CHAPTER 3

THE MUXLOWS

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Revision Date : 17 September 2014



    Finding the Muxlows

    My mother’s maiden name was Muxlow, but I knew very little about her family, as we seldom visited them.  Her parents were both long dead before I became interested in tracing their past, and the only clue which I had was a faded newspaper cutting from a Sheffield daily paper of Saturday 6th May 1911, containing the obituary of George Muxlow, my great-great-grandfather.  The story noted that George had been born in the Lincolnshire village of Welbourn in 1821, which gave me a starting point.

    Between November 1988 and June 1990 I spent nearly six months in England, assisting with the construction and testing of a large computer-based control system for the Electricity Trust of South Australia.  Lincolnshire was just too far away to achieve any serious research in a weekend, and we were so busy that I could not take any time off until the final few weeks of my last visit, in 1990.  A three-day Bank Holiday weekend at the end of May provided a good excuse for a quick trip north, and by passing through Leicester I could see the old home of the Grays and Adams at Newtown Linford (see Chapter 5), and then travel on to Welbourn.  I found the Welbourn Church on a sunny Sunday 27th May, and was searching the graveyard for old Muxlow headstones just as the service ended and the Rector came out.  We talked briefly, but he could not remember any graves in his parish, and suggested that I look at the neighbouring village of Leadenham.  There I would find a few Mucklows (a variant of the name) buried, and he suggested that I seek out an Honor Green, nee Mucklow, who was the last of the family in the area.  Unfortunately he did not know her address, so I had to leave without contacting her.

    The church at Welbourn, St Chad’s, was large and solid, with an unusual spire dating from the 12/13th Century.  The rest of the church was built in the 14th Century, when the wool trade produced a great deal of wealth for the district.  The peal of bells in the spire came from another church whose tower had collapsed, and were reputed to be those which had inspired Tennyson’s poem “In Memoriam”.
Ring out, wild bells, to the wild sky,
   The flying cloud, the frosty light:
      The year is dying in the night;
Ring out, wild bells, and let him die.

Ring out the old, ring in the new,
   Ring, happy bells, across the snow:
      The year is going, let him go;
Ring out the false, ring in the true.

    The village of Welbourn was distinguished only as the birthplace of Sir William Robertson, Chief of the Imperial General Staff between December 1915 and February 1918.  I found few traces of old houses and the surrounding fields are flat and featureless.

    Half the churchyard in Leadenham had been fenced off, and was reverting to a wild state (or according to one story, is left untended because there are plague victims buried there, whose graves should not be disturbed for fear of infection).  There were many Mucklow graves there, which I photographed and recorded.  The earliest, half-obliterated, dated to the late 1700’s, and in the newer part of the yard were more recent stones of this century.  However, I could not connect any of these people to George Muxlow of Sheffield.

    The following Sunday I returned to Leadenham, after vainly trying to find a Mrs Green in the telephone book.  On arriving at the village, I enquired at the post office cum village shop, and was sent on several false trails before I was finally given the right directions.  Honor Green did not live in Leadenham, but near Lincoln, and she and her husband Keith only visited the village on weekends, to stay in her grandfather’s old house, which she had converted into a very comfortable weekend retreat.  She was quite surprised to meet a distant relative from the other side of the world, but invited me in and made me very welcome.  We spent several hours discussing Mucklow family history, then and over dinner at their home in Lincoln on the next two nights.  They had done a considerable amount of research on the family, and we determined that I was definitely a distant relation.  They gave me a great deal of information which will be mentioned later.

    During the day I spent time in the Lincolnshire Archives, in the great castle on the summit of the steep hill which dominates the city.  Here I was able to call for the original Parish Registers for the County, containing all the entries of births, deaths and marriages back to the 1740’s.  Beyond that time the Registers were either missing or impossible to read.  The data from the 1851 Census was also valuable, as this occurred just before George Muxlow left Welbourn to try to improve his fortune in Sheffield.  Coupled with the data from Mrs Green, this information has enabled me to trace our branch of the Muxlow family with certainty back to the early 1700’s.

    Honor Green had details of a Mucklow family living in Areley Hall in Worcestershire between the 1400’s and the early 1700’s, and she was trying to trace a link between this family and the Lincolnshire Mucklows, through a younger son who fought for King Charles at Newark in the Civil War.  The Mucklow families in Lincolnshire are mainly concentrated in a group of villages east of Newark, and her theory was that this Cavalier decided to settle down in the area after the war, and was the founder of this branch of the family.  I have since heard that Honor has confirmed this link, and is now petitioning for the right to display the Mucklow coat of arms.

    Another source of information has been a Robert Muxlow of Seattle, Washington, USA, who wrote to me in early 1992, and who has compiled a book and chart describing and connecting almost all the Muxlows in the USA and Canada.  We have corresponded, and he has also met Honor Green.  I believe that his chart is incorrect in the very place where my family connected to it, and I am unsure of the accuracy of the rest, but it is a monumental piece of work.  Again we are distantly related, as, it seems, are almost all the Muxlows in the world.  I tried to connect all the Muxlows named in the Mormon genealogical lists, and with some inspired guessing, based on common family names and linking nearby villages, I could piece together some lengthy family trees, but could never go far enough back to find a common ancestor.

    The Mucklow/Muxlow name

    There are several theories on the origin of the name “Mucklow” and its variants.  In 1979 Mr Gordon Joseph Mucklow presented his theory, based on conversations he had with family members in Warwickshire and Worcestershire, in the following paper:
    “The family of MUCK (pronounced Mook) were Venetian merchants in the 13th Century.  These Venetian merchants travelled all over the world with pack horses.  (Marco Polo reached China during this century.)  The Mucks travelled throughout Europe, and eventually to the Low Countries.  In the 14th Century they were established in Holland at Antwerp.

    “In the 15th Century they were established in London as merchants (probably belonging to the Merchant Adventurers chartered by Henry IV) and branched into the Midlands in Worcestershire (probably belonging to the rival Bristol Adventurers).  Known by now as the “Mucks of the Low Countries”, the name became shortened to MUCKLOWE.

    “One William Mucklowe in 1511 is recorded as selling Worcester cloth at Flemish Fairs in Bergen-op-Zoom and Antwerp.  While there he bought satins and damask, Mediterranean goods, groceries including sugar, pepper and spices, treacle and ginger, pins, needles, feathers and spectacles.  These he shipped to London, spreading them amongst six ships for safety.  He was Bailiff of Worcester from 1499 to 1517.  During this time he supplied goods and groceries to the Bishop of Worcester and the Throckmorton family at Coughton Court, Alcester.

    [Large-scale cloth manufacture came to dominate Worcester’s economy during the 15th century, with the Dolday/Newport Street suburb becoming the centre of the industry, and with the establishment of the Worcester Clothier’s Company, or Guild, which retained close links with the Blackfriars. By the 16th century, half the employed population worked in Worcester’s clothing industry as spinners, weavers, dyers, fullers and carders, and documents record famous clothiers like William Mucklow selling high quality Worcester cloth to merchants from Brussels and Antwerp.]

    “Latin, French and English were freely spoken languages in England, and the printing industry was in its infancy.  In this early part of the 16th Century very few could read and write.  The Mucklows were fortunate, always bending with the wind of change.

    “In 1565 one Joseph Mucklow is recorded as having paid his rates (probably the Poor Rate) in the Parish of Alcester.  The family was now spreading, but by now the movement of families was restricted by law.  Members of the family resided in both Halesowen and Alcester, both towns in the County of Worcester.  Between these two towns lay the Forest of Arden, extending to Evesham in the south.  Oak was needed for building ships and barges, for England was becoming a sea-faring nation, and Bristol an important trading port.  Ships could reach Gloucester, so the Mucklows transported timber using teams of horses.  The Shire Horse now symbolised the fortunes of the Mucklows, and their timber was used in house-building, ship-building and later for the railways.  In the 19th Century one branch of the family emigrated to the Americas, taking with them a team of horses.

    “In the 20th Century there are still Mucklows as merchants, grocers, builders and transporters, and there are still Mucks in Austria and Venice.”

    Robert Muxlow has found that between the years 1557 and 1854 there were 43 marriages in the Parish of Halesowen (near Birmingham) involving Mucklows, and he has information of a Carlos Mucklow of Buenos Aires, whose ancestors used to raise horses in England.

    Another interesting possibility for the derivation of the name comes from the village of Kirby Muxloe, west of Leicester.  According to some experts, this name can be identified as Danish, while the Oxford Dictionary of English Place Names states that “Muxloe is a modification of Muckeless”, which may mean “keeper of the manure”.  One book defines “Mucklow” as “dweller by the pig-lake”, and another lists “Mucklow from Mucklagh, a location near Kerry, Ireland”.

    The Mucklows of Areley Hall

    Areley Hall is situated near the village of Areley Kings, in the Severn Valley north-west of Worcester.  The house was in the possession of the Mucklow family from 1529 to the 1670’s, and of their descendants from then onward.  Family papers in the house trace the Mucklows back to the 13th Century, and the following history is taken from a paper on the “Family Records from the Areley Hall Collection” by Olive M Lloyd, written in 1941, with additions from Robert Muxlow’s research in [brackets].

    “This paper deals with the records of the families of Mucklow and Zachary which are contained in the Collection of papers and documents belonging to the present owner of Areley Hall, Mrs Zachary Lloyd, widow of the late Sir Francis Zachary Lloyd, who died in 1920.  This Collection was examined in 1885 by a representative of the Historical Manuscripts Commission and some of the more generally interesting of the letters were printed in their Report of that date.  A further investigation was undertaken in 1918 by Mr I H Jeayes, sometime Assistant Keeper of MSS. at the British Museum.  The result of his work is a descriptive catalogue (in typewritten form) of 327 of the charters and family deeds ranging in date from about 1234 to 1719.

    “A copy of this catalogue is in the Birmingham Reference Library (catalogue number 413441) and the documents to which it refers (except three which were retained by Mrs Zachary Lloyd and two which were missing) were deposited on loan at the Birmingham Reference Library in 1939.  Photostats of all the documents were made in the Birmingham Reference Library.  A set of the photostats of all the documents deposited was sent to Mrs Lloyd.  There are also at Areley a large number of documents of which there are no photostats of various dates from the 16th to the 18th Century.

    “The first member of the family of whom we have any certain knowledge is the William Mucklow, who in 1529 purchased the manor of Martley which included that of Areley Kings.  Where the family originally came from is uncertain, but it would seem that they were connected with Halesowen, where the name frequently occurs in court rolls and parochial records from the end of the 13th Century, and in other evidences.

    “Although the date and place of William’s birth are unknown, it is clear that as early as 1488 he was established as a mercer in the city of Worcester, and had begun to buy land.  This is proved by a bond of that date from William d’Abitot of Red Marley in which he ensures William Mucklow of Worcester, mercer, in the possession of three holdings described as “mese placies” one of which was in Alfrick.  Seven years later in 1495 he began to build up an estate in Kempsey, and there are nearly 100 documents showing the history of the various plots acquired by him there.  This estate is later referred to under the name of Howdens, owing to the fact that its nucleus was a holding granted in 1320 to Adam de Howdene, the Bishop’s Chamberlain.

    “William’s residence in Worcester was undoubtedly in the parish of St. Helen’s.  In a document dated 1502 there is mention of the building of a new house on the “forestrete” of an existing tenement “goodly, beautifully and substantially to butt on the High Street”.  Birdport is mentioned as the western boundary of this property which must therefore have been on the west side of High Street just north of the present Guildhall, and the fact that the title deeds passed into Mucklow’s possession seems to point to this being the site of the house which he himself occupied, though this cannot be taken as certain.

    “In 1499 he became Bailiff of Worcester for the first time, an office which he again held in 1504 and 1517.  Early in the 16th Century he acquired more land in Whitbourne, co. Hereford, and considerable estates in Suckley, Alfrick, Wichenford, and Lulsley.  A little later he bought from Sir Thomas Leeke the manor of Crowneast, with other lands in St. John’s parish, and also some lands in Mathon, but it was only during the last year of his life that he purchased from Thomas West, Lord de la Warr, the important manor of Martley, which included Areley Kings.  The purchase price was 1800 marks or £1200 and the yearly value is stated at £42.

    “From this it will be seen that, by the time of his death, William Mucklow had become a considerable landowner; and by his two marriages he had allied himself with two important county families.  His first wife, by whom he had a family of three sons, was Jane, the daughter of Sir Thomas Ryce by his wife Margaret, who was the daughter and heiress of John d’Abitot of Croome d’Abitot.  In 1524 he took as his second wife Marjorie, daughter of Sir Edward Acroft of Croft Castle.  It is however in his character as a merchant and citizen of Worcester that the chief interest of this founder of the family fortune centres, though it is tantalising that the records are scanty.

    “A trading account for the year 1511 shows that he was at that time carrying on a considerable trade with the Low Countries.  The two markets mentioned in the account were held at Barro in Brabant about Easter and in Antwerp at the end of June.  The goods he sold were English Cloth described as Whites, Long and Short, 351 ½ packages of which appear to have been sold for £2007, an average of nearly £6 each.  There are full details of the quantity sold to each customer and the price.  In return, his purchases were very various, including damask, satin, sarcenet, velvet, sugar, treacle, green ginger, leather goods, brown paper, brushes, silk girdles and swan feathers.  There are details of how the consignments were shipped.  We have no evidence that William himself visited the Low Countries, though it is probable he did so, and there is a letter from him to his son Richard addressed to him in Antwerp where he was presumably residing for a time in connection with his father’s business.

    “Some insight into the manner of living of a merchant of the period is afforded by the detailed inventory of William’s goods and chattels made at the time of his death in 1529 [6th April].  The house to which the inventory refers is undoubtedly the house in Worcester which in his will dated the same year he left to his wife Marjorie for so long as she remained sole and unmarried.  It consisted of a hall, a parlour and an inner parlour, buttery, kitchen and seven bedrooms, a courtyard and stabling for at least four horses.  A shop is mentioned, but no merchandise and it seems probable that he had by this time disposed of his business - probably some of the proceeds had gone to the purchase of the Martley estate.  As is usually the case at that date, the furniture seems very scanty in comparison with the plate and wearing apparel.  The total value of the furniture is only twice that of the “Apparel of His Body” while the value of the plate is roughly twice that of the furniture.  The furniture of the hall and the parlour together amount to less than £4, which is the value of a gown of black satin furred with lamb; while his best gown is valued at £6 13s. 4d., and even his riding coat of black velvet was worth £3 6s. 4d.  The bedroom furnishings are described in great detail, from the best feather bed in the Great Chamber bequeathed to his wife, which with its bolster and mattress was valued at 4s.  One point of special interest is the mention of a Chapel Chamber, in which were found a pair of vestments of white fustian, a chalice of silver and gilt valued at 24s. and a little printed mass book.

    “Some of William’s bequests are interesting.  After ordering that his body should be buried in Our Lady’s Church of Worcester, he bequeaths to the high altar there 3s. 4d., and to the Parish Church of St. Helen’s 20s.  His poorer neighbours were to benefit to the extent of 40 shirts and 40 smocks which were to be given “where need is thought best”.  Also 20 shares of iron to 20 poor husbandmen.  In addition 12 poor men were to have 12 gowns and finally £5 was to be given to the mending of the highway “between this and Severn”.

    “His eldest son Richard inherited the lordship of Martley and the house at Howdens, in which we gather that he was already living; the second son, Peter, being given Crowneast and all lands in St. John’s parish.

    “Richard Mucklow was a man of over forty at the time of his father’s death.  He had married in 1514 Katharine, daughter of John Arden, Esquire of the Body to King Henry VII, a member of an important Warwickshire family.  During the years 1519 and 1520 he had held the office of churchwarden at St. Helen’s Church, and the Churchwardens’ Accounts for these years are preserved among the family papers, and are printed in full in the volume of the Worcestershire Historical Society for 1896.

    “There are many documents relating to the period between 1529 and Richard’s death in 1557, the majority being of  a legal nature and bearing on one or another of the quarrels which arose between him and his neighbours, besides a long lawsuit between him and his stepmother Margery arising out of the provisions of his father’s will.

    “But these family troubles were not the most serious of the difficulties into which Richard was plunged during these years, as a happening which took place in 1530 involved him in a charge of manslaughter.  An accusation was brought against him that on May 22nd of that year he struck a certain Richard Gower with a dagger at Diglis in the parish of St. John. Gower appears to have died instantly, but the various documents relating to the affair give no information as to the cause of the quarrel.  Richard was arrested and tried before the Bailiffs of Worcester and a jury of 14 persons.  His brother Peter, and Thomas Middlemore, mercer, of London, stood bail for him, and on July 6th he made an agreement with his uncle, Simon Ryce, and John Packington, placing Martley and most of his other estates in their hands until they should be recompensed for the costs and settlement of his trial.  The case seems to have dragged on for some time, but was finally settled by the payment of £100 by Richard to Joanna, widow of the deceased.

    “An interesting sidelight on the straitened circumstances of his family during this time and the difficulties encountered by his wife, is afforded by a letter from Katharine to her husband:-
    To my well beloved bedfellow Richard this be delivered with speed at Mr Reisseis place in Soperis Lane.
    Worshipful Bedfellow - Heartily I recommend me unto you trusting to the Almighty that you are in good health which I beseech God long to continue.  At the scribing of this letter I was in good health and all my children - certifying you that I am in trouble with my lord (Bishop) of Hereford and also with my lord (Abbot) of Pershore.

    “Then follows a detailed account of the heriots which had been demanded by these two lords and her difficulties in dealing with them, which she sums up as follows:-
    Thus I am tossed from post to pillar and have no thing to discharge it withall, but put you and me in great cost and charge.  Wherefore for the love of God send me some comfort in this matter, how these heriots shall be discharged and that you send me word how you do and that you may take some way that you may come home .... So ever prosper you.  Written the second day after St. Luke’s day by your wife.
                                                                            Katharine Mucklow

    “Appended is a statement of the expenses to which she had been put which includes servants’ wages - shoes and shirts for her children and the two following items:- “Paid to master Chanslere of my girdle which he had in pledge, 40s.;  Paid to the Constable’s wife for my wedding ring which she had in pledge, 30s.”

    “Some ten years later Richard was again in trouble with his neighbour, Richard Gorle of the parish of Kempsey, who accused him of sundry acts of trespass and unfair dealing.  There are six documents bearing on this quarrel which came before the Court of the Marches, sitting on one occasion at Wigmore and on another at Shrewsbury.

    “All this seems to show that in his private capacity Richard was a man of hasty and quarrelsome temper, but in spite of this he appears to have been entrusted with some of the public duties which fell upon the country gentlemen of that period.  There is a vellum roll of the estreat and taxation of a subsidy granted to the King in 1546 and collected by Richard Mucklow for the Hundreds of Oswaldeslow, Pershore and Blakenhurst; and there is also a receipt dated 1548 from Richard, Bishop  of  Lichfield and Coventry, President of the Council of the Marches, for a sum of £315 5s. 0d. received from Richard Mucklow for a County Levy.

    “During a period of happenings of great importance in Church and State, the only other reference to public affairs is contained in a letter from Richard’s brother Peter to his nephew Simon, from which it appears that he went to France in 1544 with the expedition which resulted in the taking of Boulogne by Henry VIII.  Peter explains that he is commanded to wait upon the King, and that he is forced to mortgage Crowneast to find the money necessary for equipment and expenses for himself and two men.

    “Richard died in 1557 [at Howdens] and was buried at Martley.  In his will he bequeaths 6s. 8d. for the reparation of Martley Church, to which he also gives a silk cope.  Among sundry bequests to various members of his family, his daughter Anne seems to have come off best.  He bestows upon her “My house in Worcester called the Bole with the appurtenances thereof, also the feather bed in the Green Chamber, the covering of Arras work and bolster and pillow with the testers and two coffers, my best pot and my best pan, two heifers colour black being in calf, with three silver spoons and two pairs of flaxen sheets.”

    “The inventory of his goods and chattels made at the time of his death does not compare very favourably with that of his father - very little plate is mentioned, but on the other hand there is a longish list of his livestock under the heading of “quick cattle”, which includes not only horses and oxen but 6 ducks and a drake, 6 geese and a gander.

    “Richard’s heir was his eldest son Simon, to whom the letter from Peter Mucklow was addressed.  At the date of this letter, 1544, Simon was already married and living at Eardington near Bridgnorth with his wife Alice, daughter of William Gatacre, a member of the well-known Shropshire family of that name.  Alice bore her husband three sons, but she died at an early age and Simon twice re-married.  He continued to reside in Shropshire until his death in 1572 [8th August, at Eardington] and he was buried at Quatford.  Having inherited Crowneast from his uncle, Peter, it would appear that at the time of his death he was in possession of all the Worcestershire estates owned by his father and grandfather, but the inventory of his goods and chattels made at his death is surprisingly brief and the total value is only £56.

    [Simon’s three sisters, Margaret, wife of Edward Reynolds, Lettice, wife of John Page, and Anne, wife of Richard Holbroke, sued him for failing to carry out an agreement made by him with his father Richard’s executors for the payment of marriage portions to them out of rent of the manor, leased for £40 yearly to Simon Rice of London, mercer.]

    [The entry on the parish of Kempsey from the Victoria County History of Worcestershire, Volume 1 (1913), states :
The estate called HOWDENS probably originated in two messuages and a virgate of land at Broomhall in the manor of Kempsey granted by William, Bishop of Worcester (1302-7), to his chamberlain Adam de Howden, and confirmed to Adam by the prior and convent in 1313 and by the king in 1320.  A tenement called Howdens in Kempsey and Broomhall seems to have been in the possession of Adam Moleyns, Dean of Salisbury, in 1444.  The capital messuage of Howdens afterwards passed to the Mucklow family of Martley.  Richard Mucklow died seised of it in 1556, when it passed to his son Simon.  He settled it in 1570 upon his son John and upon Appollina wife of the latter.  John died in 1579, leaving a son Simon, a minor.]

    “A number of documents date from the time of his grandson, Simon, who inherited as a minor and came of age in 1592.  It was probably in the same year that he married Thomasin, daughter of Sir Stephen Boord of Boord Hill in the parish of Cuckfield, Sussex.  Her sister Elizabeth was married to Sir William Walsh of Abberley from whom there is a letter to Simon dated in 1602 which is worth quoting.  A misunderstanding had evidently arisen between the two men which was due apparently to a falling out between the two sisters, their wives.  Walsh refers to “the wrongs that my wife hath cousened yours to have done against her,” which he supposes “consisteth for the most part of words not savouring of true sisterly affection.”  But for his own part he declares: “You are my kinsman in blood, my brother in marriage and we have vowed true friendship each towards the other and therefore I must and ever will love you.  You shall know my love to be true and unfeigned by these two marks or signs - the one that with a beck of your finger I will be easily drawn to do any friendly or good office for you; and the other is, that all your will, strength and policy, if it were bent against me, yet should you not be able to draw from me an unbrotherly or unkind action for I do hold it a marvellous shame for Brothers to be perfidious or treacherous or unkind the one to the other.”

    “This letter written from London is addressed to Simon at Areley, and from this and on the further evidence of the registers in Areley Kings Church, we believe that the Mucklows came into residence there in 1594.  The names of several of Simon’s children occur therein under baptisms, the earliest being in 1595, though his eldest son William was born in 1593.

    “The evidence of the date of the building of Areley Hall is slight and fragmentary, but in our opinion sufficient to warrant a belief that the site on which it is built can be identified with that of a fishery, which had been granted by Queen Maud to Bordesley Abbey in 1136.

    “Our claim to have traced the descent further is based on documents relating to a purchase made by Simon Mucklow in 1594, when he bought from a certain Hugh Pooler and his son-in-law for the sum of £850 their property in Areley and Dunley.  The first item in the indenture is described as “a messuage or tenement in which Pooler now lives”, and among the deeds relating to the transaction is one which shows that in 1547 Sir John Packington sold to Pooler for £64 “one messuage lying and being in Kings Areley near the manor of Martley and parcel of the possessions of the late dissolved Monastery of Bordesley”.  Other lands sold to Simon by Pooler at the same time are defined as lying between the Yearn Brook and the Gladder Brook and between the Hollow Way and the river - which clearly identifies them with the land adjoining the site of Areley Hall.  Whether an entirely new house was built by Simon on this ancient site can only be surmised, the one fragment of evidence being a receipted bill dated 1605, endorsed “Glass for my house” which contains details of charges for 437 feet of glass and 3000 nails to nail the same glass, summarised as “the whole sum of the new work about your house”, the cost of which was £10 3s. 9d.

    “In any case we can undoubtedly picture Simon well-established at Areley during the opening years of the reign of James I, and administering from there the manor of Martley and his other estates.  A little light is thrown on the upbringing of his six children in their Areley home by a letter dated November, 1610, which tells of a young Oxford scholar who was chosen as their tutor, but at this time William, the eldest of the family, had probably completed his education, as he came of age in 1614.  He seems to have been immediately associated with his father in the management of the estates, and gradually took full possession of them during his father’s lifetime.

    “His marriage took place in 1622, the lady being Frances Sacheverell, the illegitimate daughter of Henry Sacheverell of Morley, co. Derby, where his family had been settled for five or six generations.  There are three oil paintings hanging in Areley Hall, which certainly belong to this period, and we believe that two of them are portraits of William Mucklow and his wife.  The third, which represents a man dressed in breast- and back-armour with a linen collar, is probably William’s brother Thomas, of whose part in the Civil War mention will shortly be made.

    “A document of considerable interest to the local historian is one dated in 1642, which gives full details of William Mucklow’s lands in Areley, the fields being given by name with their acreage and value.  The acreage of strips held in the common fields is also given, and reference is made to two new enclosures.  The final entry is “my coal mines in Areley Wood”, and thereby hangs an interesting though somewhat sad tale.  Some twenty years previously, when Simon Mucklow was still living, an agreement was entered into with a certain Thomas Paramore, which is described at length in a complaint made by the latter to the Court of the Marches of Wales.

    “The Mucklows are said to have been “very earnest and desirous that some trial should be made for getting of coals on their land by reason of the general decay and scarcity of wood in that county, and by reason of the situation of the same grounds lying near to the river Severn, whereby the same coals might with small labour be conveyed into diverse countries to the general good of the Kingdom”.  Being unwilling to undergo the charge and hazard of sinking of pits for themselves for the bettering of their inheritance, they had speech and conference with Paramore concerning the searching and digging for to find the said supposed coal mines.

    “In the agreement which resulted from this conference the Mucklows undertook to contribute towards Paramore’s charges and promised him that he should sustain no loss in the matter.  They also granted him free liberty of “ingresse, egresse and regresse” for himself, his factors and labourers.  In return Paramore was to pay £40 a year rent for eleven years, and to deliver 40 tons of coal per annum at the place where they should be gotten.

    “He goes on to speak of the great sum of money which he had to lay out in sinking and digging of pits, in provision of timber for propping and in making divers engines, as well as for drawing the water out of the said pit; he also refers to the fact that he kept working in the said coal mines forty or fifty persons.  No indication is given of the period of time over which this venture extended, but sooner or later trouble arose.  Paramore was unable to deliver the goods, and Simon Mucklow evidently became impatient and took high-handed action.  The complaint made is that in Paramore’s absence and when he was attending the King’s Majesty’s service at or near London, Simon Mucklow entered the grounds where the coal pits were made and discharged the workmen, refusing even to allow them to prop the work to prevent the danger of falling in, and carrying away for his own use all the coal which had been dug.  Whether Paramore obtained any redress for such apparently unfair treatment is unknown.

    “There are still traces of old coal-workings to be found in Areley Wood, where there is a considerable area of measures belonging to the Carboniferous series, the extreme south-eastern corner of what is known as the Wyre Forest Coalfield.  About two hundred years later the Zachary family spent money on prospecting, but made nothing of it.

    “Of this period is another document of considerable interest to the economic historian, as it gives detailed information about the household expenses of the Mucklow family.  It is formed of nine sheets of paper about 16 x 13 inches, folded lengthwise and stitched together, forming sixteen pages written on both sides and a cover; it records the amount laid out week by week for eighty-nine consecutive weeks, starting in January, 1628.  For the first nine months the goods were bought at Bewdley, but in October, 1628, a marginal note records the first market at Bristol, to which place all the subsequent entries seem to refer.  It is throughout in the same handwriting and internal evidence shows that it was kept by William’s wife, Frances, though the name of the market maid to whom the money for the week was entrusted is given throughout.

    “The amount laid out each week varies from 12s. 6d. to 20s.  Meat always formed the bulk of the week’s purchases.  Beef was usually at this time 2½d. per lb., and on a rough calculation it would seem that the total weight of meat purchased in an average week was at least 30 lbs.  A pig at 12d. to 14d. was often bought in addition, and hens at 8d., while an occasional rabbit bought at Bristol cost 6d. or 10d. the couple.  Fresh fish for 8d. and herrings for 6d. were bought at Bewdley, especially in the spring months, but there is no noticeable alteration in the meat supplies during Lent.  Potatoes are never mentioned, but entries for cabbages, turnips and carrots frequently occur.  About 12d. worth of manchet bread - the best kind of white bread - was bought every week, and during the Bristol period some 18d. worth of household bread in addition.  Butter was regularly bought, but sugar is only rarely mentioned.  Beer was apparently brewed at home at Areley, but was also bought at Bristol at 6s. a barrel.  Tobacco appears in almost every week’s accounts but at varying prices - the better quality at 20d. an ounce often having beside it the note “for my master”, and it was presumably the men servants who smoked the cheaper quality at 4d. an ounce.

    “Amongst the papers dating from this period are three letters written to William Mucklow by Thomas Habington of Hindlip, concerning William’s pedigree and his manor of Martley.  The first of the letters is dated in October 1634, i.e. nearly twenty years after the Gunpowder Plot.  It will be remembered that Habington was implicated in the Worcestershire ramifications of the Plot; that in consequence he was forbidden to cross the County boundary; and that he spent the remaining years of his long life in the collection of materials for a History of Worcestershire.  At the date of his correspondence with Mucklow he must have been about seventy-five years of age, but the letters give proof of the keen interest which he was still taking in his antiquarian pursuits.

    “The first letter is dated 12th October 1634, and is addressed “To the Worshipful and my much esteemed friend Mr Mucklow at Areley”:-
    Perusing advisedly your pedigree I fear I could not finish it for want of books.  Wherefore if you will have it presently despatched I will return you your pedigree with my letter to a skilful painter in London, who - working for the King - hath continual recourse to the Heralds Office and can search every scruple and these you may send up by any friend of yours.  Otherwise if you will defer it till my going up the next term, I think I shall more carefully perform it.

    I was much defeated in the Cathedral Church of Worcester about the arms of your Kinsman, Sir Griffiths Ryce, for his arms being all in brass were taken away and his Lady’s (who was my wife’s great Aunt) left entire and so a fair monument foully abused and I deceived of that which for your sake I most expected.  Now commending these to your election and desiring to be especially recommended to your father, I rest ever
                                                                    Yours assuredly,
                                                                                Thos. Habington

    “Concerning this letter John Amphlett says: “If  Habington’s confinement to the limits of the County were absolute, he could not even have thought of going to London.”

    “It is disappointing that the documents give little information about the part played by the Mucklow family in the Civil War.  It is stated that Prince Rupert is said to have spent a night at Areley Hall in 1644 when on June 12th the Royalist army advanced up the Severn from Worcester to Bewdley.  Both these towns were at that time garrisoned for the King and the usual route between them was up the left bank of the Severn to Redstone Ferry about a mile below Areley Hall, where the army would probably have crossed to the right bank and followed the road which runs near the house.  Nash, in his History of Worcestershire says that William Mucklow is said to have been a Major under Charles I and to have been wounded at the Battle of  Worcester.  He then refers to a fine of £1000 imposed by the sequestrators in 1655.  There is no certain evidence of this, but in the Calendar of the Proceedings for the Committee for Compounding occur the following entries:-
    Wm. Mucklow, Areley Co. Worcester.
    29 Nov. 1645.  Compounds for delinquency.  Assisted the King against Parliament, being under the Command of several of the King’s Garrisons.  20 Oct. 1646, Fine ... £360.
    Thomas Mucklow, Areley Co. Worcester.
    27 June 1646.  Compounds on Articles of Newark where he was Captain of a troop of horse for the King at its surrender.  4 July, Fine £45.

    “William Mucklow refers in his will to the great losses and sufferings he endured in the Civil Wars and there is no doubt that his participation in the conflict between King and Parliament was the cause of a serious decline in the family fortunes.  The way in which the money was raised to pay the fine of £360 can be followed in detail from the documents, and finally William was forced to sell the whole of the Martley Lordship and manor, excepting Areley and Dunley, for the sum of £2820.  The purchaser was Richard Slaney, citizen and merchant off London, who in 1670 sold the manor of Martley to Thomas Foley of Witley.

    “William lived on into the Restoration period, but the return of the King did nothing to restore the fortunes of those country gentlemen who had fought so loyally for his father, and Mucklow’s will made in 1669 is somewhat sad reading.  After commending his soul into the hands of Almighty God he continues as follows:-  “Concerning my body when it shall leave this worldly mansion, I desire it may be buried in the parish Church of Areley with as little charge and trouble as may be.  And for my goods and personal estate which by my great losses and sufferings by the last unhappy wars are now but of small value, I bequeath to my son William Mucklow all my goods whatsoever in my house at Areley.”  There follow further bequests to his son and daughter, to the poor of the parish of Areley, and to the poor of the parish of St. Helen’s in Worcester.  William’s heir and namesake joined the Society of Friends and migrated to London, where he became a freeman of the City, and was enrolled as a member of the Company of Fishmongers.

    “For over a century Areley Hall was let to members of the family of Crane, and apparently towards the end of that time it fell into some disrepair.  When in 1780 John Zachary, the grandson of William’s daughter Elizabeth, came to Areley he built himself a new residence in the Georgian style known as Areley House; but his nephew Daniel Zachary made his home at the Hall when he inherited the Areley estates early in the 19th Century.  Daniel’s daughter and heiress married Sampson Lloyd, and their son Sampson Zachary Lloyd inherited the estate in 1870.”

    The Journal of the House of Commons published in 1802 contained a entry referring to William Mucklow :
“Mucklow, William, 1648, his Fine accepted; Ordinance for pardoning his Delinquency, read, and passed; Lords Concurrence to be desired, 29 Aug.”   

From: ‘Index: K-Z’, Journal of the House of Commons: volume 5: 1646-1648 (1802), pp. 38-90.  The details are :
“Resolved, &c. That this House doth accept of the Sum of Three hundred and Threescore Pounds, for a Fine, for the Delinquency of Wm. Mucklow, of Arley in the County of Worcester, Gentleman: His Offence, That he adhered to the Forces raised against the Parliament: He rendered in November 1645: His Estate, in Fee, in Possession, per Annum, One hundred and Eighty Pounds: For which his Fine, at a Tenth, is Three hundred and Threescore Pounds.

An Ordinance for granting a Pardon unto Wm. Mucklowe, of Arley in the County of Worcester, Gentleman, for his Delinquency, and for taking off the Sequestration of his Estate, was this Day read; and, upon the Question, passed; and ordered to be sent to the Lords for their Concurrence.

From: ‘House of Commons Journal Volume 5: 29 August 1648’, Journal of the House of Commons: volume 5: 1646-1648 (1802), pp. 689-92

    The Pedigree of the Mucklowe and Zachary families

    One of the documents given to me by Honor Green was a large family tree of the Mucklowe and Zachary families of Areley Hall, which is reproduced at the end of the Chapter.  The document is explained in the following terms:
                    Pedigree of the families of MUCKLOWE and ZACHARY
                                    Lords of the Manor of ARELEY
    The pedigree of the Mucklowe family was registered in the Herald’s College by Richard Mucklowe of Hodon, at the visitation of Worcestershire, by Thomas Benolt, Clarencieux King of Arms, Anno Dom. 1532; again by his son Simon, in 1569; by William Mucklowe of Areley, esq. at the Visitation, 1634; and the continuation till they became extinct, and a most exact and curious pedigree of the Zachary family, by Mr John Zachary, S.S.A. Anno 1773, registered in Libr. Howard, p 144; where the various descents, dates, &c. may be seen more at large.

    The arms of Mucklowe are Gyronny of six pieces, a lion rampant, ermine,  on a chief an eschallop between two fleurs de lis Sable.  Crest a griffin’s head per pale indented, gutte, holding in its beak a fawn’s leg erased.  At the Visitation in 1532, it is Gyronny of ten pieces, at that in 1569, eight, at that in 1634, which ought to be followed, only six.


    The Mucklows of Lincolnshire

    The Lincolnshire Archives contain a wealth of information about the Mucklow family in the County, spread through the various Parish Registers and other documents.  I spent two days in 1990 transcribing as much data as I could, with the aim of making sense of it at my leisure.  The Mormon Records (International Genealogy Institute) also contains many entries, mainly christenings and marriages, which have been copied by church members from the original records, with the aim of “post-baptising” these people into the Mormon Church.

    I will keep the raw data extracted from the Archives and IGI Records separate from this book, as most of it has no direct relevance to our immediate family.  I have spent many hours trying to fit as many of these names together in logical family trees, and these fragments will also be kept separately.  I have, however, included at the end of the Chapter the tree constructed by Honor Green to show her descent, and her distant relation-ship to us.

    Lincolnshire is the second largest county in England.  It is generally flat, a considerable part being marshes and fens but there are two ranges of hills, the Lincoln Edge, or Heights, or Cliff, running from Grantham to Lincoln, and on again to the Humber, and the Wolds, running from Spilsby to Barton-on-Humber.  A large part of the county to the south-east of Lincoln is occupied by the Fens.  The soil as a whole is rich, and it is one of the first agricultural counties in England.  It has the largest bulb-growing industry in the U.K.  A quantity of grain is grown, the largest crop being barley, and cattle and sheep are reared in large numbers, also a fine breed of horses.  Leadenham and Welbourn are both situated on the Lincoln Heights, and from the front lawn of Honor Green’s cottage one can look west over the edge of the hills to the flat land stretching beyond, with only the tall church steeples to mark the villages every few miles.  Along the ridge of the Lincoln Heights runs the Ermine Way, an ancient British and Roman road, which ran from London to Lincoln, York and Hadrian’s Wall in the north.

    Honor Green has found a connection between the Mucklows of Areley Hall and the Mucklows of Lincolnshire, who seemed to appear after the Civil War, presumably from Thomas Mucklow, son of Simon and brother of William, who was a Captain at Newark at its surrender in 1646.  Robert Muxlow also shows a connection between the two lines, but he claims to connect the two via a different Thomas, an uncle of the Captain.

    According to him, we are descended from Thomas Muxloe, second son of John Mucklowe of Areley Hall.  Thomas lived in Desford, Leicester (a couple of miles west of Kirby Muxloe), and had eleven children.  One of his sons was another Thomas Muxloe, who was baptised on 2nd February 1616 in Desford.  He married Margaret in 1638, and had at least two sons, Joseph and Thomas.  This Thomas, in turn, had six children, Samuel, Joseph, Thomas, John, Anne and Priscilla, with surnames variously spelled Mucklow, Mucklowe or Muxlow.

    Another alternative is based on a letter from Thomas Woodcock of the College of Arms to John Muxlow of Canada, in conjunction with a chart drawn up for the 1663 Heralds Visitation in Nottinghamshire, and certified by Thomas Mucklow of Broughton Sulney, then aged 45 years.  According to this, Thomas Mucklow, second son of John Mucklowe and Apolyne Foliot, married Alice Nicholls, a niece of Augustine Nicholls, Justice of the Council Pleas, about 1594.  Their son, also named Thomas, married Jane Wilson, daughter of William Wilson of Curdworth in Warwickshire, about 1615(?).  Thomas died in 1631.  This is the version which I am inclined to believe.

    Thomas Mucklowe

    The children of Thomas and Jane, all christened at Desford, Leicestershire, were :
(Note : some of these children may belong to another Thomas Mucklowe of Desford.)

    Thomas Mucklowe

    Thomas  Mucklowe of Broughton Sulney in Nottinghamshire married Margaret Parker, daughter of Robert Parker, formerly an alderman of Nottingham, by licence on 5th or 6th November 1638 at St Mary’s, Nottingham.  Their children were :
    [A Thomas Muxlow, apothecary, of St Mary’s, Nottingham, married Mary Harcourt of Plumtree, Nottinghamshire (born c1646), a descendant of the 4th Earl of Oxford, by licence on 1st June 1676.  Their children were Samuel, Joseph (this person would be too young to be the Joseph who married Anne), Thomas, John, Anne and Priscilla.  Thomas served as Junior Chamberlain from 1671 to 1674, Chamberlain from 1674 to 1675, and was Sheriff of Nottingham from 1676 to 1677.]

    Joseph Muxlow

Joseph Muxlow married Anne, and they had ten children between 1684 and 1701, before Joseph died in 1708.

    Joseph and Anne’s children were:
    John Mucklowe married Mary Prestwood at Fulbeck on 13th September 1716, and their children were :
    An Ann Mucklow, widow of East Markham aged 32, married John Cullen, aged 21 of Upton, on 19th February 1726 at Tuxford.

    Joseph Muxlow

    Joseph Muxlow married Mary Wroe on 26th March 1708 at Hawton, Nottinghamshire, and had five children.  Mary Wroe was christened on 30th July 1682 at Leadenham.  Her parents were Audley Wroe and Elizabeth Banbridge, who were married in 1681.  Mary was buried in Leadenham on 11th September 1742, and Joseph in Leadenham on 21st June 1747.  This seems to be the first time that Mucklows had settled in this village, which later became home to many of them.

    Joseph and Mary’s children were all christened in Leadenham, and were:

    Thomas Muxlow

    Thomas Muxlow married Mary Tubbs on 6th October 1741 at Lincoln.  They had eight children, all christened in Leadenham.  Thomas was buried on 22nd May 1780.  Their children were:

    George Muxlow

    George Muxlow married Mary Whittecar on 8th July 1775 at Wilsford, Lincolnshire.  George and Mary seem to have moved to the small village of Cranwell, a few miles from Leadenham, as all but one of their nine children were baptised there.  Today the village is famous as the site of the Royal Air Force College for officers.  The minister at Cranwell consistently spelled their surname Muclow.  Their children were:

    William married Elizabeth Johnson at Leadenham on 4th July 1813, and they had six children, all christened at Leadenham:

    By his marriage with Ann Allen, George had five children, all born at Cranwell :

    Thomas Muxlow

    Thomas Muxlow married Sarah Fenwick in her home village of Bardney on 30th July 1810.  Thomas Muxlow and his wife were living in the village of Welbourn at the time of the 1851 Census, when his occupation was stated as “agricultural labourer”.  His wife’s birthplace was given as Bardney, and her age as 63.  Sarah was the daughter of Thomas and Hannah Fenwick, and was christened at Bardney on 3rd May 1789.  Thomas and Sarah must have moved around in the first years of their marriage, possibly looking for work, but they eventually settled in Welbourn, where their last four children were baptised.  The family remained established in the village at least until the 1850’s, and so I was surprised not to find any of their graves in the churchyard.  Sarah was buried at Welbourn on 13th July 1854, aged 65, and Thomas followed her on 14th May 1861, at the age of 73.

    The Fenwick Family

    Thomas Fenwick married Hannah Robinson on 26th May 1774 at Bardney.  Their children, all baptised at Bardney, were :
    [A Thomas Fenwick married Ann Kitchen on 20th June 1797 at Bardney.  An Ann Kitchen was christened on 13th July 1777 at Market Sturton, with parents William and Ann Kitchen.  Thomas and Ann had a daughter, Maria, baptised on 11th October 1797 at Market Sturton.]

    Hannah Robinson was born about 1753, probably the daughter of John Robinson and Alice Hagues, who were married at Bardney on 2nd December 1746.  Their other children, all baptised at Bardney, were :
Mary must have died, as William Benton married Susanna Hanagoforth at Bardney on 28th May 1783.  Their children were :


    The children of Thomas and Sarah Muxlow were:
    In 1817 the Muxlow family were the subject of a Removal Order under the Poor Law :
“To the Churchwardens and Overseers of the Poor of the Parish of Bardney in the said Parts [Parts of Lindsey, County of Lincoln], and to the Churchwardens and Overseers of the Poor of the Parish of Welbourne in the Parts of Kesteven in the said County, and to each and every one of them.
Upon the Complaint of the Churchwardens and Overseers of the Poor of the Parish of Bardney aforesaid, in the said parts of Lindsey, and County of Lincoln, unto us whose Names are hereunto set and seals affixed, being two of his Majesty’s Justices of the Peace in and for the said Parts of Lindsey, and one of us of the Quorum, that Thomas Mucksloy and Sarah his Wife and William aged 5 years, and Hannah aged 3 years, and James aged 3 months, their children have come to inhabit in the Parish of Bardney aforesaid, not having gained a legal Settlement there, nor produced any certificate owning them to be settled elsewhere, and that the aforesaid Thomas Mucksloy and Sarah his Wife and William, Hannah, and James, their children are actually chargeable to the said Parish of Bardney,
We the said Justices, upon due Proof made thereof, as well upon the Examination of the said Thomas Mucksloy upon Oath as otherwise, and likewise upon due Consideration had of the Premises, do adjudge the same to be true; and we do likewise adjudge that the lawful Settlement of them the said Thomas Mucksloy and Sarah his Wife and William, Hannah, and James, their children is in the said Parish of Welbourne in the said Parts of Kesteven.
We do therefore require you the said Churchwardens and Overseers of the Poor of the said parish of Bardney or some or one of you to convey the said Thomas Mucksloy and Sarah his Wife and William, Hannah, and James, their children from and out of the said Parish of Bardney to the said Parish of Welbourne and them to deliver to the Churchwardens and Overseers of the Poor there, or to some or one of them together with this our Order or a true Copy thereof, at the same Time showing to them the Original; and we do also hereby require you the said Churchwardens and Overseers of the Poor of the said Parish of Welbourne to receive and provide for them as inhabitants of your said Parish.
Given under our Hands and Seals the third Day of May in the fifty-seventh Year of the Reign of his Majesty King George the Third, and in the Year of our Lord One Thousand Eight Hundred and seventeen.
                                                                    (Signed)    Thos. Roe
                                                                                     John ?

    White’s Directory of 1842 claimed of Welbourn that “The Countess of Buckinghamshire owns the greater part of the soil, and is the lady of the manor”.  No Muxlows are named in the list of inhabitants, which probably noted only “gentlefolk”.

    William Muxlow

    William married Maria Jackson at Ragnall on 26th June 1834.  Their children were:
    In the 1841 Census William Muxlow, 25, Maria, 30, Sarah Ann, 11 months, Thomas, 6 and Joseph, 4, lived in Old Street, Sheffield Park.  (Adult ages were rounded to the nearest 5 years.)  In the 1851 Census the family consisted of William, 39, Maria, 40, Thomas, 15, Joseph, 14 and William, 4.

    A descendant of this couple is John Muxlow of Nova Scotia, Canada.

    Thomas Muxlow

  Thomas became a schoolteacher, and was living in Sheffield in 1881, when the census recorded the following details :
Residence : 10 Clinton Place, Ecclesall Bierlow, Sheffield, YKS
    Thomas                H        M        45        Headmaster of Public Elementary School    Ragnall NTT
                                                                                        B.A. London
    Thomas H            S         U          21        Merchant’s cashier  and clerk                      Alnwick, NTM
    Hester M              D        U          19         ---                                                                      Alnwick, NTM
    Edith M                D        U          17         ---                                                                      Alnwick, NTM
    Agatha K             D        U          15         ---                                                                      Alnwick, NTM
    Hugh B                 S        U          13         Scholar                                                             Alnwick, NTM
    Harriet R               D       U           10        Scholar                                                             Alnwick, NTM
    Elsie B                   D       U             8        Scholar                                                             Staithwaite, YKS


    Thomas married Margaret Brookfield, who was born in 1838 and died on 29th March 1880.  In 1901 Thomas Muxlow lived at Sheffield, and was a retired schoolmaster.  Harriet was also listed, but Thomas H Muxlow was not listed.

    Thomas Henry Muxlow married Emily Florence Gill in the June quarter of 1885 at Ecclesall Bierlow, and their son Arthur Gordon Muxlow was born in 1894.  In White’s Directory of 1911 Thomas Henry Muxlow was listed as a Manager, living at 39 Steade Road.

    Hester Margaret Muxlow was married in the December quarter of 1893 at Ecclesall Bierlow to either John William Bennett or Charles Deakin.

    Edith Maria Muxlow was married in the September quarter of 1884 at Ecclesall Bierlow to Edgar Howgate Wheatley.  She died on 18th August 1888 at Ecclesall Bierlow, aged 24, soon after childbirth, as her daughter, Edith Lilian Wheatley, died on 22nd October 1888, aged five months.

    An Agatha Kate Muxlow died in the September quarter of 1893 at Ecclesall Bierlow, aged 28.

    Hugh Broodfield (probably Brookfield) Muxlow was married in the September quarter of 1894 at Islington, London, to Lucy Gertrude Little.  In the 1901 Census they lived at St Clements, Hastings, Sussex.  Hugh, 32, was a commercial traveller, Lucy, born at Aylsham, Norfolk, was also 32, and they had a daughter, Mignon, aged 2, born at Hastings.

    Elsie Barton Muxlow was married in the December quarter of 1897 at Ecclesall Bierlow to George Ibberson.  In the 1901 Census Elsie Ibberson, aged 28, born at Slaithwaite, lived at Sheffield.  Her husband was aged 29.  He was born at Sheffield, and was a solicitor’s clerk and secretary of lim(ited company?).

    Joseph Jackson Muxlow

  The 1871 Census lists his family (as Muslow) in the Nether Hallam sub-district of Ecclesall Bierlow : Jos’h Jackson, 34, Elizabeth G H, 35, Fanny Maria, 7, Arthur, 5, Edith, 1, and Clara, 2 months.

    Fanny Maria Muxlow was born in the September quarter of 1863 in the Sheffield district, and died, aged 12, in the June quarter of 1876 in the Ecclesall Bierlow district.  Arthur Muxlow was born in the June quarter of 1865 in the Ecclesall Bierlow district, and died, aged 12, in the March quarter of 1878 in the Sheffield district.

    In the 1881 Census they lived at Nether Hallam, Sheffield, where the following details were recorded :
Residence : 49 Sidney Road, Sheffield, YKS
    Josh. J                H        M        44        Steel Manufacturer                                          Sheffield, YKS
    Elizabeth G        W       M        45        ---                                                                        London, MSX
    Edith                   D        U         11        ---                                                                        Sheffield, YKS
    Clara                   D        U         10         ---                                                                        Sheffield, YKS
    Edgar                  S        U            6        ---                                                                        Sheffield, YKS


    Joseph Muxlow married Elizabeth Grace Hawley Wharton in the September quarter of 1862 in the district of Sheffield.  In 1901 Joseph Muxlow lived at Southport, Lancashire, and was still a steel manufacturer at the age of 64.  Edith Muxlow was born in the March quarter of 1870, Clara was born in the March quarter of 1871, and Edgar in the September quarter of 1874, all at Ecclesall Bierlow.

    Edgar Muxlow married Margaret Annie Havenhand in the March quarter of 1900 at Ecclesall Bierlow, and they had at least one child, Reginald Havenhand Muxlow, born in the December quarter of 1906. In White’s Directory of 1911 Edgar was listed as working for Muxlow and Knott Ltd, and lived at Devonshire Villa, Totley Rise.  Muxlow and Knott made cutlery of all kinds at the Hope Steel Works, Sheffield.

        Edith Muxlow married Walter Henry Hartley in the June quarter of 1895 at Sheffield.  In 1901, Walter, aged 39, a “printer stations”, Edith, aged 31, and their children Henry, 2, and Grace, 1, lived in the parish of Dore, Derbyshire.

    Hannah Muxlow

    Hannah married James Johnson at Bardney in the March quarter of 1838, and they had seven children, including Elizabeth, great-grandmother of Sylvia Hepworth (nee Pearson) of Huddersfield.

    James Muxlow

    James Muxlow married Anne Herod of Bathley on 30th May 1842, at North Muskham.  Both were in service at Bathley before their marriage.  They later lived at Welbourn, where James was employed as an agricultural labourer.  James moved to Sheffield with his family about 1852, but had returned to Welbourn by the 1881 census, when his occupation was given as “farmer, 65 acres”.

    The Herod Family

  Ann Herod was christened on 23rd February 1823 at Morton by Fiskerton, Nottinghamshire.  Her parents were John Herod and Olive Dixon Voce, who were married on 18th November 1822 at Averham, Nottinghamshire.  Other children of John and Olive Herod included :
    A Mary Herod, aged 55, born at Fiskerton, is listed in the 1881 Census.  In 1901, Samuel Herrod, a former agricultural labourer aged 74, born at Bathley, was living in the parish of Bathley.  He probably died in the June quarter of 1903 in the district of Southwell, which includes Bathley, although his age was given as 82.  A Matthew Herrod died in the East Retford district in the March quarter of 1900, aged 69.  Olive Dixon Herrod died in the September quarter of 1878 in the district of Southwell, aged 74.  In the 1881 Census a John Herrod, widower aged 78, born in Farndon, was living at Carlton Road in Bathley with his son-in-law, William Johnson, who had married Phaoebe (sic), aged 41 born at Bathley.  A Mrs W Johnson attended the funeral of John Muxlow in 1905.  John Herrod died, aged 82, in the March quarter of 1884 in the district of Newark.

    Phaoebe Herrod married William Johnson about 1869.  He was born at Bathley and christened on 17th July 1831 at Newark  In 1901 Pheobe (sic), aged 61, and William Johnson, woodman aged 70, were living at Bathley.


    James and Anne Muxlow’s children were :
    In the 1871 Census the family were still living in the Attercliffe sub-district of Ecclesall Bierlow : James, 54, Ann, 49, Sarah, 24, William, 21, Anne, 17, Maria, 11, Mary, 9, Ruben, 8 and (grandson) Henry, 2.      Living in the same Census sub-district were James and Ann’s son, John, 26, his wife, Matilda, 26, and their children, Thomas, 6, Oliver, 4, and James, 2.

    Details of the family at Welbourn in the 1881 Census are :
    James Muxlow            H        M        64        Farmer 45 acres                                                 Bardney, LIN
    Annie                           W       M        59        ---                                                                        Morton, NTT
    Maria                            D        U         21        ---                                                                        Sheffield, YKS
    Reuben                         S        U         18        Farmer’s son                                                     Sheffield, YKS
    Henry Muxlow            Gson  --         12        Scholar                                                               Sheffield, YKS
    George R Elkington    Nephew --     11        Scholar                                                              Welbourn, LIN
    Mary Ellen Barrow      Gdau --            2        ---                                                                        Sheffield, YKS


    Henry Muxlow was born (possibly illegitimate) in the Sheffield district in the March quarter of 1869, and died aged 42 in the December quarter of 1910 in the Ecclesall Bierlow district.  He married Isabella Needham (born about 1870) in the December quarter of 1896 in the Ecclesall Bierlow district, and they possibly had a son, Henry Leslie in the same district in the June quarter of 1903.  In the 1901 Census, Henry Muxlow, 32, postal clerk, and Isabella Muxlow, 31, were both living at Nether Hallam.

    In the 1901 Census, Ann Muxlow, aged 80, born at Morton, Notts, lived at Caistor.

    James died on 1st June 1899 at Welbourn.  Ann died on 25th February 1902 at Caistor.

    John Muxlow

    John Muxlow moved to Sheffield with his father when he was about 8 years old.  As an adult he worked in the steel industry, and was manager of the steel smelting department of Jonas and Colver Ltd at the time of his death, on 12th November 1905.  John married twice, the first time to Matilda Simpson, on 19th June 1864, at St Philip’s Church, Sheffield.  Their children were :
    The 1871 Census lists the family as living in the Attercliffe sub-district of Ecclesall Bierlow.  At the time of the 1881 Census, the family lived at 20 Montfort Road, Brightside Bierlow :
    John Muxlow        H        M        36        Foreman steel melter                                        Welbourn, LIN
    Matilda                   W      M        36        ---                                                                         Sheffield, YKS
    Thomas                  S         U        16        Moulder steel foundry                                     Sheffield, YKS
    Olive                       D        U        14        ---                                                                         Sheffield, YKS
    James                      S         --        12        ---                                                                         Sheffield, YKS
    Matilda                   D        --          9        Scholar                                                                Sheffield, YKS
    Emma                      D        --           6        Scholar                                                               Sheffield, YKS
    Lily                          D        --          4        ---                                                                         Sheffield, YKS
    John                        S         --        10m     ---                                                                         Sheffield, YKS


    After Matilda’s death on 26th November 1882 at the age of 38, John married Sarah Templeman (nee Newstead) on 30th January 1884, at Newark.  Their children were :
    In the 1891 Census the family lived at 29 Fir Street, Sheffield :
    John Muxlow         H        M        46        Manager (steel)                                                Welbourn, LIN
    Sarah                       W       M        43        ---                                                                        Bathley, NTT
    Olive                        D        U         24        ---                                                                        Sheffield, YKS
    James                       S        U         22        Manager assistant (steel)                                Sheffield, YKS
    Emma                       D        U         16        ---                                                                        Sheffield, YKS
    Lily                           D        --         12        ---                                                                        Sheffield, YKS
    John                         S         --         10        ---                                                                        Sheffield, YKS
    William                    S         --           6        ---                                                                        Sheffield, YKS
    William Newstead BinL   U         48        Gardener                                                            Bathley, NTT

    At the time of his death, John and his family still lived at 29 Fir Street, Sheffield.  In White’s Directory of 1911 Mrs Sarah Muxlow is listed as the householder at 29 Fir Street, and in the 1919 Directory William Muxlow is still listed as living there.

    John’s obituary appeared in a local Sheffield Church newspaper :
    “Sheffield Primitive Methodism and Sheffield 4th Circuit in particular have lost a noble and useful servant by the death of Mr John Muxlow.  He was born at Welbourne, Lincolnshire, and was the eldest son of James and Ann Muxlow, who were earnest workers in the Lord’s vineyard.

    “Of his father he often spoke as a most exemplary character whose piety did much to direct his youthful steps into the way of truth.  He came with his parents to Sheffield when he was about eight years of age and was sent to the nearest Sabbath School.  From this period to the end of his days his interest in the Sunday School never flagged.

    “When quite a youth he joined an Open Air Mission Band and did much good service for the Master in the streets.  One day he was asked to visit a poor man who was sick. 
    “As I prayed by the side of the dying man,” he said, “I heard a voice saying to me, ‘The man is hungry, give him something to eat.’  So persistent was the voice that I could not continue my prayer, so I rose from my knees and gave the man a shilling.”  Poor John! He could ill afford to part with a shilling, for he was very poor, but he gave it in the fulness of his heart.  John Muxlow never forgot that lesson, and through all the future years of his service his life was one sweet expression of benevolence.  He was liberal to all from the Salvation Army to the Anglican Church, while his generous gifts to the poor and needy won him golden opinions from all.

    “Not long before he died, he gave £50 towards our new Sunday Schools at Walkley and it was his custom for many years at Christmas to send out gifts among the poor and thus lighten the burden of their life and give practical effect to the teachings of Jesus Christ.  During the latter part of his life especially he was a man of deep and earnest piety – quiet but genuine – and most attentive to the means of grace and the business meetings of the Church.

    “Mr Muxlow passed away to his rest on November 12th, 1905, in his 62nd year, the truest memorial of him being his good deeds wrought so simply and unostentatiously in the spirit of the Lord Jesus.”

    The report of his funeral appeared in the local newspaper :
“The Late Mr John Muxlow
Funeral at Walkley
The remains of the late Mr John Muxlow of 29 Fir Street, Walkley, were interred at the Walkley Cemetery yesterday.  The funeral service was conducted at Walkley Ebenezer Chapel by the Rev H W Matthews.  Deceased had been a member of this church nearly all his life, and the respect with which he was regarded was shown yesterday, when the chapel was filled with people.

    “The chief mourners were Mrs John Muxlow (widow), Mr T Muxlow, Mr and Mrs Reuben Muxlow, Mr and Mrs James Muxlow, Mr and Mrs Jonathan Roebuck, Mr John Muxlow, Mr W Muxlow, Mr and Mrs George Muxlow, Mrs R Herod, Mrs R Clayton, Mrs E Martin, Mr Thomas Muxlow, Mrs W Johnson, Mrs J Bowns, Mrs W Slingsby, Mrs W Fox, Mrs D Hayes, Mrs A Pierpont, Mr and Mrs J Hiley, Mrs A Alltoft and Miss F Alltoft, Mrs J Gibson, Mrs L Hunt, Mr and Mrs John Clark, Miss K Muxlow, Mr G Muxlow jun, Mr James Muxlow, Miss Grace Muxlow, Miss M Barrow, Mrs Harry Muxlow, Miss Alice Muxlow, A E Muxlow, Mrs M Wilkinson, Mrs E Dyer, Mrs F Wilkinson, Mrs W Sharpe, and Mr and Mrs H Howe.

    “In addition to these there was a deputation from Messrs Jonas and Colver Ltd, where deceased had worked for many years, and was at the time of his death manager of the steel smelting department.  It consisted of Mr Robert Jonas (son of Sir Joseph Jonas), Mr B W Winder (managing director), Messrs Wostenholme, W Burgin, and G Simpson (works managers) and about 50 men who had worked under Mr Muxlow.  Mr G Senior junr also attended, and Mr Wm Craven was present, representing the Federated Health Association.  Messrs Daniel Doncaster and Sons Limited were represented by Mr Smith, and the Walkley Ebenezer Church sent representatives in Messrs J Parker and J Ashton (representing the trustees), Messrs J Edley and T Robinson (Sunday School), Mrs J London and Mrs T Newton (married ladies class), Mr Longdon and Mr and Mrs G Moore.

    “Amongst the floral tributes were wreaths from Messrs Jonas and Colver Limited, the managers of Messrs Jonas and Colver, the workpeople of the firm, and the Walkley Ebenezer Church.”


    William Muxlow

    William Muxlow married, and may have had six children.  I could not find his details in the 1881 Census.

    George Muxlow   

    George Muxlow and Sarah Senior had at least three children.  Sarah Senior was christened on 5th August 1849 at Penistone, Yorkshire.  Her parents were John Senior and Dinah Darley.  When the 1881 Census was taken, the family was living at Mount View Road, Norton, Derby :
    George Muxlow        H        M        29        Board Schoolmaster                                        Welbourn, LIN
    Sarah                         W        M        30        ---                                                                        Sheffield,YKS
    Kate Elizabeth           D        --           5        Scholar                                                               Greenhill, DBY
    James S                       S        --           2        ---                                                                         Norton, DBY
    George                        S        --        10m      ---                                                                         Norton, DBY
    Charlotte Moody   Servt    --         12        Domestic Servant                                              Norton, DBY


    Kate Elizabeth Muxlow was born in the September quarter of 1875 and registered at Ecclesall Bierlow.  James Senior Muxlow was born on 18th June 1878.  He married Edith Ethel Smith (born 18th June 1876 at Victoria Road, Heeley, Sheffield, died 23rd July 1944, parents George Smith and Martha Kay) on 15th February 1906 at Sheffield.  They had a daughter, Dorothy, born on 6th December 1906 who died on 14th December 1986.  In the 1919 White’s Directory he is a bank cashier living at 72 Edgedale Road.

    In the 1901 Census George Muxlow, aged 49, was a certificated schoolmaster at Norton, Derbyshire.  Also there were Sarah, aged 50, Kate, aged 25, James, aged 22, a bank clerk, John, aged 19, a pupil teacher, Grace, aged 16, a candidate pupil teacher, Reuben, aged 14, an engineers and makers office boy, Mary, aged 12, Sarah, aged 11, and Winifred, aged 9.  All the children were born at Norton, John in the September quarter of 1880 (was this George under another name ?), Grace Annie in the June quarter of 1884, Reuben in the September quarter of 1886, Sarah Marion in the December quarter of 1889, and Winifred in the June quarter of 1892.  Grace Annie Muxlow arrived at Ellis Island, New York on 7th June 1908, as a second-class passenger on the Caronia, sailing from Liverpool.  She was aged 23, single, with no occupation.  Her nearest relative was Mr G Muxlow of 33 Millmount St, Sheffield, and her final destination was the town of Youngstown, Ohio.  She was 5’6" tall, with a fair complexion, brown hair and eyes.  She was going to meet a friend, Mr G A Cannon, of Williams Street, Youngstown, and was discharged into the care of her uncle, Luther Senior, 110 Bell Avenue, Walton, New York.  Luther Senior arrived in Ellis Island on 15th September 1900 on the Lucania from Liverpool.  He was aged 55, and married.  The 1880 American Census lists Luther Senior living in Pepperell, Middlesex, Massachussetts :
    Luther Senior        H        M        35        Works in knife factory                                    England
    Sarah                     W        M        35        Keeping house                                                England
    Lillian B                  D        U         11        At school                                                          England
    Jessie                      D        U           9        At school                                                          Massachussetts

Luther Senior had evidently emigrated to America between about 1869 and 1871.  He married Sarah Lodge in the June quarter of 1865 in the district of Sheffield.  Lily (or Lillian) Bradford Senior was born in the June quarter of 1868 in the same district.

    Ann Muxlow

    Ann Muxlow married Henry Barrow in the June quarter of 1873 in the Sheffield district.  They had at least three children before Ann died at Sheffield in the March quarter of 1880, aged 26.
  At the time of the 1881 Census the youngest child, Mary Ellen, was living with her grandparents, while Henry Barrow and his two eldest children were living with Henry’s mother at 52 Campo Lane, Sheffield :-
    Alice Barrow         H        M        53        ---                                                                        Sheffield, YKS
    Richard William    S         U         33        Joiner                                                                 Halifax, YKS
    Henry                     S        W         30        Joiner                                                                 Sheffield, YKS
    Charles                   S         U         21        Bricklayer                                                          Sheffield,YKS
    Alice Ann            Gdau    --           6        ---                                                                        Sheffield,YKS
    Martha E              Gdau    --           4        ---                                                                        Sheffield,YKS

    Henry Barrow died at Sheffield in the March quarter of 1889, aged 39.  In the 1901 Census Alice Barrow, aged 26, was a domestic nurse at Birkdale, Lancaster.  Mary Barrow, aged 22, was a general domestic servant at Crumpsall, Lancaster.

    Martha Emma Barrow was born in the September quarter of 1876 in the Sleaford district.  She was married in the Ecclesall Bierlow district in the June quarter of 1898, to Bernard Eagers.  In 1901 the Eagers family lived in the parish of Hunslet :-
    Bernard Eagers                        26    born at Sheffield    engineer’s model maker
    Martha                                      24        Sheffield
    Ernest                                4 months    Leeds

Ernest Watson Eagers was born in the March quarter of 1901 at Hunslet.  In the same parish was also Phiebe Eagers, aged 16, born at Sheffield.

    Alice Ann Barrow was born in the December quarter of 1874, and Mary Ellen Barrow was born in the March quarter of 1879, all at Sheffield.  Alice Ann Barrow died aged 22 in the December quarter of 1896 in the Huddersfield district, and Mary Ellen Barrow died aged 30 in the December quarter of 1909 in the district of Ecclesall Bierlow.

A Miss M Barrow attended the funeral of James’ son John Muxlow in Sheffield in 1905.

    Emma Muxlow

    In 1881 Emma Muxlow was employed as a nurse :
Residence : (Off) Psalter Lane “Kenyon House”, Ecclesall Bierlow YKS
    Norman J Parker    Son (Head)    --        1        ---                                                               Sheffield, YKS
    Elizabeth High       Servt               U      25       Cook (domestic)                            Broughty Ferry, Forfar, SCT
    Emma Muxlow       Servt               U      24        Nurse (domestic)                                     Sheffield, YKS


    Mary Muxlow

    In 1881 Mary Muxlow was possibly living at New Street, Newark upon Trent, Nottinghamshire :
    Daniel Taylor        H        M        67         Pensioner                                                         Belper, DBY
    Mary                      W       M        37          ---                                                                      Bathley, NTT
    Mary Muxlow     Niece   U         19          Dressmaker                                                      Sheffield, YKS


    Reuben Muxlow

    Reuben married his niece Olive, daughter of John, in the June quarter of 1893 at Ecclesall Bierlow.  They lived at Welbourn and had five children.  The 1901 Census listed in the civil parish of Wellingore Reuben, aged 50 (? he was 38), a farmer, Olive, aged 30, John W, aged 7, James H, aged 4, Reuben, aged 6 (Reuben Thomas was born in the September quarter of 1894), and Emma, aged 7 months.  All the children were born at Welbourn, Emma in the September quarter of 1900.  John William Muxlow was born in the Sleaford district in the September quarter of 1893.  James Henry Muxlow was born in the same district in the December quarter of 1896 and died in the March quarter of 1908, aged 11.

    Sarah Muxlow

    Sarah Muxlow, daughter of Thomas and Sarah, married Hollinsworth Wright (born in 1832 at Wellingore) in 1852 in the Sleaford district.  They had a son, William Muxlow Wright, born in 1854 at Welbourn, before William Wright died in the December quarter of 1854.

    Sarah remarried on 5th May 1857 to John Elkington, who was born on 5th October 1835 at Welbourn.  His parents were John Elkington, born on 4th March 1810 at Leadenham, and Mary Bemrose, born in 1811 at Welbourn.  They had six children :
    In the 1881 Census there were four Elkingtons who had been born at Welbourn and who were living with relatives or in lodgings.  They were James Henry Elkington, 17, George Robert Elkington, 11, Sarah Rosina Elkington, 21 and Mary Elizabeth Elkington, 19.

    James Henry Elkington was born at Welbourn in the March quarter of 1864.  In 1881 he lived with his uncle at Fen, Great Hale, Lincolnshire :-
    Robert Elkington        H        M        67        Farmer (50 acres)                                              Leadenham, LIN
    Maria                           W        M        62        ---                                                                        Falkingham, LIN
    James H                 Nephew    U        17        Farm servant                                                     Welbourn, LIN
    Louisa Partridge    Servant    U        16        Domestic servant                                             Bletsoe, BED


    James Henry Elkington was married at Halifax, Yorkshire, in the June quarter of 1889, to Elizabeth Green, and was married again in the December quarter of 1908, to Emma Brandwood.  The 1901 Census of Halifax listed James, aged 37, born at Welbourn, the secretary of a Coal Society, and Elizabeth, aged 38, born at Halifax.

    On the night of the 1881 Census, George Robert Elkington was staying at the home of his uncle, John Muxlow.  George Robert Elkington was married in the September quarter of 1893 at Halifax to Clara Morton.  In the 1901 Census, George Elkington, aged 31, born at Welbourn, was a “foreman mechanic” at an “electric motors makers” at Halifax.  Clara Elkington was also aged 31 and was born at Halifax

    In 1881 Sarah and Mary Elkington were living as lodgers at 63 Battinson Road, Halifax :-
    John Crowther            H        M        63        Insurance agent                                                Sheffield, YKS
    Hannah                       W        M        62        ---                                                                        York, YKS
    Sarah R Elkington  Boarder  U        21        Dressmaker                                                        Welbourn, LIN
    Mary E Elkington   Boarder  U        19        Worsted weaver                                               Welbourn, LIN

    Sarah Rosina Elkington was married to Jesse Balme at Halifax in the December quarter of 1881.  In 1901 Sarah Balme, dressmaker aged 40, born at Welbourn, and Jesse Balme, draper’s assistant aged 54, born at Bolton, Lancashire, were living at Halifax.

    Mary Elizabeth Elkington was married to Nelson Hey at Halifax in the September quarter of 1883.  In 1901 the Hey family were living in the Mytholmroyd parish, just west of Halifax.

    George Muxlow

George Muxlow (son of Thomas and Sarah) married Eliza Booth, from the village of North Scarle, Lincolnshire, in the June quarter of 1841, in the district of Newark (George’s surname was written as “Muckslow”).  Their first five children were :
    Eliza Booth was the daughter of William Booth and his wife Elizabeth.  Their children, all christened at North Scarle, were :
    A William Booth was christened at Brant Broughton on 21st April 1795.  His parents were William Booth and Elizabeth.  Another William Booth was christened at Skellingthorpe on 24th December 1797, to John Booth and Jane Swallow, who were married there on 13th April 1784.

    The 1851 Census

    Censuses had been taken in England and Scotland every ten years since 1801, but only basic data was gathered for many years, and this was often inaccurate owing to the confusing form of the questions.  The census of 1851, taken on the night of 30th March, was greatly assisted by the system of registration of births, deaths and marriages which came into operation in 1837.  Prior to that time, the unchecked Parish Registers were the only available source of information.

    The 1851 Census for Welbourn noted three households of Muxlows, those of father Thomas and his two sons James and George.  Details provided include each occupant’s name, relationship to the head of the household, age, occupation and place of birth:
        Name                    Relation        Age                Rank                                                            Born
    Thomas Muxlow    Head                64                Ag. lab.                                                Lincs., Cranwell
    Sarah                        Wife                63                 ---                                                         Lincs., Bardney
    Sarah                        Dau                 24                 Dressmaker                                         Welbourn

    James Muxlow        Head               34                Ag. lab                                                  Welbourn
    Ann                          Wife                29                 ---                                                           Notts., Bathley
    James                        Son                   8                Scholar                                                  Welbourn
    John                          Son                   6                Scholar                                                  Welbourn
    Sarah                         Dau                  4                Scholar                                                   Welbourn
    Olive                          Dau                  3                 ---                                                            Welbourn
    William                      Son                   1                ---                                                            Welbourn

    George Muxlow       Head               30                Ag. lab                                                   Welbourn
    Eliza                            Wife               27                ---                                                            Lincs., North Scarle
    Elizabeth                    Dau                  6                ---                                                            Welbourn
    Martha                       Dau            8 mths            ---                                                            Welbourn
    Mary Ann Bainbridge Lodger        83              Annuitant                                               London


    Whereas our branch of the family remained agricultural labourers, by contrast, several of the Mucklows of Leadenham had managed to make the transition from hired labourer to farm-owners and shopkeepers, employing other labourers, servants and apprentices.

    The Muxlows in Sheffield

    George Muxlow

    George Muxlow and his family left Welbourn soon after the census was taken, to try and improve their lot in the newly industrialised town of Sheffield.  Even at that time Sheffield had a long industrial history.  Iron was worked in the vicinity in the 12th Century, and it was famed for its knives by the time of Chaucer.  In 1624 the Company of Cutlers in Hallamshire was incorporated.  Steel long remained the industry of the “little mester”, but the 18th century saw many industrial changes.  The invention by Boulsover in 1742 of the method of coating copper with silver to form the well-known “Sheffield plate” established an industry which flourished until the 1840’s.  In 1740 Huntsman invented the process for making crucible steel, and later established his works at Attercliffe.  At the same time coal began to be widely used for smelting.  Even more important was Bessemer’s converter of 1856.  At the same time arose a demand for steel for railways, armaments and constructional purposes, which stimulated a rapid expansion in the workforce of skilled labour.

    George and Eliza’s family continued to grow in Sheffield, with the birth of a daughter, Annie Maria in the June quarter of 1856, and a son, John Gantley on 31st October 1862.  John’s birth certificate states that he was born at the family home, 26 Daisy Bank, and that George’s occupation was steel melter (journeyman).  A journeyman was a skilled tradesman, craftsman or artisan who had completed his apprenticeship or training, but worked for wages for a workshop owner, instead of owning his own works.  By now the age of photography had arrived, and photos of George exist, showing a determined look and bushy whiskers, with an equally determined Eliza at his side.  One photo shows the couple at the back door of a later home at 165 Martin Street “near the henpen”.

    The 1871 Census lists (under the surname Muglow) the following people in the same Registration district of Ecclesall Bierlow and sub-district of Nether Hallam :
    Joseph                    49        (is this George?)
    Eliza                         47        (George’s wife Eliza Booth)
    Phoebe                    18
    Annie Maria           15?
    John Gautley            6        (John Gantley)
    William                    59        (George’s brother)
    Maria                       60         (William’s wife Maria Jackson)


    Phoeba Mucklow (sic) was born in the December quarter of 1852, in the Sheffield district.  I cannot prove that George and Eliza were her parents, but she is listed (under her married name of Phoebe Jackson) as a daughter of George at his funeral.  Phoebe Muxlow married George Withill Jackson in the December quarter of 1879 at Sheffield.

    At the time of the 1881 Census George Muxlow, his wife Eliza and son John Gantley were living with their married daughter, Annie Maria Hunt.

    The 1901 Census lists a George Muxlow, aged 79, born at Welbourn, occupation “General Labourer”, in the parish of St Paul’s, Lincoln.  Perhaps he was travelling, taking photographs, as mentioned in his obituary.

    Elizabeth Muxlow

    Elizabeth Muxlow married Henry Hunt in the December quarter of 1862 in the district of Sheffield, and they had at least one child before her husband died.  A Henry Hunt died aged 33 in the March quarter of 1873 in Sheffield.  She then married Herbert Foster in the December quarter of 1880, and the 1881 Census shows them living at 67 Jericho Street, Sheffield :
    Herbert Foster        H        M        31        Steel manager                                                    Sheffield, YKS
    Elizabeth Foster     W       M        35         ---                                                                        Westbourn, LIN
                                                                                                                                                (actually Welbourn, LIN)
    Arthur E Hunt         S        --            9        Scholar                                                               Sheffield, YKS


    In 1901 Herbert, 51, and Elizabeth, 56, were living at Nether Hallam.  His occupation was “steel warehouse manager”.     Arthur Ernest Hunt was born in the June quarter of 1871 at Ecclesall Bierlow.  In 1901, aged 29, he lived at Nether Hallam, and was a “Teacher of Music and Piano Tuner”.  [A William Silverwood Hunt died at Ecclesall Bierlow, aged 31, in the June quarter of 1876.]

    Martha Muxlow

    Martha Muxlow, the surviving twin, married Simeon Walton at Sheffield in the December quarter of 1870.  She must have died young, possibly following the birth of her second child, as Simeon married again, to Kate Amelia Smith at Ecclesall Bierlow in the September quarter of 1877.  In the 1881 Census the family lived at 37 Bower Road, Nether Hallam, and included two sons of Martha’s, Mark and Horace.  Horace Walton was a mourner at the funeral of his grandfather, George, in 1911.
    Simeon Walton        H        M        33        Britannia Metal Filer (White Metal)                 Sheffield, YKS
    Kate Amelia             W        M        25        Housewife                                                            Sheffield, YKS
    Mark Henry               S         --          8         Scholar                                                                 Sheffield, YKS
    Horace                        S         --          6         Scholar                                                                 Sheffield, YKS
    Samuel                        S         --          2         ---                                                                          Sheffield, YKS
    Charles Bert. Smith B-in-L   --        15        Errand Boy                                                          Sheffield, YKS
    Alfred Smith            B-in-L   U        21        Silver Engraver                                                   Sheffield, YKS


    Mark Henry Walton was born at Sheffield in the March quarter of 1873.  On the same page of the Register was the entry for the birth of a George William Davage.  Horace Walton was born at Sheffield in the June quarter of 1875.

    In 1901 Horace Walton was an engraver, living at Nether Hallam.

    Annie Maria Muxlow

    Annie Maria Muxlow married Henry Peter Kirkby in the December quarter of 1876, at Sheffield.  The 1881 census lists George Muxlow as a lodger in the house of his son-in-law, Henry P Kirkby, at 111 St Phillips Road :
    Henry P Kirkby                    H        27        Ironmonger                                                         Worksop, NTT
    Annie Maria Kirkby           W        25        ---                                                                          Sheffield, YKS
    Ruth Annie Kirkby              D          2        ---                                                                          Sheffield, YKS
    Elizabeth Emmaline Kirkby D        10m     ---                                                                          Sheffield, YKS
    Maria Ellis                       Servant   14        Dom Servant                                                       Sheffield, YKS
    George Muxlow              Lodger    60        Steel melter                                                         Welbourn, LIN
    Eliza Muxlow                        W       58         ---                                                                         N Scorlie, LIN
    John Gantley Muxlow          S        18        Letter carrier                                                       Sheffield, YKS

    [A family called Nanns was also living at 111 St Phillips Road at the time of the Census.]

    Henry Peter Kirkby was born in the December quarter of 1853 in the district of Worksop. His father was Henry Kirkby, who was christened at Worksop on 23rd January 1822, and died, aged 72, at Worksop in the December quarter of 1893.  He married Ann Rigley at Worksop in the June quarter of 1845, and in 1881 they were living at 40 Park Street, Worksop :
    Henry Kirkby                H        M        59    Joiner                                                                    Worksop, NTT
    Ann                                W       M        60     ---                                                                          Worksop, NTT

Henry Kirkby’s parents were William Kirkby and his wife Grace Harrismith, who were married at Worksop on 25th January 1821.
  
     Ruth Annie Kirkby was born in the June quarter of 1878.  A Ruth Annie Kirkby was married at Ecclesall Bierlow in the December quarter of 1900, to possibly either George Hennings or Thomas Oldfield.  [But a Ruth Annie Kirkby was a mourner at George Muxlow’s  funeral in 1911.]

    Elizabeth Emmeline Kirkby was born in the September quarter of 1880.  On the same page of registrations was a Henry Rigley Kirkby, who was probably a twin of Elizabeth, and who died in the December quarter of 1880.  In the 1901 census, Elizabeth, aged 19, was a coal merchant’s clerk, living at Ecclesall.

    Death

    Eliza Muxlow died on 10th December 1888 at 165 Martin St, Nether Hallam, Sheffield, aged 65, of “softening of the brain”, but George lived on until the 2nd May 1911, dying at 136 Martin St, Sheffield, of “senile decay and bronchitis”  His death was registered by A E Hunt, grandson, who was present at the death.  The Sheffield daily newspaper published a lengthy obituary and photograph on the following Saturday, which I reproduce in full :

A  SHEFFIELD  WORTHY
Interesting career of the late Mr George Muxlow
    An old Sheffield worthy in the person of Mr George Muxlow has been removed by death.  He was in his 90th year, and died at his home in Martin Street on Tuesday last.  In the fullest sense of the term he was one of Nature’s gentlemen.  Integrity, lofty sentiments, and strong convictions allied with tenderness of heart, were leading characteristics of his personality, and he was in love with every living thing.  Practically to the end he maintained both his physical and mental activities.  He was a pronounced Liberal; and in spite of weight of years and the disappointments of politics he was no pessimist, but had unbounded enthusiasm for the Government and its social programme.

Pipe Organs Out of Barrels
    Mr Muxlow was a native of Welbourne, Lincolnshire, and was born in 1821.  He worked in the fields until he was 31, and then, in 1852, came to Sheffield.  He became a crucible steel smelter with Messrs. Sanderson’s of West Street; and subsequently followed his trade with Messrs. Camm and Bagshawe, and James and F C Wild, Borussia Steel Works.  He served the latter firm sixteen years, and was closely identified with the family.  At 65 years of age he retired from the business.  For nearly 49 years he lived a happy married life, and had five daughters and a son; all of whom, save two daughters, survive him, and reside in the city.

    One illustration of the inventive and utilitarian genius of the veteran is peculiarly interesting.  He was a great devotee of music, and one of his hobbies was the very innocent one of building pipe organs.  His oldest grand-son (Mr Arthur E Hunt, professor of music), with whom he lived, has at the present time an organ of his creation.  It is a one-manual instrument, with pedals, seven stops, and some 400 pipes.  Many of these are made of wood from broken barrels.  Mr Muxlow used to soak the staves of the barrels in water for a considerable time, then weight them with steel ingots in his workshop, and by that means dry them straight.  Another of his undertakings was to add a second manual to the organ in Ecclesall Workhouse, which was originally erected by Elliott.

Feats in Photography
    He played the organ, trombone, double-bass, and ‘cello with facility, and in his day was known as a composer of anthems and tunes, one of which, “Sydney Cottage”, used to be especially popular at Sunday school anniversaries.  For many years he was conductor at Mount Gerizim, in the Park, and although never a member of any church, he attended Weston Street and Oxford Street Methodist Churches.  His religious convictions were deep, nevertheless, and he believed that the supreme test of faith must be in the living.

    When bordering on 70 years of age, Mr Muxlow took up the hobby of photography as an antidote to the effects of losing his wife.  His thoroughness and enthusiasm, as an old man, in following the pursuit were astonishing.  Cathedral architecture was his particular forte, and he travelled all over England “snapping”.  He took no fewer than 10 000 pictures, and made 1 000 lantern slides; and box after box of indexed negatives bear eloquent testimony to the fact.  He did not abandon the hobby until he was 88 years of age, and even then he reluctantly confessed, “I must be getting too old for it!”.  Poultry keeping was another hobby he went into at one period, and a record of every egg laid was kept.

    It is interesting to recall that the veteran was a teetotaller and non-smoker, and a Past Master of the Good Templars.  The late Mr J J Muxlow, of Dore, who died in April, was his nephew, and the two had always been intimately associated.

Funeral at General Cemetery
    The funeral took place at the General Cemetery yesterday, the Rev T C Lawson, of St Philip’s, officiating.  Good Templary was represented by Mr W H Hall, secretary of the Oxford Nimshi Lodge (which was founded by Mr Muxlow), and Mr W Brougham, Chief Templar of the convention of Templars, others attending including Mr and Mrs C W Longhorn, Mr J Nicholson, and Mr E Muxlow, of Dore.  The private mourners were Elizabeth Foster, Phoebe Jackson, and Annie Kirkby (daughter), John Gantley (son), H P Kirkby (son-in-law), Joseph Booth Foster, Mrs John Herbert Foster, Elsie Jackson, Ruth Annie Kirkby, Arthur E Hunt, Horace Walton, and Mrs John Atkinson (grand-children), John Atkinson, William and Geo. Muxlow (nephews), and Mrs John Muxlow (niece).

    The photograph accompanying the article was labelled “A Musical Genius”, and showed an elderly George playing a double-bass.  The caption called him “one of the fathers of the crucible steel trade”.

    The nephews William and George Muxlow mentioned in the above obituary may have been James’s sons.  Also the J J Muxlow of Dore, who died in April 1911 may have been James’s son James, born in 1842, or he may have been the Joseph Muxlow of Dore (“a cousin”) whose photograph shows a prosperous, well-dressed gentleman.

    John Gantley Muxlow

    John Gantley Muxlow was married to Sophia Sanderson at St Stephens Church, Sheffield on 21st January 1884, after banns by the Assistant Curate, E H M Jackson.  He was a letter carrier, and his father was a steel melter.  Sophia’s father was John Sanderson, a spring knife cutler.  Both the bride and groom lived in Bellefield Street at the time of their marriage.  Witnesses at the ceremony were Thomas Sanderson and Annie Sanderson.  John Gantley Muxlow appears to have been a complete contrast to his father, a shiftless character who maltreated and eventually abandoned his children in orphanages.

    The Sanderson Family

    Sophia Sanderson was born on 1st September 1863, at home at 72 Jericho St, Sheffield.  Her father was John Sanderson, a spring knife cutler, and her mother, who signed the birth certificate with a cross, was recorded as Sendoine Gant.

    Sendoine Gant was the daughter of Jonathan Gant or Gaunt, and his wife Ann.  Their children, all christened at Doncaster, were :
    The 1841 Census listed Ann Gaunt, aged 60, Martin, aged 24, Sarah, aged 25, and Sophia, aged 11, living at Doncaster.

    On her marriage to John Sanderson on 9th May 1838 in the Sheffield parish, her name was recorded as Sidonia Gaunt, and her age was given as 19.  She lived at Castle Street, Sheffield, and her father was a shoemaker.  John Sanderson, of Meadow Street, was a cutler, aged 21, and his father, Thomas, was a scissorsmith.  Neither of the celebrants could sign their name to the marriage certificate.

    In the 1881 Census, Martin Gant lived at 4 Bowers Fold, Doncaster :
    Martin Gant                H        M        65        General carter                                                    Doncaster, YKS
    Sarah                           W       M        65         ---                                                                        Armthorpe, YKS
    William                        S         U         40        General carter                                                    Doncaster, YKS
    Martha Brown       Visitor    U         16         ---                                                                        Doncaster, YKS
    Sarah Howard        Visitor    --           7         ---                                                                        Doncaster, YKS


    A William Gant died in the June quarter of 1899 in the Doncaster district, aged 58.

    Sarah Pickering’s parents were Thomas Pickering and Ann Slater, who were married at Armthorpe on 5th December 1798.  Their children, all christened at Armthorpe, were :

    Children of John and Sidonia Sanderson, all born in Sheffield, included :
    Sophia Sanderson and her sisters Ann and Elizabeth were all christened at Sheffield on 6th December 1864.  Their parents were listed as John and Sadonia Sanderson.

    In the 1841 Census John, aged 25, and Sadonia Sanderson, aged 20, were living at 20 Newcastle Street, Sheffield West.  In 1851 the family were still living in Sheffield West :
        John                        H        34                                                                            born at    Sunderland, DUR
        Sendoine               W        30                                                                                    Doncaster, YKS
        John                        S           5                                                                                    Sheffield, YKS
        Jonathan                S           2                                                                                    Sheffield, YKS


    In 1861 John, 44, and Sendoine, 40, were living at North Sheffield, with Joshua, 15, (obviously John), and Jonathan, 12.

    In the 1871 Census the family was still at North Sheffield, with Sadonia, 52, Jonathan, 22, Tom, 15, Ann, 9, and Sophia, 6.  Also living there were son John, 25, his wife Eliza, 27, and their children, James, 3, and Ann E, 1.  John Sanderson, 54, was listed in the district of Ecclesall Bierlow, and daughter Elizabeth had disappeared.

    John Sanderson (son of John and Sidonia) married Eliza Ward in the December quarter of 1866 in the Sheffield district.  Their children were :
    Note that Annie and Herbert were christened after their father’s death.

    John Sanderson died on 19th July 1877, aged 31, and was buried on 22nd July in grave plot T2 133 in the Sheffield General Cemetery, with George Sandford officiating.  He was a cutler, and lived at 69 (60?) Jericho Street.

    Thomas Sanderson (son of John and Sidonia) married Laura Anderson in the June quarter of 1878 in the district of Sheffield.  Sidonia and Harold Sanderson, children of Thomas and Laura Sanderson, were both christened (posthumously ?) on 20th February 1891 at Sheffield, and Effie Marion Sanderson was christened there on 18th July 1892, the day of her death.

    An Annie Eliza Sanderson (? daughter of John and Sidonia) married John Brocket in the September quarter of 1880 in Sheffield district.  In the 1881 Census they were living at 12 Handly Street, Brightside Bierlow :
    John Brockett            H        M        30        Furnace man (factory labourer)                 Wales
    Annie                         W       M        19         ---                                                                    Sheffield,  YKS

The couple had a daughter, Cecilia, who was christened on 11th November 1885 at Attercliffe.  (But an Annie Sanderson was a witness at the wedding of Sophia Sanderson and John Gantley Muxlow in 1884.)

    An Elizabeth Sanderson (? daughter of John and Sidonia) was also married in the September quarter of 1880, probably to Benjamin Housley.  In the 1891 Census an Elizabeth Housley, aged 28, was living at Ecclesall Bierlow.

    In the 1881 Census, 72 Jericho Street (the birthplace of Sophia Sanderson) was occupied by Julia Hudson, her daughter Jane, and lodgers Elijah Longue and his family.  A Lidia Sanderson  and her family lived at 60 Jericho Street, but I am sure that this is Sidonia, misread.
    Lidia (Sidonia) Sanderson    H                 W        67 (62?)    ---                                             Doncaster, YKS
    Thos                                         S                 M        25              Spring knife cutler                 Sheffield, YKS
    Laura                            W (Dau-in-Law)    M       22              ---                                             Sheffield, YKS
    Sophia                                D (GrD)             --        8m             ---                                             Sheffield, YKS
    Eliza                                Dau-in-Law         W        37            Charwoman                              Sheffield, YKS
    James                                S (GrS)                --        13            Spring knife cutler                   Sheffield, YKS
    John Thos                        S (GrS)                --          9            School                                       Sheffield, YKS
    Herbert                              S (GrS)                --          5            School                                       Sheffield, YKS


    In the1881 Census the most likely Sophia Sanderson was a domestic servant at 27 Taptonville St, Ecclesall Bierlow :
    Harriette Hall                    H        W        55        Property owner                                            Sheffield, YKS
    Sarah Hall                         D         U         21        ---                                                                   Sheffield, YKS
    William Hall                      S         U         19        Pupil of architect (Art student)                 Sheffield, YKS
    Matthew Hall                   S         U          15        Scholar                                                         Sheffield, YKS
    Sophia Sanderson        Serv      --          20        Cook domestic servant                              Sheffield, YKS
    Hannah Nicholson       Serv      --          16        Housemaid dom servant                            Staveley, DBY


    Also listed in the 1881 Census was a Sadonia Sanderson, aged 16, born at Sunderland, Durham, and working as a servant in the household of Arthur Harkness, iron master, at 6 Cumberland Terrace, Bishopwearmouth, Durham.  Sadonia Frazer Sanderson was married in the March quarter of 1891 at Sunderland, possibly to William Dixon Low.

    Sidonia Sanderson died a widow on 27th December 1887 in the Sheffield district aged 68.  She was buried on 30th December in the Sheffield General Cemetery (Grave number T2 162), with minister J G Richardson officiating.  Her residence was 60 Jericho Street.  The same grave plot also contains the bodies of :
    A younger child of Thomas Sanderson was buried in grave plot T2 133 :
    This grave plot also holds John Sanderson, Thomas’s brother, who died in 1877.

    A John Sanderson, manufacturer, died aged 54 on 29th December 1871, and was buried in the Sheffield General Cemetery (Grave number E2 187) on 31st December, with George Sandford officiating.  His residence was 36 Aberdeen Street.

    Thomas and Laura Sanderson’s children were :
    The 1891 Census lists the family as living at Ecclesall Bierlow : Tom, 35, Laura, 32, Sophia, 10, Thomas, 8, Austin, 4, and Emily, 1.  Also living there was Thomas’s brother Jonathan, aged 43.

    In 1901 the family was still living at Ecclesall Bierlow :
    Thomas                    45                                        Cutlery manager                                          Sheffield, YKS
    Laura                        43                                        ---                                                                    Sheffield, YKS
    Sophia                      20                                        Dressmaker                                                   Sheffield, YKS
    Thomas                    18                                        Spring knife cutler                                       Sheffield, YKS
    Austin                      14                                        Silver spinner                                               Sheffield, YKS


    A Thomas Sanderson died, aged 70, in the March quarter of 1920 in the district of Sheffield.

    Jonathan Sanderson died, aged 68, in the March quarter of 1917 in the Ecclesall Bierlow district.


    John and Sophia Muxlow’s children, all born in Sheffield, were :
    The 1901 Census lists Lillian aged 13, Eveline aged 11, Edwin aged 8, Minnie aged 6, Edith aged 2, and Sophia, aged 39, all born and living in Sheffield, but there is no record of a John Muxlow of the right age anywhere in England.  A George Muxlow, aged 40, timekeeper in a jewellery merchant’s office, is listed as born and living in Sheffield, and seems to have lived at the same place as the others listed.

    John Gantley Muxlow followed his son Edwin to South Australia in 1927, and died there on 22nd February 1952.

    Sophia Muxlow had remained in England, and died on 9th December 1948, aged 85, of “cerebral thrombosis and senile myocardial degeneration”, at 33 Corby St, Sheffield, the home of her daughter, L Muxlow.

    Evelyn Muxlow

    Edwin’s sister Evelyn and her husband Joseph Sanderson had a large family :
    Joseph Sanderson was born on 31st March 1888, and came from Hoyland Common, Barnsley, a few miles north of Sheffield.  According to Joyce Cox, his speaking accent was quite different from that of Sheffield, and somewhat difficult to understand.

    Minnie and Edith Muxlow

    Minnie Muxlow married Richard Jewsbury on 5th May 1917 in the Parish Church, Newington, Hull, and died, aged 23, on 27th July 1918 at 20 Zetland St, Hull, after a miscarriage complicated by pneumonia.  At the time of her marriage, Minnie was a domestic servant, living at 172 St George’s Rd, Hull, while Richard was a clerk, living at 1 Clifton Gardens, St George’s Rd.  Her father, John Gantley Muxlow, was a warehouseman, and was a witness at the wedding.  Richard Jewsbury was born on 5th January 1893 at Haverfordwest, Pembrokeshire, Wales.  His parents were John Jewsbury and Jane Drew Cobley, who were married in the Registry Office, Sculcoates, Hull, on 17th September 1889.  After Minnie’s death Richard Jewsbury married Edith Muxlow in the March quarter of 1921 in the district of Wortley, and Allan R Jewsbury was born in the March quarter of 1922 in the district of Sculcoates.

    Edwin Muxlow

    My grandfather Edwin Muxlow’s birth certificate states that he was born on 30th July 1892, at the family home, 35 Bethel Street, Sheffield, and that his father’s occupation was letter carrier.  Several other documents, however, (Army Pay Book and Marriage certificate), show the year as 1891.  Edwin left school at an early age to become a cutlery and tool grinder.  Seeing no future in this life, he enlisted in the Regular Army at the age of 20, on 13th August 1912.  He joined the York and Lancaster Regiment for seven years in the Army and five subsequent years in the Reserve.  His Regimental number was 10208, his height was given as 5 ft 7⅜ inches, complexion fresh, eyes brown, hair black and religion Church of England.  The address of his father and mother is given as 46 Jawbone Hill, Chesterfield (with the address 129 Walkley Street, Sheffield crossed out).  A photo taken about this time of Edwin in dress uniform shows an upright, fresh-faced young man with an honest, direct gaze.

    The York and Lancaster Regiment was formed in 1881, by the combination of the 65th and 84th Foot Regiments.  The 65th was raised in 1756 as the 2nd Battalion, the 12th Foot (Suffolk Regiment), was made a separate corps in 1758, and went to the West Indies, and from there to America for the War of Independence.  Later it again went to the West Indies, and participated in the capture of Martinique and Guadeloupe, thence to the Cape and India, where it fought with distinction in several wars.  The 84th was raised in 1793; its early service was at the Cape and in India and late in the Peninsula.  It served with distinction during the Indian Mutiny and at Tel-el-Kebir.  During the First World War the Regiment raised 22 battalions and served in France, Flanders, Italy, Macedonia, Gallipoli and Egypt.  In the Second World war the Regiment fought in France, Norway, Italy and Germany.  The 2nd Battalion took part in the defence of Crete and the garrisoning of Tobruk, and later formed two columns of General Wingate’s Chindits in Burma.

    Due to his lack of education, Edwin had to study for the Third Class Certificate of Education, awarded on 24th September 1912, and the Second Class Certificate, awarded on 30th October 1912.  In 1913 he was sent to Karachi, India as part of a training draft.  The flyleaf of his Soldier’s Common Prayer Book is inscribed “10208, LCpl Muxlow, H Coy, 1st York & Lancs, Jabberlpore, India.”  Jabalpur, as it is now known, is one of the main cities in the modern state of Madhya Pradesh, in central India.  It was a major regional centre during the British administration, and was home to many military units.  The Indian Army still has a large establishment in the city, including four Ordinance Factories and the Signals Training Headquarters.

    The outbreak of war in 1914 meant that Edwin’s Regiment was sent to the battlefields of Flanders and France.  The First Battalion of the York and Lancaster Regiment was still at Jubbulpore when war was declared in August 1914.  It was immediately ordered to England, and landed at Southampton on 23rd December 1914, when it was attached to the 83rd Brigade, 28th Division.  The 83rd Brigade was temorarily under the command of the 5th Division between 3rd March and 7th April 1915, when it reverted back to the 6th Division.  This Division fought in the Second Battle of Ypres (April/May 1915), and suffered serious casualties.  A Composite Brigade was formed, composing of the 2nd Battalion, the Buffs, 2nd Battalion, the Cheshires, 1st Battalion, the Welsh, and 1st Battalion, the York and Lancaster.  It was dissolved on 19 May 1915, and the formation assumed its normal configuration.  The 6th Division also fought in the Battle of Loos (September/October 1915).  The 28th Division arrived in the battle area from Bailleu on the afternoon of 27th September, the third day of the battle, and was thrown into the line in the Auchy area, north of Loos, with orders to counterattack the Germans to retake the Fosse 8 position, lost the day before.  The 83rd Brigade does not seem to have been involved in this action.  At 9:30 am on the 28th September 85th Brigade of 28th Division, supported by 83rd Brigade, attacked at the Dump and Fosse 8.  Many casualties were suffered by both sides in desperate fighting in the confined trenches around the Hohenzollern Redoubt.  Between the 1st and 3rd October close fighting was renewed in the Hohenzollern Redoubt, and all but Big Willie Trench was lost to the enemy.

    Immediately after the Battle of Loos the Division embarked at Marseilles for Egypt, and in November 1915 moved to Salonika, where it remained for the rest of the war.  Probably at this time Edwin Muxlow was transferred to the Second Battalion of the York and Lancaster Regiment, as he remained fighting in France.  This Battalion formed part of the 16th Brigade of the 6th Division.  This Division was involved in the Battles of Flers-Courcelette, Morval and Le Transloy during  the Battle of the Somme (July to October 1916), and the battle of Hill 70, Arras in August 1917.

    The Regiments of the British Expeditionary Force of 1914 had been formed by the amalgamation of two individual battalions some years previously.  The Regiment was conceived as the soldier’s home, and possessed the fullest measure of esprit de corps.  Voluntary enlistment for service in any part of the world meant that the Army was the recruit’s career and business.  It was not a national duty imposed upon the citizen as such, but in its essence, contract service.  A grand battle on the Continent, the maintenance of order at home, war upon a kinglet in a tropical forest, and punishment of a high mountain tribe - all these tasks were understood to be within the capacity of the infantry battalion that found itself “next on the list for duty” at any given moment.  When a man enlisted for Army service, he did so with the intention of rendering service for a reasonable number of years, and not with that of receiving training as quickly as possible in view of a future emergency.  The period of liability and of pay for that liability was fixed at 12 years, of which 7 were spent with the Colours, and 5 in the Reserve.

    The unit of infantry was the battalion, commanded by a Lieutenant-Colonel.  In 1913 the previous organisation of 8 companies of about 120 each had been replaced by one of 4 companies of about 240, commanded by a mounted officer, Major or Captain, with a second Captain and a subaltern in command of each of the 4 “platoons” of 60 men into which the company was divided.  The battalion included, further, a machine-gun section of two guns, a section of signallers, medical officer and bearers etc.  Its first line transport, which immediately accompanied the troops on the march, comprised 8 company ammunition mules and 6 ammunition carts (one of which was for the machine-guns), two tool carts, two water carts, four travelling kitchens (one per company), and a medical cart.  The armament was the “short Lee-Enfield” of 1903 and bayonet.  The men’s equipment was made not of leather but of strong webbing, of the same grey-green colour as the uniforms.  The baggage and supply wagons of the infantry formed part of the Train.  The brigade of infantry consisted of four battalions under a Brigadier-General, which had a small reserve of tools, and also a brigade ammunition reserve formed by assembling some of the battalion carts.

    The 2nd York and Lancaster Regiment formed part of the 16th Brigade of the 6th Division under General Keir, part of the Third Corps.  This Division arrived in France on Wednesday 16th September 1914, and was immediately sent by Sir John French to the south side of the River Aisne, behind the British left, to serve as a General Reserve.  Having pushed the Germans back from the Aisne, the 2nd Yorks and Lancs participated in an attack on the village of Radinghem on 18th October, where they were ambushed as they pursued the enemy and lost 11 officers and 400 men.

    The Regiment participated in an attack along the Menin Road, near the village of Hooge, east of Ypres, on 9th August 1915, and were again hard hit.  They also attacked the formidable German Quadrilateral trench complex east of Ginchy on the Somme on 15th September 1916, and remained in action for several weeks.  On 12th October they led the attack on Zenith Trench north-east of Ginchy as part of a combined attack by the Fourth and Sixth Divisions.

    Edwin was wounded three times during the war.  A photo shows him as a Corporal in hospital at Hadley Wood, near London, and convalescing at Eastbourne in May 1915.  He was promoted to the rank of Sergeant on 22nd May 1916, when his regimental number was 4738400, and he remained at this rank until he was discharged.  A postcard sent to him in 1916, entitled “His last trip”, shows a Zeppelin falling in flames near London on 2nd  September 1916.  The card says “Dear Mr Muxlow, I am pleased to hear you have quite recovered from your wounds - I wish you good luck for the future, this card shows what happened to one of the Zepps last time they came over here,  With all good wishes from yours sincerely, E Would.”

    On 3rd November 1916 Edwin married Madge Davage, at the United Methodist Church, Marsden Street, Chesterfield, the ceremony solemnised by Albert E Burton.  Edwin’s age was given as 25, his rank as Sergeant, 2nd York and Lancaster Regiment (cutlery grinder), and his father’s occupation as grocer’s warehouseman.  Madge Davage was born on 17th February 1887 at 129 Walkley Street, Nether Hallam, Sheffield, where she lived as a child.  On 5th March 1900, Madge was exempted from attending the Burgoyne Road Board School, having reached the minimum leaving age of 13.  Her father was George Davage, undertaker, deceased at the time of her marriage.  The address of both Edwin and Madge was given on the certificate as 46 Jawbone Hill, Chesterfield.  Witnesses to the marriage were R Jewsbury, M Muxlow and J G Muxlow.

    Further information on the Davage line is given at the end of the chapter.

    In May 1917 Madge Muxlow received a card from Edwin, notifying her that he was a prisoner-of-war and in sound condition in Parchim Camp, Germany, after being missing for 14 weeks.  The date probably should be 1918, as Edwin’s Service Records show him serving with his regiment until 21st March 1918, when he was reported as missing during the great German Spring Offensive, after sustaining a gunshot wound in the left wrist.  Another postcard shows a soccer match in progress among inmates of Springhirsch camp, where Edwin was a prisoner for eight months in 1918.

    After the war Edwin remained in the Army, being sent to Pontypridd in Wales in 1921 to combat a coalminers’ strike.  His 1922 Army Pay Book listed the family’s address as 19 Toftwood Road, Crookes, Sheffield.  The family also lived in the Norwood Housing Estate in Sheffield, until Edwin’s time expired.  He was discharged on 12th August 1924, after having served 7 years 88 days with the Colours, and 4 years 277 days in the Army Reserve, including 2 years 119 days in the Territorial Army.  He was entitled to the 1914-5 Star, the British War Medal and the Victory Medal, one red and three blue service chevrons and three wound stripes.  His character was described as very good, hardworking, honest and sober. (His height, interestingly, had increased to 5 ft 8½ inches.)

    On 2nd February 1913 Madge had had a son, Frederick, but I have not yet been able to determine whether Edwin was his father or not, although he was always treated exactly the same as the other children.  A photograph shows John Gantley Muxlow holding Frederick as a small baby, so I am assuming that he was indeed Edwin’s son.  The Chesterfield Wesleyan-Methodist Church Record of March 1921 noted the baptism on 16th February at Saltergate, by the Rev W Slader, of Reginald, son of Edwin and Madge Muxlow of Toftwood, Sheffield.

    In September 1923 Edwin and his family applied for nomination for an assisted passage to Australia.  They were nominated in April 1924 by Frederick Eccles, who had been a friend of Edwin Muxlow’s on building sites in Sheffield, before himself emigrating to Adelaide.  On his application form, Edwin listed his work and employers :-
Messrs J Bedford & Sons Ltd, Mowbray St, Sheffield        Bricklayer’s labourer
Messrs W J Lane & Sons, 113 Attercliffe Rd, Sheffield        Yardman & salesman
Their current address was 31 Edensor Road, Pitsmoor, Sheffield.  The Australian Government paid £55 of the £99 total fare for the family.  They travelled on the ship Barrabool (P&O Steamship Navigation Co, gross tonnage 13148, net tonnage 7985, Master R Bidwell), which sailed from Tilbury on 23rd December 1924, touched at Fremantle on 30th January 1925, and arrived at Adelaide on 6th February.  The list of third class passengers showed :
    Muxlow    Mr E                Bricklayer labourer    aged 32
                    Mrs M              Married woman                 36
                    Master F D       Scholar                              11
                    Miss M             Infant                                   1
                    Master R           Infant                                  3

    In turn, Edwin Muxlow nominated his sister Evelyn and her family for assisted passage to South Australia.  Evelyn, aged 36, her husband Joseph Sanderson, a collier aged 38, and their four children, Ethel 17, Norah 16, both domestics, Nellie 10, and Stanley 7, both still at school, embarked on the ship Baradine (P&O line, gross tonnage 13144, net tonnage 8003, Master W Rolls) at Tilbury as third class passengers on 30th September 1926, and arrived in Adelaide on 11th November 1926.  Their fifth child, Dorothy, was born in Adelaide.

    Edwin’s father, John Gantley, like a bad penny, arrived on 2nd March 1927 on the ship Barrabool (Master H R Rhodes), also as a third class passenger.  He was 64, and listed as a commercial traveller.

    Edwin and Madge’s children were :
    From 192? to 1955 the Muxlows lived at 47 George Street Norwood, behind the Norwood Town Hall, where Edwin worked as caretaker.  (In 1922 the caretaker of the Norwood Town Hall was Claude Henry St Leonard Toovey.)  His father lived with them, deeply resented by and ignored by the children, who called him “Old Grump”, until he died on 22nd February 1952.  In his latter years he had lost all his teeth, which made him very hard to understand, but which did not interfere with his enjoyment of food.  Ted once overheard Madge muttering “Can’t even fart around here without him knowing.”

    During the Second World War, Edwin enlisted in Adelaide on 5th April 1942 in the Citizens’ Military Force, with Service Number S69545.  He served in the 3rd Battalion Volunteer Defence Corps, was promoted to Lance Corporal, and was discharged on 3rd October 1945.

    In later years Edwin and Madge lived in a flat built at the rear of the home of their daughter Muriel and her husband, Lionel Elphick, at 3 Penong Avenue, Burnside.

    Madge Muxlow died in the Burnside Memorial Hospital on 16th July 1962, of cerebral thrombosis, and was buried at Dudley Park Cemetery on 18th July.  Edwin died on 14th January 1969.

    Phyllis Williamson, my mother, married Arthur Edward Williamson in 1946.

    Descent from Alfred the Great

    According to Mary Rogers, the Muxlows can trace their descent from Alfred the Great through the Arden line, as documented by William Dugdale in the “Visitation of Warwickshire” :
Egbert, King of Wessex (829 – 839),
son Ethelwulf, King of Wessex, Sussex, Kent and Essex (839 – 858),
son Alfred the Great (847 – 899), King of Wessex (871 – 899),
son Edward (869 – 924), King of Wessex (899 – 924), married Eadgyn,
son Athelstan ( - 940), King of Wessex and Mercia,
daughter Leonetta, married Rayborn, Lord of Warwick,
son ?
son Wulfgat,
son Wigod,
son Ailwin,
son Aelfwine, married Ermenhild, sister of Leofric, Count of Coventry and Leicester, whose wife was Lady Godiva,
son Thurkill de Arden, married Marie,
son Siward de Arden, married Cecile,
son Henry, de Arden, born c1148, married Olivia,
son William de Arden, born c1174, married Galiena c1203,
son William de Arden, married Avice,
son Thomas de Arden, born c1227, married Eustacia,
son Thomas, born c1249, married Rose Vernon c1271,
son Ralph de Arden, born c1273, married Alice Beauchamp c1297,
son Ralph de Arden, born c1298, married Isabell de Bromwich c1323,
son Henry, born c1346, died c1400, married Ellen,
son Ralph, born c1373, died c1420, married Sibell de Belgrave c1412,
son Robert de Arden, born c1413, executed for rebellion against Henry IV in 1450, married Elizabeth Clodshale,
son Walter de Arden, born c1433, died 5th August 1502, married Eleanor Hampden c1457,
son John Arden, born c1458, married Alice Bracerigg c1488,
daughter Katherine, married Richard Mucklowe in 1514.

    The Davage Family

    Some of the following information was submitted to the IGI by Sharon Davage.

    John Daveg married Dinah Hattersley in Ecclesfield, Yorkshire on 25th March 1788 and their children included :
    Dinah Hattersley was christened at Ecclesfield on 6th February 1763, and her father was Jonathan Hattersley (probably born on 27th December 1739 at Ecclesfield, father Richard Hattersley).  She was buried at Ecclesfield, aged 71 years on 25th August 1833.

    William Davage

    William Davage, who died on 7th August 1868 in Sheffield, married Ruth (born 1795, died in the June quarter of 1883 in the Wortley district).  He was a waggoner, and later a forgeman, and their children included :
    John Davige        H        M        60        Steel Forger                                            Wadsley, YKS
    Ann                     W        M        53        ---                                                              Leeds, YKS
In the 1891 Census Ann Davage, aged 63, lived at Ecclesfield, Wortley.  An Ann Davage died, aged 75, in the March quarter of 1898 in the district of Sheffield, and an Ann Davige died, aged 71, in the September quarter of 1899 in the district of Guisborough.
    The 1851 Census listed William, 60, born at Bolton, Lancashire, wife Ruth, 58, born at Owlerton, and daughter Elizabeth, 16, also born at Owlerton.  Next door was a family of Crookes, who may have been related to the Henry Crookes whom Millicent Davage (daughter of George Bartholomew Davage) married :
        Thomas Crookes        H        45                                                        born at Ecclesfield, YKS
        Mary                            W       41                                                                         Ecclesfield, YKS
        Thomas                        S        15                                                                         Nether Hallam, YKS
        Mary                            D        12                                                                         Nether Hallam, YKS
        Ralf Bateman               S        11                                                                         Nether Hallam, YKS
        Joseph                          S         5                                                                          Nether Hallam, YKS
        Elizabeth                      D         2                                                                          Nether Hallam, YKS
        John Green             Lodger   22                                                                          Tickhill, YKS


    William and Ruth’s daughter Mary was probably a servant in the household of William Siddall :
        William Siddall            H        44                                                        born at Stoney Middleton, DBY
        Ellen                            W        43                                                                       Calver, DBY
        Samuel                          S        17                                                                       Stoney Middleton, DBY
        William                         S        16                                                                        Sheffield, YKS
        Richard                         S          7                                                                        Sheffield, YKS
        Mary Davage           Servt    22                                                                        Sheffield, YKS


    In the 1861 Census William, 73, and Ruth, 66, were living in the parish of Ecclesfield.  William’s birthplace was listed as Bolton, Lancashire, and Ruth’s as Ecclesfield.  A few doors away lived the family of George Ward, who may have been related to George Bartholomew Davage’s wife, Sarah Ann Ward :
        George Ward                H        30                                                       born at Ecclesfield, YKS
        Hannah                         W        31                                                                    Ecclesfield, YKS
        Rose Ann                      D          8                                                                     Ecclesfield, YKS
        William                           S          7                                                                     Ecclesfield, YKS
        Hannah                          D          4                                                                     Ecclesfield, YKS
        Albert                             S          2                                                                     Ecclesfield, YKS
        Mary                              D        14d                                                                   Ecclesfield, YKS
        Arthur Curtis        Apprentice 16                                                                    Sheffield, YKS
        Elizabeth Tyler                          18                                                                    Sheffield, YKS


    Thomas Davage

    Thomas Davage married Ann Badger of Masbro (Rotherham), Yorkshire (died 1898) in the September quarter of 1847 in the district of Sheffield.  (Thomas’s surname was registered as “Davis”).  Ann Badger was christened on 6th October 1822, at Rotherham, and her parents were William Badger and Amelia.  Thomas was a steelworker in Sheffield, and was buried at Wadsley Bridge, Sheffield, on 7th July 1890.  Their children were :
    William Davage            H        M        32        Iron Works Labourer                            YKS
    Elizabeth                       W        M        31        ---                                                             YKS
    Annie E                          D        --           4        ---                                                              YKS

Annie Elizabeth Davage was born in the March quarter of 1877 in Sheffield, and in 1901 she was a milliner.  She married in the September quarter of 1902.  An Elizabeth Davage was christened on 28th March 1877 at Brightside, and Thomas William Davage was christened on 6th August 1891 at Attercliffe, both with parents William and Elizabeth Davage.  Thomas William Davage of 117 Ripon St, was baptised by Rev T Couch at the Emmanuel Church, Attercliffe.  His father was a forgeman.
    Thomas Davage            H        M        28        Ironmonger and Steel                    Ecclesfield, YKS
                                                                                Merchant employing 2 men and 1 boy
    Elizabeth                        W        M        30                                                                 Attercliffe, YKS
    Eleanor H                        D        --           2        ---                                                      Attercliffe, YKS

Thomas Davage married Elizabeth Hague in the March quarter of 1875 in the Sheffield district.  Eleanor Hague Davage was born in the June quarter of 1878 in the same district, and married in the September quarter of 1899, either Thomas Barker or Charles Herbert Durham.  In 1901, Thomas was a “Manager in Steel Works”, living in Ecclesall Bierlow with Elizabeth.
    In the 1851 Census the family were living in the parish of Ecclesfield :
        Thomas Davage            H        26                                                                    born at Sheffield, YKS
        Ann                                W        28                                                                                  Kimberworth, YKS
        William                            S          2                                                                                   Kimberworth, YKS
        Ann                                 D        4m                                                                                  Ecclesfield, YKS


    Next door lived Richard Rose, 40, his wife Louisa, 34, and children Josiah (actually Joshua), 10, Martha, 8, John, 6, James, 4, and Alice, 1.  The three eldest children had been born at Lubertain, Poland.  Also in the house on Census night was Mary Ann Rose, 21, a visitor and Richard Rose’s half-sister.  See below for the connection between the Davage and Rose families.  Mary Ann Rose was also listed as being at the home of her widowed mother, Elizabeth Rose, 64, born at Ecclesfield.  Also in Elizabeth’s house was Charles Davage, 20, the son of Thomas Davage, a lodger who would eventually marry Mary Ann Rose.   

    In the 1871 Census the family was listed as living in the Brightside sub-district of Sheffield; Thomas, 46, Ann, 48, William, 22. Anne, 20, Thomas, 18, Charles, 13, Harry, 11 and John, 9.

    In 1881 the family lived at 152 Saville St, Brightside Bierlow :
    Thomas Davage            H        M        56        Forge Manufacturer (iron)                        Sheffield, YKS
    Ann                                W        M        55        ---                                                                  Rotherham, YKS
    Harry                               S         U         21        Sheet Roller (steel)                                     Ecclesfield, YKS
    John                                S          U        19        Silver Engraver                                            Sheffield, YKS


    Charles Davage

    Charles Davage was a forgeman at Firth’s, and married Mary Ann Rose (born about 1830), whose mother was Elizabeth Firth, the sister of Mark Firth part owner of the steelworks (Elizabeth Firth married Joshua Rose (died in 1848) on the 17th January 1827 at Ecclesfield.).  They were married on 1st January 1853 at St Michael’s, Ashton-under-Lyne, and two of their children were :
Thomas Copley        H        M        22        Silver Buffer (Smith)                               Sheffield, YKS
Sarah J                      W        M        24        ---                                                               Sheffield, YKS

Sarah Jane Copley died, aged 56, in the March quarter of 1910 in the Wortley district.
    It is possible that Charles emigrated for a period to Pittsburgh to work for Firths there, although in the 1851, 1861 and 1891 Censuses he is listed as living in Wortley.  In the 1881 Census his wife Mary Ann Davage was living at 3 Pilgrim St, Brightside Bierlow :
    Alice Naylor                        H        W        31        ---                                                              Wadsley Br, YKS
    Alice Rose Naylor              D         --          9        Scholar                                                      Sheffield, YKS
    Mary Ann Wilmot          Aunt      U        66        Income from Gas Shares               Chorlton Cum Hardy, LAN
    Mary Ann Davage         Aunt      M        51        Annuitant                                                Wadsley Br, YKS


    Noah Naylor was born in the September quarter of 1847 in the Wortley district, and married Alice Rose (born in the September quarter of 1849 in Wortley) in the March quarter of 1870 in the same district.  Their daughter Alice Rose Naylor was christened on 8th October 1873 at Brightside.  Noah Naylor died in the September quarter of 1880, aged 33, in the Sheffield district.  Alice Naylor died, aged 31, in the June quarter of 1881 at Sheffield.  Alice Rose Naylor married Harry Turner in the June quarter of 1897 in the Wortley district.

    In the 1861 Census the family was living in the Ecclesfield parish; Charles, 30, Mary Ann, 31, Sarah, 4 and Jabus R, 2.  Also in the household was 13-year-old Noah Naylor, an apprentice.  Next door to the Davage household lived a Richard Rose and his family, including Noah’s future bride, Alice.  Richard Rose was a half-brother of Mary Ann Davage, being the son of Joshua Rose by his first wife, Martha Thompson.  Another of Richard’s children was Christopher Wilmot Rose, so his mother’s surname was probably Wilmot (or Wilmott).

    Mark Firth was born in Sheffield on the 25th April 1819.  His father, Thomas, was head melter at the crucible steel works of Sanderson Brothers.  The family was a large one, Mark had six brothers and three sisters.    

    Mark and his brother Thomas junior started in work at Sanderson Brothers but soon left to set up their own business in Charlotte Street, Sheffield in 1842.  Thomas senior joined them shortly afterwards.  The firm started slowly but by 1852, business was so good that they had to move to larger premises at the Norfolk Works, in Savile Street. The works had crucible furnaces, a file making shop and the largest rolling mill in Sheffield.

    Two Nasmyth Steam forge hammers were installed to allow Firth’s to develop their business into the armaments market.  The hammers were used to forge guns.  Two larger steam hammers were installed in 1863.  The noise and vibration of these hammers caused the neighbouring businesses to complain that their machinery was being damaged.  In 1871, Firth’s cast the thirty five ton Woolwich Infant gun.  In 1875, they produced an eighty ton gun.  At this stage, Firth’s were employing over a thousand workers.

    Mark Firth was at this stage one of the wealthiest people in Sheffield.  He was elected to the office of Master Cutler in 1867 and was re-elected for the two following years.  He was elected Mayor in 1874.  In 1875, Mark bought a thirty six acre estate which he presented to the town of Sheffield as Firth Park and also built a mansion for himself at Oakbrook, Ranmoor on the outskirts of the town.

    On the 16th November 1880, Mark suffered a stroke whilst at the Norfolk Works.  He was taken to his home at Oakbrook but he did not recover.  He died on the 28th November 1880 and was buried in the General Cemetery.

    George Bartholomew Davage

    George Bartholomew Davage married twice.  His first wife was Sarah Ann Ward, whom he married in the March quarter of 1843 in the district of Rotherham (just north-east of Sheffield).  George’s surname was registered as “Davis”.  Sarah Ann Ward was christened about 19th September 1824 at Ecclesfield, died in the December quarter of 1862 in the Wortley district, and was buried at Wadsley Bridge, Sheffield.

    The Ward and Ibbotson Families

    Sarah Ann Ward’s parents were Bartholomew Ward and Ruth Ibbotson, who were married in Ecclesfield on 27th October 1823.  Her siblings included :
    Joseph Ward            H        M        50        Publican                                                Wadsley Br, YKS
    Sarah                        W        M        48        ---                                                            Chetrie
    Tom                            S        --         22        Steel Melter                                           Wadsley Br, YKS
    Ann                            D       --         18        ---                                                             Wadsley Br, YKS
    Joseph                       S        --         17        Clerk, Steel Warehouse                        Wadsley Br, YKS
    Jane Strong           Servt     --         20        Domestic Servant                                  Bingham, NTT
    Robert Heward    Visitor    --         23        Shipping Clerk                                       Newcastle
    Alfred Vickers     Lodger    --        27        ---                                                              ---
    Joe Skelton           GrSon    --          2         ---                                                              ---
    Ruth Barker           Niece    M        37        ---                                                              Wadsley Br, YKS
    Tomey Barker        [Gr]Nephew    5          ---                                                              ---

    Next door, at Butcher’s Sope, lived Joseph and Sarah’s daughter and son-in-law :
    John Skelton             H        M        29        Butcher                                                 Sheffield, YKS
    Elizabeth                   W        M        24        ---                                                           Wadsley Br, YKS

    Elizabeth Ward married John Henry Skelton in the December quarter of 1878 in the Sheffield district.

    Sarah Rhodes was christened on 12th May 1833 at Stockport, Cheshire, the daughter of William and Elizabeth Rhodes.  William Rhodes married Elizabeth (Betty) Ibbotson on 1st January 1823 at Hathersage, Derbyshire.  Betty was the sister of Ruth Ibbotson, the wife of Bartholomew Ward.  Sarah Rhodes had at least one brother, Edward, born about 1828.

    Bartholomew Ward

    Bartholomew Ward was baptised on 29th September 1799 at the Cathedral of St Peter, Sheffield.  His parents were Thomas Ward, born about 1767, and Hannah, born about 1771, both in Locksley, Sheffield.  He died in the September quarter of 1868 in the district of Wortley (which includes Ecclesfield), aged 68.  His wife Ruth died in the same district in the June quarter of 1873, aged 73.

    Bartholomew Ward had a brother, Joseph, born on 25th February 1794 and christened on 4th March at Waddington, Lincolnshire.  Joseph Ward married Esther Cousins on 8th November 1820 at Sheffield and their children, all christened at Sheffield, included :
Residence : 165 Creswick Street, Nether Hallam, Yorkshire
    George Ward            H        M        49        Table Knife Hafter                                 Sheffield, YKS
    Mary Ann                W        M        50        ---                                                             Rotherham, YKS
    Joseph                        S        U         18        Table Knife Hafter                                 Sheffield, YKS
    John                            S        --         16        Table Knife Hafter                                 Sheffield, YKS
    Florence                     D        --         13        Spring Knife Warehouse Girl              Sheffield, YKS
    Ada                             D        --         11        Scholar                                                    Sheffield, YKS
Ada Ward was christened on 5th October 1869 at Sheffield.

    In the 1841 Census Joseph Ward, 50, Esther, 40, William, 14, and George, 9, lived in Bailey Street, Sheffield West.

    In the 1841 Census Bartholomew Ward and his family lived at Ecclesfield :
    Bartholomew Ward                                  41                                                             born at Wadsley Bridge
    Ruth                                                            41                                                                           Wadsley Bridge
    Sarah A                                                      16                                                                            Wadsley Bridge
    Mary                                                           14                                                                            Wadsley Bridge
    Joseph                                                        10                                                                            Wadsley Bridge
    Henry Oakley                                            18                                                                            Wadsley Bridge
    George Rutter                                            17                                                                            Wadsley Bridge
    Elizabeth Rhodes                                      39                                                                            Wadsley Bridge
    Miliscent Rhodes                                       4                                                                            Wadsley Bridge
    Joseph Ibbotson                                        5                                                                            Wadsley Bridge


    Elizabeth Rhodes was the sister of Ruth Ward, and Joseph Ibbotson was the son of Edward Ibbotson, Ruth’s brother.

    The 1851 Census listed :
    Bartholomew Ward                  H            51                                                            born at Stow Bridge, YKS
    Ruth                                           W           51                                                                          Hathersage, DBY
    Joseph                                        S            20                                                                          Wadsley Bridge, YKS
    George Ward                      Nephew       19                                                                          Wadsley Bridge, YKS
    William Davage                    GSon            5                                                                          Wadsley Bridge, YKS
    Edward Rhodes                  Nephew       23                                                                          Stockport, CHS
    Sarah Rhodes                       Niece          17                                                                          Stockport, CHS
    John Rutter                        Apprentice   14                                                                          YKS


    Joseph Ward married Sarah Rhodes in 1853.  A family of Rutters lived very close to the Wards.

    Other possible children of Thomas and Hannah Ward were :

    Ruth Ibbotson

   Ruth Ibbotson’s father was Joseph Ibbotson and her mother Milicent.  Milicent, or Melicent, whose surname was probably also Ibbotson, was the subject of an effusive obituary in the Wesleyan Methodist “Christian Miscellany and Family Visiter” of 1855.  She was born at the Oaks, near Bradfield, Yorkshire, on 9th April 1770, and died at the home of her son-in-law, Bartholomew Ward, in Sheffield on 11th November 1853.  Joseph Ibbotson lived at Cow Close Farm near Hathersage, Derbyshire.

    Joseph Ibbotson’s father was probably Robert Ibbotson, whose children, all baptised at Hathersage, were :
    Ibbot was a pet form of Isabel in the Middle Ages; Hibbert was a Norman personal name.  Both gave rise to the surname Ibbotson or Ibberson, which is widespread and very common in Yorkshire and Derbyshire.  Nearly 100 Ibbotsons were named in the registers of the Cutlers Company.  Sheffield had 284 people with various spellings of this name in 1841.

     The poll tax returns of 1379 name Adam Ibbotson in Hoylandswaine and Robert Ibbotson at Thorpe Salvin.  William Ibbotson was living in Sheffield in 1440, but few Ibbotsons were recorded here before the seventeenth century.  They were, however, settled in the Chapelry of Bradfield in Elizabethan times.  Seven of the 9 households recorded in the hearth tax returns of 1672 for south Yorkshire were listed under the chapelry.  All the 6 households in Derbyshire were just across the county boundary in Hathersage or Hope Woodlands. This distribution suggests that all these early Ibbotsons shared a common ancestor.

  Joseph Ibbotson and Milicent were married at the Cathedral, Manchester, on 1st January 1788.  Their children, all christened at Hathersage, were :

    Violetta Ibbotson
    Violetta and Robert Crossland’s children were all christened at Hathersage with mother’s name recorded as Violette :     Violettey Crossland died in the December quarter of 1849 in the Bakewell district, which includes Hathersage.

    In the 1841 Census, the family lived in the district of Bakewell and Chapel en le Frith : Robert, aged 54, Violet, 56, Samuel, 23, Robert, 20, James, 15, Maria, 11, and Sarah Ann, 9.  A Robert Crossland died in the September quarter of 1845 in the district of Chapel en le Frith.

    In 1851 Robert, 64, Samuel, 33, and Maria, 21, were still living at Hathersage.  Joseph, 26, and Sarah Ann, 19, were possibly living at Brightside, Sheffield.

    In 1861, Robert, 74, and Maria, 30, with grandson Samuel, 15, were living at Nether Hallam, Ecclesall Bierlow, where Joseph S Heaton, 27, Sarah Ann Heaton, 29, and William C Heaton, 2, also lived.  Robert Crossland died, aged 81, in the September quarter of 1868 in the district of Ecclesall Bierlow.  William Crossland Heaton was born in the June quarter of 1859 in the same district.

    In 1871, Samuel, 53, and Joseph, 46, lived in the the district of Bakewell.  Samuel died in the September quarter of 1875, aged 57, in the same district.  Joseph S Heaton, 37, Sarah A, 39, William C, 12, Ada V, 9, Arthur W, 6, and George, 3 (is this Grace?), lived at Brightside, Sheffield.  Joseph Heaton died, aged 46, in the September quarter of 1879 in the Sheffield district.  Ada Violetta Heaton was born in the September quarter of 1861 in the Ecclesall Bierlow district.  An Arthur Webster Heaton was born in the Wakefield district in the June quarter of 1865.

    In the 1881 Census, Maria Crossland was living with her sister :
Residence : 49 Firs Hill Road, Brightside Bierlow, Yorkshire
    Sarah A Heaton            H        W        48        ---                                                            Hathersage, DBY
    William C                        S         U        22        Coal Merchant                                      Sheffield, YKS
    Ada V                              D        U        19        ---                                                            Sheffield, YKS
    Arthur M                        S         U        16        Clerk (Solicitors)                                   New Whittington, DBY
    Grace                               D        U         13        Scholar                                                  Sheffield, YKS
    Maria Crossland        Sister     U        50        ---                                                            Hathersage, DBY


    Joseph Crossland lived at Thorp, Derbyshire :   
    Joseph Crossland         H        W        55        Farmer of 64 acres                                Hathersage, DBY
                                                                                    employing 2 boys
    Violetta                            D        U        24        Housekeeper                                         Hathersage, DBY
    Mary F Womack         Servt     U        17        General Servant                                    Bradfield, YKS
    John Furniss                Servt     U        17        Farm Servant In Door                          Eyam, DBY
    Samuel Goodwin         Servt     U        14        Farm Servant In Door                          Burbage, DBY
    Violet E Crawshaw     Niece     --          3        ---                                                            Bradfield, YKS


    Violet Elizabeth Crawshaw was christened on 24th March 1878 at Bradfield, the daughter of John Earnshaw Crawshaw and Mary Elizabeth Crossland, who were married in the June quarter of 1874 in the Bakewell district.  Her sister was Alice Maud Crawshaw, christened at Bradfield on 28th March 1875.  In 1901 Joseph Crossland, 76, was a retired farmer living at Hathersage.

    Lydia Ibbotson
    Lydia and George Fox had two children, both christened at Hathersage :
    In the 1841 Census George, aged 56, Lydia, 46, Joseph, 21, and Robert, 15(?), were living at High Peake.  A George Fox died in the September quarter of 1850 in the Bakewell district.

    Robert Fox married Milliscent Broomhead in the September quarter of 1845 in the Sheffield district.  Joseph Fox possibly married Ann Harmer in the December quarter of 1849 in the Sheffield district.

    In 1851 Lydia 56, Robert, 33, and Joseph, 31, lived at Tideswell in the Bakewell district.  Lydia Fox died in the December quarter of 1860 in the Bakewell district.
   
    In 1861 Joseph, 41, lived at Tideswell with Ann, 35, and Elizabeth, 11.  Robert, 44, also lived there, with Milicent, 34, Elizabeth, 15, Joseph, 12, George, 8, Milicent, 6, William, 4, and James, 1.  An Ann Fox died in the September quarter of 1861 and a Joseph Fox died in the June quarter of 1864, both in the Bakewell district.

    In 1871 Robert, 50(?), Millicent, 43, Elizabeth, 25, George R, 19, William, 14, Isaac, 7, John, 5, and Henry, 3, lived at Hunslet.

    In the 1881 Census Robert lived at Hunslet :
Residence : 5 Gawen Street, Hunslet, Yorkshire
    Robert Fox                    H        M        62        No Occupation                                            Hathersage, DBY
    Millicent                       W        M        53        ---                                                                  Hathersage, DBY
    Isaac                              S          U        17         ---                                                                  Leeds, YKS
    John A                          S          U         15        ---                                                                  Leeds, YKS
    Henry                            S          U         13        ---                                                                  Leeds, YKS   


    Isaac Fox probably married his cousin Maria Ibbotson Broomhead in the March quarter of 1887 in the Hunslet district.

    Elizabeth (Betty) Ibbotson
    Elizabeth and William Rhodes’ children, all baptised at Hathersage, included :
  In the 1881 Census Edward Rhodes was a publican like his brother-in-law Joseph Ward, living at the Victoria Hotel, 237 High Street, Attercliffe cum Darnall, Yorkshire :
    Edward Rhodes            H        M        55        Licenced Victualler                                        Stockport, CHS
    Frances                         W        M        49        ---                                                                     Darnall, YKS
    Sarah Ann                     D        U         18        ---                                                                     Attercliffe, YKS
    Millicent                        D        U         16        ---                                                                     Attercliffe, YKS
    Florence                        D        U         12         ---                                                                     Attercliffe, YKS
    Ellen Widdowson     Gdau    --            6        ---                                                                     Attercliffe ,YKS
    Annie Palfreyman    Servt    U    20    Domestic Servant        Sheffield  YKS
    Harriet Furness        Servt    U    20    Domestic Servant        Attercliffe  YKS


  Clara Rhodes married William Widdowson in the June quarter of 1874 in the district of Sheffield.  She died, aged 55, in the September quarter of 1907 in the same district.  In the 1881 Census the Widdowson family lived at 89 Carlton Road, Attercliffe :
    William Widdowson    H        M        30        Licenced Victualler                                       Chesterfield, DBY
    Clara                              W        M        26        ---                                                                     Attercliffe, YKS
    William                           S         U          4         ---                                                                     Attercliffe, YKS
    Frances                          D         U          2         ---                                                                     Attercliffe, YKS
    Charlotte Harley        Aunt     W        66        Visitor                                                           North Wingfield, DBY
    Hannah E Gill          Domestic U         16        Domestic Servant                                          Attercliffe, YKS
    Eliza Furnis              Domestic U         17        Domestic Servant                                          Attercliffe, YKS
    Richard Latham       Domestic U        58        Domestic Man Servant          Newton Heath, Manchester, LAN

(Was Eliza Furnis a relation of Harriet Furness, the servant of Edward Rhodes?)  William Widdowson died aged 51 in the June quarter of 1902 in the district of Sheffield.

    Joseph Ibbotson
    Mary Ann Ibbotson died, aged 69, in the June quarter of 1877 in the district of Bakewell.  Joseph was listed in the 1881 Census :
Residence : Rook House, Norfolk Lane, Ecclesfield, Yorkshire
    Joseph Ibbotson           H        M        74        Retired Farmer                                              Hathersage, DBY
    Sarah A Helliwell        Servt     --         15        Domestic Servant                                        Ecclesfield, YKS
    Elizabeth White        GrDau     U         18        ---                                                                    Sheffield, YKS
                                     & Visitor
    Kate H White            Gr Dau    --            2       ---                                                                    Worksop, NTT
                                     & Visitor


    Joseph Ibbotson died, aged 82, in the March quarter of 1889 in the Sheffield district.

    Edward Ibbotson
    Edward and Sarah Ibbotson’s children, all christened at Hathersage, included :
    In 1841 Edward, 28, Sarah, 25, and Sarah Ann, 4, were living with Edward’s parents Joseph, 79, and Millicent, 71, at High Peake, and Joseph, 5, was living with his uncle Bartholomew Ward.  In 1861 they were living at West Ham (Edward, 49, Sarah J, 46, and Sarah A, 24).  Joseph Ibbotson, 25, lived at Ecclesall Bierlow with his wife, Elizabeth, 33, and daughter Mary, 0.

    In the 1881 Census Joseph Ibbotson lived at Ecclesall Bierlow :
Residence : 224 Ecclesall Road, Ecclesall Bierlow, Yorkshire
    Joseph Ibbotson            H        M        45        Chemist and Druggist                                Hathersage, DBY
                                                                                   Master employing 3 men and 2 boys
    Elizabeth H                     W        M        52        ---                                                                   Sheffield, YKS
    Mary                                D         U         20        ---                                                                   Sheffield, YKS
    Clara                                 D         U         17        ---                                                                   Sheffield, YKS
    Charlotte                          D         --         13        ---                                                                   Sheffield, YKS


  Sarah Ann Ibbotson, daughter of Edward, farmer, born at Hathersage, married Edward McDermott on 7th August 1860 at Leytonstone, Essex.

    George Bartholomew Davage (continued)

    George Davage married again in the June quarter of 1864, in the Rotherham district, to Sarah Levick, who died at Wadsley Bridge, Ecclesfield, on 16th June 1890, aged 64, from cerebral apoplexy.  Her death was registered by her husband, who signed the certificate with a cross, and whose occupation was given as steel tilter.

    George Davage died on 18th January 1899 at 64 Chippingham St, Sheffield, at the age of 76, “suddenly from natural causes, probably heart disease”.  He is buried at Wadsley Bridge, Sheffield.

    George and Sarah Ann, his first wife, had the following children, all born at Wadsley Bridge, Sheffield :
    In the 1851 Census the family was listed as :
    George Davage            H        28                                                                        born at Owlerton, YKS
     Sarah Ann                    W        26                                                                                     Wadsley Bridge, YKS
     Ruth Ann                      D          7                                                                                      Wadsley Bridge, YKS
     Melicent Mary             D          4                                                                                       Wadsley Bridge, YKS
     Bartholnew                   S           2                                                                                       Wadsley Bridge, YKS

    Possibly also in the household were :
    John Bellwood   Apprentice    19                                                                                    Wadsley Bridge, YKS
     Wilford Cliffe     Apprentice     15                                                                                    Grimesthorpe, YKS
     Ann Fearn               Servant      15                                                                                    Wadsley Bridge, YKS


    George and Sarah’s eldest son William was staying at his grandfather’s house on Census night.

    In the 1861 Census the family was living in the parish of Ecclesfield : George, 38, Sarah, 36, Ruth, 17, William, 15, Millescent, 14, Bartholomew, 12, George, 9, John, 2 and Edward, 1.  On the same Census folio were listed Sarah’s parents Bartholomew Ward, 61, born at Howe, Yorkshire, and Ruth, 61, born at Hathersage, Yorkshire.
   
    The 1881 Census gives the following details of the family at Wadsley Bridge.  Note that son Robert must have been born about 1867/8, so his mother must have been George’s second wife.
    George Davage            H        M    58        Forge Man (Blacksmith)                                    Olerham, YKS
    Sarah                            W        M    55        ---                                                                           Olerham, YKS
    John                               S         U    22        Forge Man (Blacksmith)                                     Olerham, YKS
    Robert                            S        --     13        Scholar                                                                  Olerham, YKS

Note : Olerham may be Owlerton.

    Ruth Ann Davage

    In the 1881 Census, the Barker family are all listed as living in Sheffield, although Ruth and her son Thomas were also listed with her uncle Joseph Ward :
Residence : 56 Watery St, Sheffield, YKS
    Thomas Barker                H        M        37        Joiner and Builder                                        Sheffield, YKS
    Ruth A Barker                W        M        37        ---                                                                    Sheffield, YKS
    James Barker                    S         --          9         Scholar                                                          Sheffield, YKS
    Thomas Barker                S         --          5         ---                                                                    Sheffield, YKS
    Henry Barker                   S         --          2         ---                                                                    Sheffield, YKS
    Sarah A Barker                D        --         15        Domestic Servant                                         Sheffield, YKS
    Elizabeth Barker              D        --          11        Scholar                                                          Sheffield, YKS
    Edward Davage       Br-in-Law U          21        Joiner                                                            Ecclesfield, YKS


    Sarah Ann Barker was born in the June quarter of 1865, Elizabeth in the March quarter of 1870, James in the December quarter of 1871, Thomas in the June quarter of 1875, and Henry in the December quarter of 1878.

    In the 1901 Census Ruth A Barker, 57, and Thomas Barker, 57, master builder, Thomas H Barker, 27, clerk in steel works, and Henry Barker, 22, bricklayer’s labourer, all lived at Nether Hallam, and James Barker, 29, building contractor, lived in Sheffield.  Ruth Ann Barker died, aged 62, in the March quarter of 1906 in the Sheffield district.  Thomas Barker died, aged 75, in the September quarter of 1918 in the same district.

    William Davage

    William Davage married Lydia Lingard at Wortley in the June quarter of 1869.  Lydia was born in the March quarter of 1848 in the district of Wortley.  Their daughter, Sarah Ann Davage was christened at Oughtibridge, Yorkshire, on 9th October 1870.

    In 1891 William, aged 44, and Lydia, aged 43, still lived at Wortley, but in 1901 they were both living in South Manchester, where William was a “foreman fitters forgeman”, and Sarah A Davage, aged 29, occupation “farrier”, lived in Sheffield.

    Lydia Davage died in the December quarter of 1914, aged 65, in the district of Fylde (near Blackpool), and William died in the September quarter of 1915, aged 69, in the same district.

    Sarah A Davage married Edgar Winterbottom in the March quarter of 1913 in the same district.  Edgar Winterbottom was born in the June quarter of 1885 in the district of Oldham (near Manchester), and died, aged 43, in the June quarter of 1929 in the district of Fylde.  In 1901 Edgar, aged 16, was a general labourer.

    Milllicent Mary Davage

    Millicent Mary Davage married Henry Crookes at Wortley in the June quarter of 1870.  In the 1881 Census the family was :
Residence : Burrow Lees, Ecclesfield YKS
    Henry Crookes            H        M        32        Saw Grinder                                                        Sheffield, YKS
    Millicent M                 W        M        33        ---                                                                         Ecclesfield, YKS
    Violetta                         D         --           9        ---                                                                         Sheffield, YKS
    Ada                               D         --           8        ---                                                                         Sheffield, YKS
    Millicent                       D         --           3        ---                                                                         Ecclesfield, YKS


    Henry Crookes died, aged 52, in the June quarter of 1901 in the Sheffield district, and Millicent Mary Crookes died, aged 55, in the June quarter of 1903 in the district of Ecclesall Bierlow.

    Violetta Crookes was born in the September quarter of 1871 in the Sheffield district, Ada in the December quarter of 1872.  Millicent Crookes was born in the June quarter of 1878 in the district of Wortley, and died in the June quarter of 1883, aged 5, in the same district.

    Violetta Crookes married Thomas Henry Naylor in the December quarter of 1889 in the Sheffield district.  His sister(?) Alice Eugenia Naylor’s marriage was also recorded on the same page of the register.  In the 1901 Census, Thomas Henry and Violetta Naylor are probably registered as Thomas H Taylor, aged 35, confectioner, and Violet Taylor, aged 30, both living at Bury, near Manchester.

    Bartholomew Davage

    Bartholomew Davage married Alicia Woodhead in the March quarter of 1872 in the district of Wortley, and later emigrated to Pittsburgh, America.  Alicia Woodhead was born on 16th April 1852, and christened on 20th June at the Wesleyan Methodist Church, Ripley, Derbyshire.  Her parents were George Casson Woodhead and Mary Ann Ollerenshaw, who were married in the December quarter of 1841 in the Sheffield district.  George Woodhead died, aged 47, in the June quarter of 1867 in the Wortley district, and Mary Ann Woodhead died, aged 77, in the March quarter of 1897 in the same district.

    In 1881 Bartholomew’s wife and children were living with his mother-in-law, and there was no record of Bartholomew, who was possibly in America, preparing the way for his family.
Residence : Burrow Lees, Ecclesfield YKS
    Mary A Woodhead      H        W        61        ---                                                                         Bradfield, YKS
    Henry                              S         W        35        File Forger                                                          Ecclesfield, YKS
    Alicia Davage                D        M         28        ---                                                                         Ripley, DBY
    George B Davage      GSon      --            8        ---                                                                         Ecclesfield, YKS
    Henry L Davage        GSon      --         11m      ---                                                                         Ecclesfield, YKS


  Henry Woodhead was born in the June quarter of 1845 in the Wortley district.  George Bartholomew Davage was born in the December quarter of 1872, and Harry Levick Davage was born in the June quarter of 1880, both in the same district.  At least two more sons were born in Pittsburgh, James Garfield Davage on 11th June 1883, and Rueben Nelson Davage on 11th December 1893 (his mother’s name was registered as Annie).  A Nelson R Davage was born on 7th October 1923 in America, and died on 19th November 2003 in Butler, Pennsylvania.

    Edward Davage

    In 1901, Edward Davage, aged 41, a joiner and builder, lived in the civil parish of Attercliffe Cum Darnall.  Also living there were Emma, aged 34, and their probable children :
    In White’s Directory of 1911, Edward Davage is listed as a joiner, living at 9 Sleaford Street, Attercliffe.  In the 1919 Directory, Edward was still living at the same address, but his occupation was “builder”.

    John E Davage married Eva Allen in the September quarter of 1910 in the Sheffield district.  Two of their children were Annie Davage, born in the September quarter of 1911, and Edward, born in the December quarter of 1913, both in the Sheffield district.  An Annie Davage died, aged 6, in the March quarter of 1918 in the district of Ecclesall Bierlow.

   Sarah E Davage married a Mr Ridge in the June quarter of 1917 in the district of Wortley, and Harold Ridge was born in the March quarter of 1918 in the same district.

    George Davage

 George Davage died on 10th February 1909 at 129 Walkley St, Sheffield, of pleuro-pneumonia and cardiac failure.  He was a master builder and joiner, and later undertaker, who was married to Ellen Eliza Salisbury on 18th June 1877 at St Phillip’s, Sheffield by James Russell, the vicar, after banns.  At the time of the marriage, both the bride and groom resided at Watery (?) Street.  Witnesses were Thomas Fawley and William H Hurst.  The bride’s age was given as 22 (?).

    Ellen died on 25th April 1941 of chronic bronchitis at 24 Burbadge Place, Derby, the residence of her daughter, Kate Green.

    The children of George and Ellen Davage were :
    The 1873 National Survey of land owners listed a George Davage as the owner of 11 acres, 2 roods, 12 poles of land at Wadsley Bridge, with a value of £29/2/-.

    The 1891 Census listed George, 39, Sarah Ann, 14, Edith Elizabeth, 9, Ruth, 7, Madge, 4, and George William, 2, all living at Ecclesall Bierlow, Nether Hallam.

    In 1901, George, aged 49, was a bricklayer living at 129 Walkley St, Nether Hallam with Ellen, aged 45.  Madge, George and Kate were still living at home.  Minnie, aged 22, was a “domestic servant”, and Ruth, aged 16, was a “general servant domestic”.  In White’s Directory of 1911, Mrs Ellen Eliza Davage was still living at 129 Walkley Street.

    Ruth Davage

    Ruth Davage married John Robert Freeman in the December quarter of 1902 in the district of Ecclesall Bierlow.  Two of their children were Robert W Freeman, born in the December quarter of 1911, and Ruth E Freeman, born in the June quarter of 1914, both in the district of Rotherham.

    George William Davage

    George William Davage was an insurance agent and newsagent.  He married Beatrice Rose (born 27th December 1890 at Wadsley, Ecclesfield, father John Rose who was a spring knife cutler, mother Harriet Wilson) on 8th August 1912 at Ecclesall Bierlow, Sheffield, and died at Evanton, Rosshire, Scotland.  John Gantley Muxlow (father of Edwin Muxlow) and Kate Davage were witnesses at the wedding.  Their children were:
    Harriet Wilson was born in Australia, the daughter of Thomas Wilson, a clerk.  In 1879, aged 23, she married at St Phillip’s, Sheffield, George Thomas Riley, aged 30, born in Bangalore, India.  He was an attendant at Wadsley Aslyum, the son of John Riley, a soldier.  George was aged 32 and living in Worral Lane, Bradfield in 1881 with his wife and 4 year old son, Robert.  He died in 1885, and was buried at Wadsley churchyard, followed four days later by his 15 day old baby, Harriet.  His wife, aged 32, married a widower, John Rose in 1890 at Wadsley.  John Rose was born in 1858 and was the son of William Rose, a cutler and Julia.

    Spring knife cutlers made folding knives, pocket, pen, jack knives etc.  Wadsley was a significant centre for the production of such knives, although the village had a poor reputation for quality.

    Shortly after George’s birth, Beatrice died of cancer, and George William Davage moved to Evanton, Rosshire, where he had a newsagent’s business.

    George Francis Davage was not very happy living in a remote Scottish village so he ran away and joined the Navy, serving aboard HMS Hood, Repulse etc. He met his wife, Mary Forde (born 1916, Cork, Ireland) in Weymouth where their son, George William Davage, was born on 7 Oct 1943. He was later transferred to Portsmouth. Other children were Kathleen, Christopher and Paul.

    George Francis Davage was a survivor of the sinking of HMS Repulse by the Japanese in the South China Sea on 10th December 1941.  Prior to her marriage, Mary Forde had lived in a pub run by either her parents, John and Helen/Ellen Forde or her sister, Sheila.  The pub was in Barrack Street, Cork. Mary’s mother’s maiden name was Reagan, and she died aged 34 in 1926/7.  George died in the mid-1980’s.

    The Salisbury, Leech and Gooday Families

    Ellen Salisbury was born on 7th July 1858 at 6 Mill Lane, Bury St Edmunds, Suffolk.  Her father was David Salisbury, a bootmaker journeyman, who was born to William Salisbury and his wife Eliza Leech, and christened on 24th January 1835 at St James Church, Bury St Edmunds.  Her mother was Harriet Gooday.

    William Salisbury was a shoemaker who died at Bury St Edmunds in April 1838 of smallpox.

    Eliza Leech married William Salisbury on 9 March 1828 in Timworth and they had several children :
Residence : 1 Willow Place, Mill Lane, Bury St Edmunds St Mary, SUF
    Phebe Garrard            H        W        52        Laundress                                        Timworth ,SUF
    Emma                           D        U         20        Laundress                                        Bury St Edmunds, SUF
    Walter                         S         U         17        Labourer                                           Bury St Edmunds, SUF
    Louisa                         D        U         16         ---                                                       Bury St Edmunds, SUF
    Frederick                     S        U         12         Errand Boy                                       Bury St Edmunds, SUF
    Laura                           D        --        10m        ---                                                      Bury St Edmunds, SUF


    Emma Garrard was born in the December quarter of 1860, Walter in the June quarter of 1865, Frederick in the March quarter of 1868, and Laura in the June quarter of 1880, all in the district of Bury St Edmunds.  A Louisa Maria Garrard was born in the June quarter of 1863 in the same district.
Residence : 16 Marshfield, London, MSX
    Thomas Wiseman    H        M        45        Labourer in Ironworks                     Barrow, SUF
    Louisa                       W        M        42        ---                                                        Bury St Edmunds, SUF
    Thomas Griffiths Lodger     U        21        Engine Fitter                                     Wednesbury, STA


    Louisa Wiseman died, aged 63, in the March quarter of 1902 in the district of Poplar, and a Thomas Wiseman died, aged 69, in the June quarter of 1903 in the district of Lambeth.

    In the 1841 Census Eliza Salisbury, 30, and William, 5, lived at Bury St Edmunds.  David, aged 7, the son of a washerwoman, was a patient in the Suffolk General Hospital in Bury St Edmunds.

  In 1851 Eliza Salisbury, 41, William, 18, David, 16, Sarah, 15, and Louisa, 12, lived at Bury St Edmunds.  A Maria Salisbury, aged 8, was also listed at the same address.  In 1861 William Salsbury, 28, lived there.  A Maria Salisbury, aged 8, was also listed at the same address.  William Salisbury, bootmaker of Raingate St, died aged 47, in the June quarter of 1879 in Bury St Edmunds.  An Ann Maria Salisbury was buried, aged 5 weeks, on 3rd January 1863, the daughter of Maria Salisbury, single woman, of Raingate St.

  Eliza Salisbury married Charles Catton in the December quarter of 1858 at Bury St Edmunds.  He died in the December quarter of 1865 in the same district, and in the 1881 Census Eliza was again a widow :
Residence : 25 Raingate St, Bury St Edmunds St Mary, SUF
    Eliza Catton                    H        W        71        Charwoman                                              Timworth, SUF
    Thos Salisbury           GSon      --        14        Coopers Apprentice                               Stanstead, SUF
    Robt Catton                GSon      U        38        Painter                                                       Bury St Edmunds, SUF


   Charles Catton, 32, a painter, was a boarder at 23 Raingate St.  Eliza Catton died, aged 72 (?), in the December quarter of 1887 in the district of Bury St Edmunds.

  Eliza Leech was born in 1809 at Timworth, Suffolk.  Eliza’s parents were William and Hannah nee Cook, who were married at St James’ Church, Bury St Edmunds, on 20th January 1800.  Their children, all born at Timworth, were :
    The 1851 census lists the Leech family :
    William Leech                    75                                                                                     born Timworth
    Hannah                               73                                                                                               Bury St Edmunds
    John                                    36                                                                                                Timworth
    Matilda                               26                                                                                                Thelnathan
    Arthur                                 11                                                                                                Timworth
    Emma                                    8                                                                                                 Timworth
    Elijah                                     6                                                                                                 Timworth


    Hannah Leech was buried at Timworth on 7th June 1863, aged 85, and her husband William was buried there on 10th June 1866, aged 91.

    David Salisbury married Harriet Gooday in the June quarter of 1858 at Bury St Edmunds.  In 1861 David Salisbury, aged 26, and Harriet, aged 24, were both living in Bury St Edmunds.  A Minnie Salisbury was born in the March quarter of 1862 in the Bury St Edmunds district, and an Ernest Salisbury was born in the June quarter of 1871 in the same district.  David Salisbury died, aged 38, in the December quarter of 1872 in the Bury St Edmunds district, and Harriet Salisbury died, aged 41, in the June quarter of 1876 at Sheffield, where Ellen Salisbury appears to have lived before her marriage.

    Harriet Gooday was christened on 22nd May 1836 at Barrow, Suffolk, a village a few miles west of Bury St Edmunds.  Her mother was Amy Gooday, and her father’s name was not recorded.  Amy Gooday later married John Lies on 4th November 1837 at Barrow.  Their children, all christened at Barrow and named Lies or Lyes, were :
    In the 1881 Census a James Lyes, aged 39, born at Barrow and unmarried, was a soldier (private) stationed in the New Infantry Barracks, York, with 24 others.  His father was still living at Barrow :
Residence : The Green, Barrow, Suffolk
    John Lyes                H        W        66        Agricultural Labourer                                            Barrow, SUF
    Eliza                          D         U        38        Housewife                                                                Barrow, SUF


    An Emily Lyes married William Last in 1867 at Saffron Walden, Suffolk.  Two entries in the 1881 Census could refer to this couple, one which gives the correct place of Emily’s birth, but an incorrect age, and the other which is the opposite.  The age of the eldest children may be a clue to the correct entry :
Residence : The Green, Beyton, Suffolk
    William Last            H        M        57        Shepherd                                                                Waldringfield, SUF
    Emily                       W        M        47        Shepherd’s Wife                                                    Barrow, SUF
    Sarah                        D        --         13        Scholar                                                           Bradfield St George, SUF
    Margerite                 D        --          6         Scholar                                                                     Beyton, SUF


Residence : Kings Hall Farm, Rougham [Green], Suffolk
    William Last            H        M        42        Agricultural Labourer                                            Rougham, SUF
    Emily                       W        M        42        Ag Labourer’s Wife                                               Rougham, SUF
    Frederick                  S        --          15        Agricultural Labourer                                     Bury St Edmunds, SUF
    Albert                       S        --          11        Scholar                                                              Bury St Edmunds, SUF
    Geraldine                 D        --            8        Scholar                                                                      Rougham, SUF
    John                          S        --            6        Scholar                                                                      Rougham, SUF
    Bertie                        S        --            3        ---                                                                                Rougham, SUF
    Eliza                          D        --            1        ---                                                                                Rougham, SUF


    Amy (or Emma) Goodey was christened at Barrow on 2nd May 1818.  Her parents were Edward Goodey and Betsey.  Edward Goody married Elizabeth Drake at Barrow on 26th June 1817.  Both Edward and Elizabeth were born about 1800, according to entries in the Suffolk Bishops’ Transcripts copied by an unknown LDS submitter.  Other possible children of the couple were :
    Two Edward Goodays died in the District of Thingoe, which includes the village of Barrow, one in the December quarter of 1844, and the other in the December quarter of 1851.