1844, who died in the June quarter of 1897 in the district of Market Bosworth aged 54.  A George Shipley Matts was married in the March quarter of 1870 in the district of Barrow on Soar to Sarah Bacon.
  • Louisa Adams, christened on 6th July 1845,
  • Richard Shipley, baptised on 29th September 1850, who possibly died in the June quarter of 1902 in the district of Barrow on Soar (age given as 55),
  • John Shipley, also baptised on 29th September 1850,
  • Thomas Shipley, baptised on 22nd February 1852, who died in the June quarter of 1902 in the district of Barrow on Soar aged 52.  A Thomas Shipley Matts was married in the June quarter of 1888 in the district of Barrow on Soar, possibly to either Laura Graves or Sarah Phoebe Hackett.
  • Hannah, christened on 5th March 1854.
    Hannah Matts died in the June quarter of 1864.  Richard Shipley Matts snr died in the September quarter of 1873 in the district of Barrow on Soar at the age of 56.

    The 1881 Census listed details of some of the brothers and sisters of Elizabeth Adams :
Residence : Pines, Gaddesby, Leicestershire
    William Matts                H        W        63        Farmer of 262 acres                                Newtown Linford, LEI
                                                                                    employing 2 labourers
    Henry                              S          U        33        Farmer’s son                                           Groby, LEI
    Anne E                            D         U        29        Farmer’s daughter                                  Groby, LEI
    George                            S          U        26         Farmer’s son                                           Groby, LEI
    Phoebe Starmer          Servt      U        20         General domestic servant                     Cosby, LEI
    Elizabeth Jackson      Servt      U        19          General domestic servant                     N K LEI   

    Henry Matts was born in the March quarter of 1848 in the district of Market Bosworth, and christened at Newtown Linford on 7th September 1851.  He may have married Rebecca Brewin and had a son, Joseph Matts, born in December 1866 and christened at Gaddesby on 24th June 1874.  Ann Elizabeth Matts was christened at Newtown Linford on the same day as her brother Henry.  George Matts was christened at Newtown Linford on 22nd October 1854.  An Ann Matts died in the March quarter of 1865 in the Leicester district.

Residence : Private House, Ratby, Leicestershire
    Louisa Matts                H        W        59            Retired annuitant                                  Bradgate Park, LEI
    Hannah H                      D        U         27            Annuitant                                              Cropston, LEI
    William H Adams    Nephew  U        24             General servant                                    Dunham Massey, CHE
    George H Hinks       Nephew  U        39             Retired annuitant                                 Anstey, LEI
    Betsy Geary              Visitor   W        49             Nurse                                                     Newtown Linford, LEI
    Elizabeth Richardson Servt   U         21             Cook domestic servant                       Desford, LEI
    Ada Guttridge            Servt    --         16             House maid                                           Desford, LEI

    Children of Joseph Hooley Matts and Louisa Adams, christened at Thurcaston, Leicestershire, were :
  • Hannah Elizabeth Hooley, baptised on 14th February 1854, and
  • Joseph Hooley, baptised on 6th May 1858.
    Joseph Hooley Matts snr died in the December quarter of 1865 in the Barrow on Soar district.  George Henry Hinks was christened at Anstey on 25th March 1842.  His parents were George Hinks and his wife Mary.

Residence : No 155 Belgrave Gate, Leicester St Margaret, Leicestershire
    George Matts                H        M        58        Corn merchant                                          Newtown Linford, LEI
    Sarah                             W        M        54        ---                                                                Bradgate Park,     LEI
    William    S    U    23    Corn merchant    Anstey LEI
    Agnes    D    U    18    ---    Anstey LEI

Children of George Shipley Matts and Sarah Adams, all christened at Anstey, Leicestershire, were :
 Mary Anne, christened on 8th April 1855,
 William Adams, baptised on 31st May 1857, and
 Agnes Sarah, baptised on 15th June 1862.

    Agnes Sarah Matts was married in the December quarter of 1881 in the Leicester district, probably to either William Henry Bentley or Samuel Sherwin.  William Adams Matts was married in the March quarter of 1884 in the Leicester district, probably to either Sarah Ann Barston or Eunice Haith.

    The Diary of Mrs Agnes Fulton

    Written on board the ship “Collingrove” on her voyage to South Australia from 31st October 1874 to 20th January 1875.

Note by the transcriber, Nancy Baldock (Librarian, SA Genealogy Society) :
    I have typed this as Agnes wrote it, using her words and spelling, and have not put ‘(sic)’ everywhere the spelling was different.  Some words I could not decipher (shown as ——), and some are old words not used today.  I have attached a copy of the passenger list from the “Register” and feel that Mr Sucker (as written by Agnes) may be Mr Tucker.  The passenger list has Agnes as Mrs Fulton, she calls herself Miss in this diary!

Oct 31st    Sailed from Shadwell Basin at 5 am.  Tug took us down off Deal at night.
Nov 1st        Went to Church in evening.  Canon Dove preaching.  Passed the Isle of Wight.  Saw Ventnor, Portland and St Catherine’s Point.  Ship rolling very much and got abreast of Plymouth about 2 am on Monday morning and lay to till midnight.
Nov 2nd    Pilot came aboard at 5 am and we dropped anchor at 6 in Plymouth Harbour, just inside the breakwater.  Ship rolled frightfully on Sunday night or rather Monday morning when she lay to.  I was nearly out of bed several times.  Went ashore in a boat with Mr and Miss Halse, Mr Lake, Mr Sucker and Bardall - walked the town, bought some paper collars and cuffs (Captain advised us).  Left Messrs S and B and Mr Lake.  Mr and Miss Halse and I went into a restaurant and had lemonade and biscuits, had another walk and Mr L took us into the Duke of Cornwall Hotel and had wine.  Mr H introduced us to Mr Seagrase of Ogilby Moore and Co.  Returned to the ship at 1 pm - had dinner.  Saw the Emigration Depot and saw Emigrants going on board the Lady Jocelyn for New Zealand.  Saw the house where Mrs Rippon was.
Nov 3rd    Passengers came aboard, also cow, calf, 4 pigs, 40 sheep, besides fowls, ducks and geese.  Bumboats coming selling things.  Commissioner on board and gave us our Contract Tickets.
Nov 4th    Sailed 4 am.  75 passengers and 30 of a crew - 105 human beings on board.  Lady Jocelyn sailed Tuesday forenoon with 485 Emigrants.  Saw Eddystone Lighthouse in the distance.  Smooth seas, went 90 miles.  Sun taken noon every day and the distance posted up outside cabin door - called the telegram.
Nov 5th    Wind gone, sails flapping and ship rolling about with the swell. Everybody getting sick.  95 miles.
Nov 6th    Entered Bay of Biscay 8 am.  Heavy swell.  Passed the Lady Jocelyn this forenoon.  Nobody at table, all sick - a few had something on deck.  Spoke a ship.  I suppose you would see it reported.  100 miles.
Nov 7th     Still nothing but heavy swell, getting better but can’t go down to cabin for meals.  114 miles.
Nov 8th     Sunday.  Got out of the Bay this afternoon and expect a rough night.  Mr Lake took me to church this evening and the ship was rolling so much when we came out that I could not walk so he took me in his arms and along the weather side to our cabin as fast as possible which was not very fast considering you were first sent against a water tank and then the galley.  210 miles. Lat N45.3, Long. 13.19.
Nov 9th     I thought last night we were going to the bottom, she pitched so much that you were on your head and heels time about and your bed gave a queer pitch up in the middle that gave you a queer sensation.  Today is no better and she ships some seas, tons of water over her bows and sends them right aft to the saloon.  When we see one coming there is a general rush for the top of a hen coop or something handy.  185;  42.56;  16.38.
Nov 10th     Sea not quite so high.  Passed a barque T G May from Liverpool to Java, 18 days out.  185;  39.52;  17.42.
Nov 11th     Beautiful day.  The sea smooth as a mill pond.  Porpoises in the water, tumbling about, fun watching them.  230;  36.43;  19.33.
Nov 12th     Another beautiful day and getting so warm.  162;  34.2;  20.50.
Nov 13th     Fish for dinner today.  Heat getting dreadful.  168;  31.30;  22.5.
Nov 14th     Weekly Collingrove came out today and there was some laughable things in our weekly paper.  Concert tonight in the saloon.  2 of the sailors dressed up as niggers and sang songs and gave conundrums.  Doors open 7.30, concert 8.  Cabs ordered at 10 and it was fun to hear the sailors —— out as you appeared at the door of the saloon.  Miss Fulton’s carriage drove to Bayswater.  Mr Sucker took Miss Watson and I but he got lost and Mr Lake asked if he could see me home.  208;  28.34;  23.35.
Nov 15th     Sunday.  Went to church with Mr Lake.  Mr Ash read prayers and Canon Dove preached.  Went in the evening with Mrs Matthews and Miss Halse.  206;  25.4;  24.6.
Nov 16th     Beautiful weather and more beautiful moonlight nights.  A row among the sailors, the captain gave them some grog as we had such a splendid passage and 2 of them got to fighting and it was impossible to stay in the cabin and went on deck and the first thing I saw was Mr Lake with one of the men behind him and as the man moved he moved and said “No you Won’t fight”.  The mate ordered them aft to the quarter deck and sat them down on chairs facing each other till their watch below when some passengers advised them to make it up and go to bed which they did, but another sailor drunk all the wine for the starboard watch and when he was found out and accused he went to the Captain on the poop and he had hardly opened his mouth before the 1st mate took him by the scruff of the neck and he was on the quarter deck and kicked to the forecastle before he could say Jack.  Then he went up on the forecastle and was going to jump overboard and was undressing himself and some sailors had to go and bring him down.  216;  21.50;  24.40.
Nov 17th     A goose put down through the skylight into our cabin by the sailor who was drunk.  Beautiful weather, expect to be at the line on Tuesday.
Nov 18th     Going along beautifully, you scarcely know you are on board ship it is so quite (sic), not rolling or pitching a bit.
Nov 19th     Nothing particular going on except the weather which is frightfully hot.  205;  11.37;  26.0.
Nov 20th     480 miles north of the NE Trades, last will cross the line on Tuesday.  185 miles;  8.45;  26.11.
Nov 21st     Weekly Collingrove out today; not good.  100;  7.8;  24.40.
Nov 22nd     Sunday.  In a cabin and raining in torrents.  Can’t stay in the cabin so Mr Lake gave me his Mackintosh coat and his arm and we got shelter on the quarter deck.  Thunder and lightning came on and the rain - goodness I never saw anything like it.  The sailors and some of the saloon passengers as well as Mr Lake and Mr Sucker were carrying it in bucketsfull from the poop and filled 3 tanks = 1200 gallons.  No church today.  90;  5.40;  24.10.
Nov 23rd     Breeze sprung up but has died off again.  35;  5.14;  33.50.
Nov 24th     Going along slowly.  Concert tonight - the Captain’s benefit.  Miss Clark sang “Minnies faith”, Miss Scott “Come Back To Erin”.  Saloon passengers Captain gave a parody on Darwinism and a song which he composed on Australia, “To The South” and the Coo-ee comes in so beautifully.  Mr Ash gave a song which he composed on the Collingrove.  Mr Lake sang “The Lost Child” and Mr Thom gave “Lord Ullin’s daughter”, one of the sailors gave the rescitation on the “Wreck of the Hesperus” most beautifully and we had more dark clouds, as the Captain called the niggers - one dark cloud was the steward and the other four sailors, one of them dressed as a woman, sang songs and gave conundrums.  95 miles;  5.4;  24.50.
Nov 25th     Going along beautifully.  Saw flying fish and Portuguese man of war, porpoises and sharks.  205;   1.51;  27.20.
Nov 26th     Not as much of a breeze but have hopes of it freshening.  Heat intense.  218;  Lat. 0.59 S.; Long. W 29.56.
Nov 27th     Sea smooth as a Mill Pond and not much wind.  Some of the young gents sleep on deck.  245;  4.35;  31.15.
Nov 28th     Four weeks from London today.  I like the ship very much now.  215;  7.58;  31.15.
Nov 29th     Sunday.  Have got toothache and a swollen face; did not get up to breakfast but cook kept some coffee warm for me and Mr Lake, when he came home from church he brought the coffee and a pillow up from the forecastle for me and told me to sleep and he would see that no fellow won a pair of gloves from me.  12.30.  A homeward bound vessel in sight and Mr Lake said the Captain could put off a boat to her (signalled with flags asking if she would take our letters) so up I jumped and wrote to Robert (did not know then that she was bound for Liverpool so should have sent it to Mother but Robert told me to write to him if I had a chance and he would pay postage), had not tried to give many particulars  At one pm the gig put off with the first mate, doctor and 4 sailors with the mail bag and the opera glasses that came into use then beat any theatre, we saw them get into the ship and thought they were never coming back altho’ they were on board only 15 minutes.  The ship was the “City of Berlin” from Adelaide to San Francisco and from San Francisco to Liverpool - 95 days out and mate said it would take her 40 days more to get to Liverpool for the weeds were 9 inches long on her bottom.  The cook was dancing wild for the dinner was spoiling and no one would come down till the gig came back. We Coo-eed to each other for a goodbye.  14 sail in sight this morning.  180;  10.33;  33.45.
Nov 30th     Excitement over about when our letters would arrive.  Mr Lake played me whist.  158;  13.5;   34.45.
Dec. 1st     Very little wind, if it dies away into a calm we shall be melted.  My hands and face and neck are as brown as a gypsy.  100; 14.13;  35.53.
Dec 2nd     A dead calm.  Sea like a looking glass.  Sailors —— Captain put a sail over the side and floated it in the water for the boys to bathe on.  The gentlemen were floating, swimming and diving till a pilot fish appeared and then there was a rush for the sail for where a pilot fish is a shark is not far off.  Every lady said Mr Lake was the best and most graceful swimmer.  The gig was lowered for the ladies to get a row on the water but I did not go as you were visible past the huces getting down the ladder.  60;  15.0;  35.50.
Dec 3rd     Breeze sprung up during the night but died away in the day and had to tack about ship to get what little wind there was.  Dancing last night.
Dec 4th     Squall at 4 this morning but didn’t last long - it blew great guns - not quite so warm.  85;  16.21;  35.35.  65 days out.  Spoke Dutch barque “Flockborgh” from Newcastle to Valparaiso.
Dec 5th     Good stiff breeze - getting colder.  Boarded Portuguese brig from Rio de Janero.  125;  18.16;  35.50.
Dec 6th     Sunday.  Went to church.  Homeward bound vessel in sight.  Great excitement getting letters ready.  Have written one addressed to you.  Mr Laird and the doctor put off but it turned out to be a Portuguese ship, first mate could see no name and supposed to be a smuggler.  She was bound for Pernambuco in South America and only one man on board could speak a little English and none of our men could speak Portuguese.  Mr Laird could not make them understand about the letters so he brought them back and Mr Lake brought me mine and said “a letter from home”.  I can tell you it was a great disappointment.  75;  19.29;  35.32.
Dec 7th     Rather rough today - not very bad only the things on the table take a sudden fancy for the floor or your lap - that’s all.  70;  20.50;  36.50.
Dec 8th     Rougher today, head wind and sea and rather disagreeable on the whole.  I have been sick again but all the ladies are sick and I have been complimented on being such a good sailor.  Miss Ferguson and I were sitting on the hen coop at the deck-house and Mr Lake, the sea was coming over the bows and down on the deck but we drew up our feet and did not get wet.  Mr L went down for some brandy and water for me (Miss F would not have any) and a sea came over - 9 or 10 tons of water and we held onto the hen coop like grim death:  Miss F screaming like mad - me laughing.  I knew as long as the coop was safe I was safe - it was fastened on with iron rings.  They heard the sea downstairs and the steward came up along with Mr Lake and were astonished to see us laughing.  They were sure we were overboard.  Mr L took me up and carried me to the top of the stairs or I would have got my feet wet.  Got downstairs and found them all thankful to see us alive for they were sure we and the hen coop were washed over the side.  Mr Lake said I was brave and gave me brandy and water and sent me off to bed.  220;  24.14;  37.54.
Dec 9th     Rough night they say and I felt nothing.  I was the only lady at meals and had to cut the bread for breakfast, deal out the pudding so you can see I am getting on.  240;  28.10;  38.12.
Dec 10th     Getting colder every day can’t keep myself warm - at our table there are 8 - 3 ladies and 5 gentlemen.  Mrs Matthews and Miss Halse have got some of the saloon gents running after them, consequently none of the 2nd class passengers are good enough for them and they have given us impudence - I for one resented it for when they could get no one else to speak to they came to me and asked me to learn them some pattern in crochet and I would not do it and told them it was so - do no better when they came to me and Mr Lake and Mr Watts took my part and got into their black books - so they are wicked because Mr L and Mr W pay me attention for wherever I go they follow. Mr L told me he had heard the opinion of all in the cabin and I was the only lady and he thought so too, so that is one consolation.  207;  31.22;  37.2.
Dec 11th     Concert tonight.  Mrs Matthews and Miss Halse are going to sing.  Mr Lake took me to the dress circle via a plank on two buckets and when he took it into his head he would make me jump up and down on the plank and I pushed a pin into him.  When Mrs M got up to sing he clapped his hands and she broke down twice and began the third time and went through “Maggi’s Secret”.  Miss H and she sang together “Hard times come again no more”.  The doctor read “Will you lend me the loan of your g——”, and then the niggers - on the whole it was very good.  Came home and Mr L and I had sardines, bread, cheese and beer.  160;   33.40;  35.25.
Dec 12th     Getting very cold - expect a rough night.  112;  35.11;  34.9.
Dec 13th     Sunday.  Went to church.  Canon Dove read prayers, no sermon.  Getting rough, head wind and heavy swell on the sea.  Went to church. in the evening and it was so rough that we could not stand to prayers.  Mr Ash read prayers and preached a sermon from Titus.  170;  36.20;  37.10.
Dec 14th     Very very rough. Albatrosses and Mother Carey’s chickens flying about. Too cold to go on deck.  Sea running mountains high and ship pitching like mad.  Went to deck for a minute to see the sea and I am sure the waves were as high as the houses in Barry Street.  Captain paid us a visit and he said it was a beastly wind.  115;  37.2;  34.15.
Dec 15th     Sea not quite so high.  Mr Vickerman called down a school of blackfish and we rushed upstairs and saw them quite close to the ship.  The captain got the harpoon out and was going to harpoon some but one of the saloon passengers fired a pistol at them and frightened them away.  Still too cold to go on deck But Mr Lake insisted on my going up for a short time just to get the fresh air which I did and astonished Mr Vickerman who thought I had been lost.  What Mr L wanted me on deck for was to let the sailors see I was not sick (all the ladies were sick and not one had been seen for two days) and I can tell you I was congratulated on being a good sailor. One sailor said when I came on board he thought I would have been much worse.  115 miles;  37.20 S; 31.50 W.
Dec 16th     Very cold still not able to stand on deck - sea coming over the quarter deck and drenching some.  Fair wind sails squared and sternsails up.  Ship rolling dreadfully, at dinner the dishes flew and at tea Miss Gilbert got her cup onto her lap.  Got such a pretty bead ring from Mr L which he made.  220 miles;  38.37S; 27.36W.
Dec 17th     Still very cold - not able to go on deck.  Making photo frames of ——.  Ship rolled very much.  230;  39.20;  23W.
Dec 18th     Getting colder.  Fair wind.  Ship rolled fearfully during the night - could not sleep nearly pitched out of my bunk.  Mr Lake gave his carte-de-visite and I made him a straw frame for his mother’s likeness.  Had afternoon tea, Miss Watson, Mr Sucker, Mr Watts, Mr Lake and I.  Used my teapot and cosy.  Everybody was laughing at my old maids teapot.  Stewardess told Miss Watson’s fortune at night.  Mr Lake and I making frames and afterwards Bob Moss, Mr S, Mr L and I had games of whist.
Dec 19th     Not quite so rough, one of the saloon passengers caught a Cape Hen.  Mr L and I making photo frames.  Mr Vickerman the second mate came down to see how I was as he had not seen me on deck for two or three days.  Stewardess told my fortune.  260;  41.21;  12.15.
Dec 20th     Sunday.  Not so rough - ship rolling a little - takes a fit every 5 minutes or so when she sends my dishes that are not packed in flying, but that is nothing.  Went to church in the forenoon.  Canon Dove officiated.  Our steward presented me with the tail of the Cape Hen.  Mr L got the head and neck and is going to preserve it and mine.  If the Calders have not left before I arrive will send it home with them.  Mr L says he will give me the head also to send home.  Miss Watson. Mr L, Mr Sucker and I walked on the deck till eleven o clock, the moon shining beautifully.  235;  41.47;  17.12.
Dec 21st     Ship rolling very much.  Bucket of water upset in my cabin.  Mr L, Miss Watson, Mr Sucker, Mr Lake and I walked on deck.  Beautiful moonlight night.  Concert tonight.  Captain sang “Jessie’s Dream”.  Recited a piece about Edinburgh.  Mr Lake took me to the concert and brought me home.  Passed a ship.  It was a beautiful sight to see it to leeward of us in the moonlight.  205;  42.3;  2.45.
Dec 22nd     Much about the same, carried away two of the staysails - we thought the ship had gone overboard.  Wind died away in the afternoon.  Spoke schooner “Elizabeth Steven” of Cardigan from Glasgow to Beunos Ayres 29 days out.  We had to put up sternsails and what the sailors call the Adelaide sails and sing “Pull the rope for Adelaide town”.  Mr L,S,W,and I had a game of whist.  Will not go on deck as Miss Watson was in bed sick and could not go with Mr L and S and myself as board ship is the place to get scandalised.  Captain says if this wind holds we will round the Cape in two days and get to Adelaide in twenty five more days.  Had a Philipeen with Mr Lake but lost.  (A Philipeen [Philippine]is if you get a nut with two kernels you give one to a gentleman and whoever says “Good Morning Philipeen” first the next morning wins the Philipeen, the loser has to give something.)  I got up early to catch Mr Lake when he came I out of his cabin to breakfast and was sitting on the settee talking to Mrs Matthews when I heard a voice from the roof say “Good morning Philipeen”.  There is about six inches open between the doors of the cabin and the roof and he got his head there and called out.  Of course I had to give him something and gave him mother o’ pearl like Mrs Lunnock gave me.  Have another with Mr Sucker and if I lose Oh dear!  295 miles;  42.35;  3.35E.
Dec 23rd     My birthday.  Sea not quite so rough.  Mr L told the cook it was one of the young ladies birthday and the cook gave me a giblet pie for supper and I got out my bottle of whiskey and they all drank my health.  I got a scented sachet from Bessie Gilbert as a birthday present.  In the forenoon about half past twelve, we were down in our cabin some sewing, knitting and some crocheting when the first mate called down “All hands on deck, fire in the cabin” - I got hold of my jacket and shawl and rushed on deck and saw Mr L with his coat off and rushing into the saloon with a bucket of water.  The third mate told us the store room below the saloon was on fire and we saw smoke coming out of the saloon.  The saloon ladies were fainting in all directions but the worst of it was one lady was confined to bed with Neuralgia and could not move and she heard the cry “Fire” and every body running and when they went to her she was stiff and the doctor thought she was dead and had great trouble in bringing her round.  I can tell you it gave me a turn.  I was standing along with some others just by the saloon door looking as much like a ghost as possible when Mr L came with a tumbler of brandy and water and said I was to drink it or the doctor would have me on his hands next.  The fire was got out and Mr L came to take me home when I nearly fainted.  I could not walk I was trembling so, so he lifted me up and carried me to our cabin and laid me down on the settee and got me some brandy which he made me take and I got some Better but could not take any dinner.  If the ship had taken fire we were 700 miles from the Cape of Good Hope and the nearest land.  It was some straw in the store room which had taken on fire but was soon put out.
Dec 24th     Still very cold.  A concert tonight.  Mr L gone to bed poorly but intends going to the concert.  Mr Watts took me to the concert and Mr L came in after it had begun and went out before it was over.  The captain invited us all to the saloon to Rum Punch and Snapdragon on Christmas night.  When I got to the door of the saloon Mr Watts got his leave as Mr L was waiting for me and pulled my arm into his and took me home (at least to the companion) and then asked me to walk on deck with him.  I did so and then we went down and had supper and singing and then the Carpenter came and wished us a Merry Christmas and all of us went to sing Christmas Carols in the poop (Mr L of course taking care of me as usual).  Then we came home and had some fun - the Doctor and Mr Moss (a saloon passenger) came to wish us a Merry Christmas and stayed and sang and had fun with us - we took off to bed at three o’clock.  260;  43.7;  14.0
Dec 25th     Christmas Day.  The sea not quite so rough and the ship almost steady.  Went to prayers in the morning, the saloon decorated with imitation Holly and miseltoe - we all got a sprig of holly from the Captain.  The ladies wore it in their hair and the gentlemen in their buttonholes.  The Captain sent to our cabin 6 bottles of wine - 3 port and 3 sherry and six boxes of crackers and dessert - we actually had a tablecloth to dinner.  Roast pork and plum pudding and tarts and pies - port and sherry and almonds and rasins and crackers.  Mr Lake and Mr Watts got pretty jolly and we had some fun games of forfeits and (?) all afternoon then went on deck in couples wearing our caps, aprons and (?) got out of the crackers and if anyone had seen the ship, us and the saloon passengers they would have thought it was a floating lunatic asylum.  Miss Emma Gilbert, Mr Lake, Mr More and I stayed at home, then a dance Mr Gilbert playing on the violin.  The rest of the party came home about 11 o’clock and then we had some more fun (not dancing), forfeits singing and .  The Doctor, Mr Moss and Mr McKenna, the second mate came down and had fun till two o’clock.  22;  43.5;  18.45.
Dec 26th     Rather rough storm yesterday and very cold at night.  We drank health to absent friends before supper and after supper to our Sovereign Lady.  Fair wind - rounded the Cape at midnight.  Played Speculations all night - Mr Lake and I were cheating like fun - we were too clever for the rest I suppose as we were not ——.  Mr Lake made me a head piece and gave it to me as a Christmas Box.  220;  43.23;  23.32.
Dec 27th     Sunday.  Sea running very high as high as the houses on Berry St - you think when looking at the great wave coming along that it would swallow the ship.  Had a dreadful headache and pain in my back so did not go up to breakfast or dinner.  Got up immediately after dinner and Mr Lake went to the cook and got me some tea infused in my little teapot and Miss Watson, Mr Lake and I had tea and then at six o’clock we had another - it cured my headache.  Sea getting rougher - about six o’clock one of the staysails blew away and the wind was howling.  Eight o’clock went to church with Mr Lake and Mr Watt.  During the service all the things in the stewards pantry took a fit and rattled about like mad and in almost every cabin you heard something rattling and we got no good of the sermon for laughing and holding on to the table for we thought every minute the back would be off the seat and we will go down head first.  There was a piece of wood about 2 feet high at the saloon door to keep out the water.  Mr Lake helped me to get over that and gave me his arm as it was so dark.  We did not see two c—— hanging up, till we came bump up against them.  Mr L kissed one and said he thought he deserved one more than the ship.  The next adventure was a rope got hold of us round the waist and as we could not get over we had to creep over and we got along safely holding on to each other like grim death till we got to the companion and the hatch had been pulled over the top and we did not see it and I stepped forward to go down when the fire flew out off my eyes and I thought my nose was broken and it swelled and now I have got a Norman nose - a great improvement I can assure you.  Mr Lake, of course, apologised and said it was his fault he ought to have looked.  We wound up the night with cold mutton and rice pudding and beer for supper.  235;  43.35;  28.48.
Dec 28th     Very rough today - although the captain says it was not a storm only squally.  About a quarter past twelve I thought the ship had capsized - she gave such a roll and everything in our saloon flew - dishes, knives and forks and in our cabin I heard things pitching about.  I thought the deck had been either blown or washed away so up I jumped and found myself nearly to the ankles in water.  I lighted the lamp and viewed the scene of destruction and found all the water cans upset and all the boxes, portmanteaux, boots, shoes and clothes at the door.  If I could have got the door opened I would have been out in the saloon and a good job I could not get as I heard some of the gentlemen speaking out there - got the stewardess to help me and she began lamenting about a pack of cards instead of helping me.  She told me to go to bed and then she would wipe up and then we had some fun.  I thought I should have died laughing - we were all screaming and the young fellows called would they come up and help us and that made us laugh more.  The sea washed the door off the cow house and the cow met one of the sailors coming out of the forecastle and he only saw two eyes and horns and he thought it was somebody come for him and he yelled and flew.  Did not get to sleep till daybreak as we had to hold on for dear life or we would have been pitched out.  Did not get up to breakfast and Mr Lake sent it in with the stewardess.  Coffee, bread, Butter and Salmon.  Went on deck about 10 o’clock to see a ship we had passed.  It was only a little way astern of us but you could not see the top of her masts when we were down, that is when a wave came between us.  Had a shower of hail.  275;  43.13;  34.40.
Dec 29th     Very rough still.  Shower of snow - not much - not able to go on deck she is shipping so much sea.  Went up on the forecastle this afternoon to see the porpoises playing by the dozen but did not stop long as it was cold - the ship rolling a good bit - shortened sail as it was beginning to blow hard.  Stunsails taken down as there was too much wind.  Lost my Philipeen with Mr Sucker but won one with Mr Lake - he gave me a fruit knife with a silver blade and mother-of-pearl handle - I gave him a penny so that it should not cut love.  Did not get up to breakfast, Mrs Matthews brought it to me in bed.  Coffee, bread and butter and cold pork.  Didn’t play speculations but after a giblet pie supper had a game of whist with Miss Watson, Mr Sucker and Mr Watts.  Mr Lake looking over my hand.  Went to bed after eight bells (12 o’clock).  Ship rolling a good bit.  240;  43.15;  48.0.
Dec 30th     Sea running very high and good stiff breeze in our favour (far wind).  Shipped a sea this morning about ten minutes past seven - the sea almost up to the mainsail and carried away the bulwarks on the lee-side and the sea also came down into our saloon but not into our cabin or we would all have been afloat.  Helped Mr L to make a bead purse.  Played whist with Mr Sucker and Mr Watts and Miss Watson, Mr L looking over my hand.  Had supper (giblet pie, sausages and beer) and went to bed at half past ten.  Did not go on deck today as it was cold and wet.  278;  43.32;  46.18.
Dec 31st     Sea much calmer and nice steady breeze.  Hoisted the stunsails (or the Adelaide sails).  Concert tonight.  Mr Lake took me to the concert.  Miss Fanny Clark (a girl about 12) was the best singer there.  She sang “Under the Willows She’s Laid With Care”, was encored and sang “Little Bunch of Roses” - was not quite so nice - broke up at a quarter to eleven.  Mr L took me home when all drank to our “Sovereign Lady”.  Had some songs at twelve o’clock, the bells fore and aft rang the old year out and the new year in and the canon fired from the poop - we all went on deck, went aft and wished everybody (sailors included) a Happy New Year.  The sailors had grog and everybody making as much noise as possible.  Rockets were sent up and the captain fired the cannon again and had some more singing and dancing; Mr Lake and I opening the ball with a polka - learned him the Highland Scottishe and we danced it and it was very much admired.  Mr Lake is the same height as Charlie and all said we were a handsome couple.  Mr Moss, Mr Robinson and the Doctor came down and we had some fun and all the fellows got tight - went to bed at four o’clock.  Caught a porpoise this afternoon.  215;  43.35;  51.7.
Jan 1st         A beautiful morning.  Almost a calm, something like a frosty day at home.  Went to church in the morning.  Only Mrs Matthews and I out to breakfast.  Shortly after breakfast Old Mat, one of the sailors came to the top of the stairs and called us up to him as a live Albatross on deck which had been caught.  They can’t fly when on deck.  It measured when its wings were stretched out from tip to tip 10 feet.  After it had been killed the carpenter came to Mrs Matthews and I and asked if we would like some feathers.  I wanted a foot (as Mr Wardle had one of the feet of the Cape Hens made into a tobacco pouch) to make a tobacco pouch to send home, but the Captain wanted one and the Carpenter the other so I said I’d take a wing and got one.  (Gave him a bottle of gin for it.) as the saloon passengers have the preference over us.  Mr Lake has preserved it and also given me the fin and a piece of the skin of the porpoise caught yesterday.  I had some of the porpoise fried and it is just like very coarse beef and dark like steak.  Had a dance in the evening on deck.  I said to Mr Vickerman it would be so nice if I could have a dance but there was no room down in the cabin so he hung a large oil lantern under one of the lifeboats on the quarter deck and the cook and mate played.  I danced every dance with Mr Lake in fact we were together all night from eight till ten o’clock.  When the saloon passengers heard that we were dancing they came from the saloon and the poop and looked on and afterwards joined.  The Captain and Miss Young a saloon passenger danced Valse of Vienna with Mr Lake and I - we were the only ones up - none of our lot could do it.  Then we had the English Schottiche, Admiral Polka and the Polka and the Captain looked on and said Mr Lake and Miss Fulton beat you all in dancing.  We left and had a walk in the avenue and now it is all over the length and breadth of the ship that we are engaged.  The Chief Steward was down in the forenoon and Mr Sucker cha—— him and of course he had to pay his footing which he did by coming down about 10 o’clock and bringing with him two bottles of gin, one brandy, two of colonial wine and one champagne and sent afterwards for sherry and we had fun.  Later Mr Robinson came down and brought their bottles with them and we had fun singing and .  Mr Halse was chairman and he called on me for a song, of course I said I could not sing - he said he heard me singing “The lass’s Gowrie” in my cabin in the afternoon so I obliged to sing it and was encored and sang “Ye Banks and Braes O’ Bonnie Doon” and had to sing after Mr Lake sang “Kicked Out of Home” and sang “The Shamrocks of Ireland” but they wanted another Scotch song so I gave them “Nae Luck about the Hoose” and got great applause.
Jan 2nd         Ship rolling very much, wind freshening, very cold. 190 miles;  44.30;  59.15.
Jan 3rd         Sunday.  Went to church in the morning, Canon Dove officiated.  After church went on the forecastle, also in the afternoon but it was bitter cold sitting still so Mr Lake and I walked the main and quarter decks from a little after two till half past five and could hardly believe our ears when the tea bell rang.  A most beautiful day, and the sun shining bright and the decks dry and clean.  At eight o’clock Mr Lake asked me to go on deck for a walk till church time and when he heard it was Mr Ash who was to preach he would not go and tried to persuade me to walk about the ‘grove’ instead of going but I said I would go so he took me to the door and was waiting for me when church was over and then we had another walk.  220 miles;  45.0;  64.15.
Jan 4th         Ship pitching and tossing time about causing anything but a pleasant sensation - a good heavy swell on the sea.  Still very cold and not able to go on deck except for a walk.  The chief steward and Mr Moss were down tonight and we had some fun and the chief steward recited “The Execution of Montague”.  Got to bed about two o’clock.  235 miles;  44.57;  69.35.
Jan 5th         Got a dreadful pain in my back also the toothache so did not get up to breakfast.  My face is very much swollen but the pain has gone which is a good  thing.  Mrs Matthews came down stairs and came plump down on my left foot and it is so much swollen I can’t get on my slipper, besides being very much discoloured and painful.  Seas not quite so rough but the wind has died off considerably which causes the ship to roll frightfully.  Went on the forecastle this afternoon but it was too cold to stay long.  In the evening I went on deck with Mr Watts for a walk and afterwards had a game of whist.  I was out to tea tonight - that is - Mr Lake asked me to sit beside him on his side of the table and Mr Sucker sat in my place.  Mr Laird has reckoned the distance from here to Kangaroo Island  is 600,870 miles.  280;  45.14;  76.00.
Jan 6th         Much quieter today and ship is almost steady.  Fair winds, Captain expects to be in Adelaide in about 10 days if we have fair winds.  Mr Lake got the breast of the albatross which he preserved and has given me - it will make a splendid muff.  Mr Robertson, Mr Moss and the chief steward were down last night playing speculation till one o’clock in the morning.  I did not play.  All the ladies in our cabin are quite jealous of me getting the breast for a muff.  I’ve had supper at half past one in the morning - bread and cheese, potted tongue, beef and beer.  235;   45.15;  81.2.
Jan 7th         Calm seas this morning and ship quite steady.  Captain caught an albatross this morning, Mr Lake got the wing and head.  The ship looks beautiful standing so still on the wide ocean and all the sails sit ready to catch any wind that might chance to come along.  Expect a storm tonight.  Went to concert tonight held in benefit of the “Christy Minstrels” or the under stewards.  Some of the sails went when we were in the concert and Mr Lake went out to see what was up and came back just before the finish up and said I would have to wrap up well as it was an awful night.  I said I had only my shawl so off he went again and came back with his rug and I put my shawl around my head and his rug around me and gave me his arm and we just escaped a sea on the main deck.  Had supper of bread, cheese and sardines.  135;  45.18;  84.27.
Jan 8th         Ship been pitching rolling and tossing frightfully - head sea and wind - ship two points out of her course - breeze freshening and sailors reefing the Royal top gallant sails.  Mr Vickerman just been down and he says it is a moderate gale of wind but wind going round aft.  Mr Lake took me on deck to see the seas but it was not so rough as I expected.  Wind gone aft as Mr Vickerman said and now she rolls beautifully.  Playing whist.  Nothing for supper so Mrs Matthews and I went aft to the chief steward to ask him for something and he gave us some brandy and water and two boxes of sardines and while we were waiting for the steward as he said he was coming down, a tremendous sea came over the quarter deck and the phosphorus running across the deck - happily we were in the pantry or we would have come off second best.  The first mate came in and he got some brandy and just as he had gone Mr Lake appeared to take me home.  Mrs Matthews asked him to carry the sardines for her which he did, and when we got to the door he said to me “Allow me to take care of you, take my arm” which I did and Mrs Matthews had to toddle on behind at which she was very indignant.  Mr Lake sat next to me at supper and that made her worse.  Steward and Mr Sucker were partners and Mrs Matthews and I at whist.  About half past twelve Mr Lake went to bed and then we stopped playing and sat talking.  When Mrs Matthews went to bed and then Mr Lake appeared and said he would learn me cribbage and we played on till two in the morning.  Mrs Matthews bet the steward a pair of gloves he would not bring us four ladies in our cabin coffee at five o’clock in the morning.  220;  46.15;  89.35.
Jan 9th         Sea not quite so high but the ship is rolling as much on account of the wind being right aft.  Albatross and Cape Hens flying about.  Eleven o’clock the butcher called out “Sail in sight” of course there was a general rush for the deck.  But it was scarcely visible and gaining just on the ship.  The steward had to ring the dinner bell twice.  Three o’clock - ship quite close on our port bows.  Signalled her and she proved to be the “City of Athens” from London to Melbourne, 74 days out; (we are 66 days out from Plymouth).  Captain gave orders for the top  Stunsail to be hoisted so that we should pass her and when we were abreast of each other about half mile apart our top stunsail was blown away and you heard cheers from the “City of Athens” and they had hardly finished cheering when their own stunsail was blown away and then the cheers and waving of handkerchiefs from our decks were something awful.  Five o’clock still abreast of each other but further apart - “City of Athens” is over 1100 tons and we are only 861 tons.  Captain expects to be in Adelaide (if fair winds continue) the end of next week.  Mr Vickerman called down would I come up and see the Southern Cross and he also showed me the Magellan Clouds - two white clouds always seen on starlight nights south of the line, also a small black cloud only seen when the atmosphere is dry and is a sign of good weather.  260;  45.50;  95.20.
Jan 10th     Sunday.  A long heavy swell on the sea and the ship rolling about a good deal but a beautiful day.  Was up and dressed and out in our saloon by half past seven and had breakfast at eight - coffee, bread and fried bacon.  Felt so sleepy lay down on my bed and went to sleep and did not wake until twelve.  Had dinner at one o’clock - Roast mutton and potatoes, pastry pudding and after dinner went up on the forecastle and wrapped myself well up, then Mr Sucker came and sat down beside me and went off asleep and then last but not least Mr Lake came and brought his rug and then we were comfortable.  Mr Lake almost asleep and I won two pairs of gloves - Mr Lake said he did not care if I won half a dozen pairs every day from him.  Had tea at six o’clock.  Mr Lake went to sleep on the settee and Miss Watson won a pair of gloves and did not go to church as it was Mr Ash who was to preach and no one likes him.  Mr Lake asked me to go on deck with him for a walk and when we were passing the galley I slipped and went flat down on the deck and my feet and legs under the spar.  When I felt myself slipping I let go his arm instead of holding on.  I hurt my shoulder, and skinned the skin from my right leg where it went under the spar.  Went down when four bells (ten o’clock) rang - had supper, - cold roast mutton and bread.  Mr Lake and I and Miss Watson and Mr Sucker sat up till half past eleven.  “City of Athens” still in sight up to five pm.  One of the top most stunsail booms broke today and the Captain was in a rage about it.  He blamed the man at the wheel, then the first mate and then the carpenter.  260;  45.16;  101.0.
Jan 11th     Wind shifted to the starboard quarter and although there is a long heavy swell on, the ship does not roll so much as when the wind is aft.  We have only 1500 miles to go now, expect to sight Kangaroo Island on Sunday or Monday then in Adelaide on Tuesday.  Carpenter busy making a new stunsail boom.  Only Mr Lake and I out to breakfast this morning.  300.
Jan 12th     Sea very rough, not able to go on deck.  Expecting a gale.
Jan 13th     Beautiful morning and the sun shining bright, not blowing strong.  Short-ening sail as the wind is increasing also the sea seems running mountain high - went to the top of the stair and looked at it and was boiling to all appearances and the spray lashing about.  Increased to a gale and we were shut and fastened down as she was shipping some awful seas and one sea she shipped was as high as the mainsail.  Mr Lake copied for me “Beautiful Snow”.  Played cribbage, Pontoon, Snip Snap, Sur—— and Speculation.  Crew cleaning the ship and as we expect to be in Adelaide in the beginning of the week, Monday or so.
Jan 14th     Expecting a gale and shortening sail.  Blowing hard on the starboard quarter and shipping some tons of water midships.  Last night they were flooded in the saloon and the water was ankle deep in the doctor’s cabin in the deck house.
Jan 15th     Not nearly so rough but not able to get on deck as the sailors are tarring the ropes and decks are soaking wet.  Concert tonight but did not go.  Stopped at home and played pontoon - went to bed at half past twelve.
Jan 16th     Sail in sight this morning.  Almost calm - don’t expect to get in before Wednesday.  Wind died away and almost calm.
Jan 17th     Sunday.  Almost a head wind but not strong - had to change as consequence.  Got up to breakfast and went to church in the forenoon.  Don’t feel very well, got a pain in my side and a headache.  A most lovely sunset.  Captain expects a fair wind before morning.  Did not go to church in the evening.  Mr Lake read to me “Beautiful Moonlight”.  Chief steward sent down a boiled ham for supper.
Jan 18th     A most beautiful day but not as warm as expected.  150 miles from Kangaroo Island and several points out of our course.  Head wind but sea smooth as glass.  Bouted the ship about six o’clock.  Most beautiful sunset.  There is no twilight here, it is dark when the sun goes down.
Jan 19th     Another most beautiful day - warmer than yesterday but still far from being hot.  Some of the young ones were up at four o’clock this morning looking out for land.  About 9 o’clock there was a cry of “Land 0!”, but it turned out to be Young’s Reef 30 miles from Kangaroo Island - still a head wind and tacking ship, Two o’clock ‘bouted’ ship and making for Young’s Reef which we passed this morning.  2.30 pm. squaring yards, fair winds, only 65 miles from Adelaide.
Jan 19th     Everybody busy packing up and getting out their ashore clothes.  Porpoises playing round the ship in dozens and it is so pretty to see a big one with a little one swimming by its side.  We were all out on the forecastle this morning and the doctor came up and shot two - one went down like a shot tail first and the water was coloured with blood.  What beautiful skies we have now - dark bright blue with a small white cloud as big as your hand.  Saw an Australian seagull flying about the forenoon, so that is a sign we are near land.  Five o’clock.  Land now without a doubt and such commotion you never saw.  After tea everybody was up on the forecastle watching the land through glasses - we went through Baxter’s (sic) passage [Backstairs passage].  Had a head wind and had to tack about.
Jan 20th     A most beautiful morning, head wind and still tacking about.  Saw the sunrise this morning.  The cannon was fired and blue lights burned on the poop signalling to the shore which was returned by a red light.  Everybody in a state of excitement.  Sometimes we are so near land we can see the trees on the hills.  It looks a barren country what we have seen of it as yet.