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Revision Date : 25 December 2015

    The Williamsons in Yorkshire

    The Williamson line appears to have originated in the village of Great Ayton, on the northern border of Yorkshire, and there are records of the name in the earliest surviving parish records of 1601.  However these cannot be linked to our family line, which can only be traced reliably from the late 1600’s.  At this time there were two Thomas Williamsons living in the village.

    Captain James Cook lived, went to school, and worked in the village of Great Ayton between the ages of 8 and 16 (1736 - 1745).

    Thomas Williamson (senior)

    Thomas Williamson (senior), as he is referred to in the parish register, was born in Great Ayton, Yorkshire, about 1666.  On 8th December 1691 he married Mary Dawson, born in Stoxley (Stokesley).  This may have been Thomas’s second marriage, as his son Thomas was baptised as an adult (over 21 years old?) on 26th April 1709.  Thomas’s possible children, christened in Great Ayton :
Mary Williamson died on 1st March 1717, and Thomas Williamson died on 10th June 1737.  At his death, Thomas was described as a “farmer”.

    The parish register of Stokesley list numerous Dowsons, but no Dawsons.  The following were all the children of Thomas Dowson :

    Thomas Williamson

    The second family consisted of Thomas Williamson and his wife Elizabeth.  Their children, all christened in Great Ayton, were :
Francis Rutter died on 29th October 1755, and Elizabeth died on 26th January 1772.
Elizabeth Williamson died on 20th January 1735, and her husband died on 9th February 1747.  At his death, his occupation was described as “smith”.

    Richard Williamson married Mary Ling at Great Ayton on 30th January 1733.  His occupation was listed as “farrier”.  Their children, all baptised at Great Ayton, were :

    John Williamson

    John Williamson and Jane Williamson were married on 2nd May 1717 by the Rev Moon, curate of Great Ayton.  John was described as a “yeoman” in the parish register.  The couple continued to live in the village, and had the following children :
After Mary’s death in 1760, Joseph Harker married Anne Weiley of Ingleby Greenhow, after banns were published in Great Ayton on 28th September, 5th October and 12th October 1760.  Anne died on 31st December 1801.
After his first wife’s death, Cuthbert married Mary Bennison on 21st September 1780, Anthony Hastwell officiating, in the presence of James Bullmer and Thomas Garbutt.  Cuthbert died on 24th December 1781.

    Richard Williamson (senior)

    Richard Williamson married Elizabeth Wood in Great Ayton on 7th December 1749.  Richard’s occupation was twice described as “sailer” in the parish register, although the word “sailor” was correctly spelled on the same page.  Their children were :

    Richard Williamson

    On 10th March 1782 Richard Williamson was married to Jane Easeby at Great Ayton by the curate, Anthony Hastwell, in the presence of Thomas Atkin (shoemaker, probably a friend of Richard’s, as he was married in 1783 and died on 6th January 1797) and Thomas Williamson.  Richard’s occupation was “bricklayer” and his wife was described as a spinster.  However, Jane Easeby had given birth to an illegitimate daughter, Jane, on 31st January 1782, less than six weeks before her wedding.  I therefore conclude (and hope) that Richard Williamson was the father of Jane, and that she would have taken his surname after her parents were married.

    Richard and Jane’s children were :

    A Jane Williamson was buried at Great Ayton on 30th April 1813, aged 64.  It is possible that this was Richard’s wife, although this would put her birth date as 1748/49, making her about eight years older than Richard.

    In the 1841 Census of Great Ayton, the only family of Williamsons living in the village were :
William Williamson       55    Blacksmith        Born in YKS
Hannah                        28     ---                   Born in YKS
Mary                           10     ---                   Born in YKS
William                          8     ---                   Born in YKS

    In the 1851 Census, the only Williamsons in Great Ayton were :
William Williamson    H        M    49    Blacksmith    Born in Great Ayton
Hannah                     W       M    32    ---                Born in Danby
and in a separate house :
Esther Williamson    Visitor   U    41    Semstress    Born in Ruswarp

    In the 1861 Census William, 59, was a retired blacksmith, and Hannah, 48, was born in Lealholm.  The couple lived in Bridge Street, where they still lived in 1881, aged 79 and 68.  Hannah was once more born in Danby.

    Jane Williamson

    Jane Williamson gave birth to a daughter, Amelia, who was christened at Great Ayton on 16th April 1802.  The father’s name was not recorded.  Three and a half years later, on 23rd November 1805, Jane Williamson married John Appleton, of Whorlton, at Great Ayton.  The couple were married by licence by John Thompson, assistant curate, in the presence of John Longstaff, Richard Williamson (her father) and William Garbutt.  John and Jane’s children were :
Given the time which elapsed between the birth of Amelia and her mother’s marriage, I doubt whether John Appleton was her father, and Amelia was probably known as Amelia Williamson even after the marriage.

    The Appleton family is not listed in the 1841 Census of Great Ayton.

    An Amelia Williamson gave birth to an illegitimate child, Ann Williamson, who was christened on 5th November 1816 at Eastrington, Yorkshire.  It is unlikely that the two Amelias are the same, as Eastrington is a considerable distance from Great Ayton, and this Amelia would be only 14 years old.

    Easby Williamson

    According to the IGI records, Easby Williamson was born at Skelton by Guisborough, in North Yorkshire, where he was christened on 19th (10th ?) November 1822.  His mother was Emelia (sic) Williamson, but his father’s name was not listed, indicating that he was illegitimate.  Under the heading “Quality, Trade or Profession” in the Skelton Parish Register is the entry “Single Mother”.  His 1845 marriage certificate gives his full name as Easby Burton Williamson and his father as William Williamson, shipwright.  Numerous subsequent Victorian certificates give his full name as Easby Burton Williamson, his father’s name as William Burton Williamson, and his mother as Amelia Williamson (nee Appleton).  His birthplace is always listed as     London, his father’s occupation as schoolmaster, and his date of birth (calculated from his age) varies widely.  In Victoria he also used the name Thomas Edward B Williamson and was buried under the name Thomas Burton Williamson.

    It seems that Easby “invented” William Williamson to cover his illegitimacy, and that the surname came from his mother.  The later use of Appleton as her maiden name was probably suggested by the marriage of her mother to John Appleton.  Easby was a common surname in Great Ayton, but there were no Burtons in the village.

    Easby Burton Williamson married Mary Sophia Stubbs on 15th June 1845 at the Spitalfields Christ Church, Stepney, London (district of Whitechapel).  His profession was listed as “engineer”, and they both resided in Brick Lane.  Mary’s father was Thomas Byram Stubbs, a lighterman.  Easby, whose name was registered as Eseby, signed the certificate with “his mark”, a cross.  A Martha Mary Stubbs was a witness to the marriage.

    Louisa Sophia Williamson was born on 27th March 1850 at 3 Salisbury Place, Newington.  Her father was Easby Burton Williamson, engineer.

    A Thomas Byron Stubbs died in the March quarter of 1846 in the district of Stepney, London.  A Martha Stubbs died in the June quarter of 1857 in the same district.

    In the 1851 Census, the family lived at Orsett St, Lambeth, East Surrey, under the surname Burton :
Easby Burton        H        M        27        Engineer        Acton, YKS
Mary                    W       M        27        ---                 Limehouse, MSX
Mary                    Dau     --          4        Scholar          Lambeth, SUR
Elizabeth               Dau     --          3        Scholar          Lambeth, SUR
Louisa                  Dau      --          1        ---                 Lambeth, SUR
Acton is probably a mis-reading of Ayton, but Easby’s name and age are both fabrications.  In Victoria in 1862 Easby’s daughters were named Mary Jane, Alice and Louisa.

    The Williamsons in Australia

    Easby Williamson

    Emigration to Victoria

About 1853/4 Easby Williamson emigrated to Victoria, leaving his wife and daughters in London.  No record has been found to determine exactly when this occurred.  In Melbourne he lived with Charlotte Lerpiniere, daughter of Edward Lerpiniere and Maria (nee Laybank), who was born in Essex in 1828.  Charlotte bore a son, Edward, on 28th March 1858 at Williamstown.  For unknown reasons, his birth was never registered, and the evidence for his birthplace and date is contained in his marriage certificate, his gravestone, and an entry in his son’s autograph book.  It is believed that Easby was a bridge builder, and probably travelled a lot in the early days, making the registration difficult.  The years 1857-8 were years of economic recession in Victoria, and it is possible that Easby also moved around looking for work.

    Melbourne in the 1850’s

    The editorial article in the Melbourne Argus of 12th March 1853 listed the difficulties faced by the new immigrants :
THE COLONY OF VICTORIA - SOCIAL CONDITION - About 5000 immigrants have landed in the colony during the last month.  The rapid increase of population has not been, and perhaps could not be, met with a corresponding increase in the means of accommodating it.  The amount of social inconvenience must of necessity grow larger with every fresh accession to our numbers; for if all the available labour in the colony were employed exclusively in building, the ever-growing demand for houses could hardly be supplied.  The want of lodging meets the immigrant at the moment of his landing; he finds himself either unable to procure one at any price or else he has to pay an exorbitant sum for the barest accommodation.  His self-helpfulness is thus put to the severest test at the very outset; but for this there is no present remedy.  There are certain evils unavoidable in our present strange circumstances, and the want of the most ordinary conveniences of social existence is the foremost of them.  There is every reason to believe that this evil will rise to a greater height than it has even yet attained.  There is, however, a considerable amount of building going forward in the city and principal towns, and there is every probability of its increasing at a constantly augmenting rate.  Extravagant prices are freely given for building allotments in the least favourable part of the metropolis.  At a land sale held a few days ago, sections in a low, swampy and unhealthy part of the suburbs were eagerly bought up at the rate of 2000 guineas an acre - a price that similar sections would scarcely have fetched in the neighbourhood of London or New York.  The eagerness to obtain possession of such lots at such prices would seem to indicate an intense anxiety to build, but the inference is not quite correct, for many of these expensive allotments will be allowed to remain waste for months to come. ......
    The suddenness of the shower of wealth turned almost every man into a money-seeker in his own particular channel.  The merchant is wholly occupied in his wholesale, and the shopkeeper equally so in his retail, transactions, the gold-digger sticks to his pursuit exclusively.  The era of enterprise has not yet arrived.  Men are too intently absorbed in money-making, each in his own line, to cast their eyes over the broad field of enterprise which surrounds them. ......
    The primary want of house accommodation is still attended by many minor ones.  Provisions, with the single exception of flour, are dear, and their dearness is a heavy item in the expenditure of the newcomer.  Vegetables are almost unobtainable, because people are careless about cultivating them.  Market gardening is a most lucrative pursuit to the few who follow it, and it offers a fine field for industry. ......
    The condition of the newly arrived immigrant is decidedly uncomfortable, and we are afraid it will become even more so. ......
    The first difficulty of an immigrant is (as we have said) lodgings.  His best plan, therefore, is to bring a good tent with him.  He will get permission to pitch it in the vicinity of the city, but the government will charge him five shillings a week for the privilege.  This oppressive impost is levied for no other reason that we can see than a desire to deal as harshly as possible with the immigrants.  The whole community of course protests loudly against it, but the government is obstinately unfeeling.  The next difficulty of the immigrant is employment.  If he is bent upon trying his fortune at the diggings, the sooner he sets off the better.  The gold fever is only to be cured by actual digging.  If, however, he be an artisan, he will find ready employment at right good wages, and his best plan is to accept the first offer he gets, rather than try the diggings.  If he has no fixed occupation, he must take whatever employment he can get, and work at it till something better “turns up”.  Failing all these, he must accept employment on the roads at 10 shillings a day.  It is not unlikely that if he is a clerk or a supernumerary of one of the learned professions, or if he is destitute of the spirit of self-dependence, he will find himself compelled to adopt the latter alternative, however repugnant to his habits or feelings it may be.  The only rule for immigrants, the only secret of success in this colony, or any colony, is simply the principle of strenuous effort and uncomplaining self-reliance, with a good deal of quiet endurance.  If a man has not these qualities in some degree, he had better not emigrate to Australia at all, notwithstanding its gold and its unlimited fields of enterprise.  Letters of recommendation will avail him very little, the promises of friends will be of small value; but a manly energy of character will most certainly - saving providential dispensations - ensure him success and gain him competence and independence.  There is a very observable tendency in certain classes of immigrants to indulge in habits of dissipation from the commencement of their colonial career.  Without adopting the tone of the moralists, we may take the opportunity of alluding to that fact.  The drunkard or the idler had far better stay at home.  There at least he may meet commiseration and friendly counsel, but he will not find them here.  If he glories in his anticipated freedom from restraint, let him remember that he will also be free from friendship and kindness.  Noone will care if he reduce himself to the most abject misery by his evil course.  He will ruin his health, destroy his prospects and die from destitution without eliciting a spark of pity from one human soul.  Men here are too much separated by individual interests, and too familiar with the cases we are supposing, to be much affected by them.  The profligate generally finds in Australia a stern and speedy punishment for his vices, and we speak thus warningly on the subject because daily observation shows so many instances of the frightfully swift retribution that falls upon the profligate here.  Many a drunkard dies unpitied and unknown, and is flung into a nameless grave.  Many an immigrant ends his short career of dissipation in Australia in destitution, lunacy or death.  If a man cannot undertake the task of moral self-control, he is not fit to emigrate, and if he will persist in vicious courses, instead of manfully struggling for independence, he must take the dreadful consequences of his folly.”

    Marriages in Melbourne

    A second son, Harry, was born to Easby and Charlotte on 22nd March 1860 at Flemington.  On the birth certificate, Charlotte’s age was given as 28, making her birth year 1831/2, and Easby’s age was stated as 35.  It claims that the two were married in Melbourne in 1857, that they had one other child, Edward, and that they lived at Flemington.

    The relationship between the Williamson and Lerpiniere families in Australia continued for several generations, and is described in more detail in Chapter 8.

    The Victorian birth indexes show the birth of Arthur Williamson on 17th May 1862 to Easby Burton Williamson and a Sophia Williamson (nee Byron), at Hotham (now North Melbourne).  The address of the birth is given as 25 Byron Street, Hotham, and previous issue of the father still living was listed as Mary Jane 17; Alice 15; Louisa 13; Edward 4½; and Harry 3.  No deceased children were listed. Since Mary Sophia Williamson and her three daughters were listed as living in London in the 1861 Census, Arthur’s mother must have been Charlotte Lerpiniere. Her death certificate listed her children as Edward 18; Harry 14; and Arthur 12.  (Coincidentally, Mary Sophia Stubbs’ father’s middle name was Byram or Byron.)
    On 22nd May 1871 Easby Burton Williamson was married to Mary Frances Nash, who was born in Limerick, Ireland, at 174 Gertrude Street, Fitzroy, by a Minister of the Victorian Free Church.  Easby’s condition was described as “bachelor”, his age as 41, his profession as “engineer”, and his address as Flemington Road, Hotham.  Mary was a “spinster” house-keeper, aged 23, daughter of John Nash, a baker, and Eliza (nee O’Mara) of Lygon Street, Carlton.  Easby Williamson died on 18th April 1875, at Graham Street, Sandridge, of pneumonia and hemoptysis (expectoration of blood) from which he had suffered for six months.  He was reported to be 44 years old, having been in Victoria for 22 years, and was buried in the Melbourne General Cemetery on 20th April.  On 25th June 1875 Mary had a son, Easby John Burton Williamson, born in Smith Ward of the Lying-in Hospital, Carlton, who died on 21st September of the same year of general dropsy, and was also buried in the General Cemetery.

    Easby John Burton’s birth certificate states that Easby and Mary had a daughter, Ellen, who was already deceased.  This child was born at Happy-go-Lucky, a suburb of Walhalla, a gold-mining town east of Melbourne, in late February 1874, and died 13 days later, on 6th March, of congestion of the lungs.  The father’s name on the death certificate is given as Thomas Edward B Williamson, but the signature is unmistakably that of Easby Williamson, with an extra initial added.

    In late December 1862 a small party of prospectors followed the Thomson River downstream from the north.  Edward Stringer was amongst the party that was to discover alluvial gold in a small creek flowing into the Thomson amongst the thick bush.  On registering his party’s claim, the rush to Stringers Creek, now named after Edward, commenced.  A month later a gold-bearing quartz seam was found on the western side of the creek and eventually became one of the richest gold-bearing reefs in Australia.  Named Cohens reef, it was the focus of activity for many large mining companies of the time such as The Long Tunnel Co., The Long Tunnel Extended and the Walhalla Mining Co.  The eventual town that grew to service the burgeoning gold industry took its name from the last of these companies.  The town reached its peak between 1880 and 1895, and during Walhalla’s heyday the town supported surrounding suburbs such as Maidentown, Mormontown and Happy-go-Lucky.  Several breweries, many hotels, forty shops, two banks, a post office, a police stations, four churches, a Mechanics Institute and a school boasting an attendance of 500 students supported the town of roughly 4000 people.  Access to the town was extremely difficult given the steep sides of the Stringers Creek valley.  Road travel was slow and the local residents welcomed the arrival of the narrow gauge railway from Moe in 1910.  Sadly by the time the railway had reached Walhalla the town was in decline and the railway served to transport many of the local buildings to other prospering centres in the state.  Today the town has less than 20 permanent residents, yet visitors and temporary residents sometimes swell the town’s numbers towards its former glory.  Much of the original architecture of the town has been preserved and it has truly become a living museum.

    Easby Williamson’s funeral notice in the Melbourne Argus of Tuesday 20th April 1875 gives another variation on his name :
The friends of Mr Thomas Burton Williamson, millwright and engineer, are respectfully invited to follow his remains to the place of internment, the Melbourne General Cemetery.
The funeral is appointed to leave his late residence, No 2 Lovett Terrace, Graham Street, Sandridge, THIS DAY (April 20) at a quarter to 3 o’clock.
            R McKenzie, undertaker, 87 Clarendon St, Emerald Hill

    Charlotte Williamson died on 21st December 1873, aged 44 (?) in Gipps Ward of Melbourne Hospital, of pleurisy, hydrothorax (dropsy of the pleura) and ascites (an accu-mulation of fluid in the abdomen).  Her death certificate stated that she had been 21 years in Victoria, had married Easby Burton Williamson in Melbourne at the age of 27, and that her children were Edward 18; Harry 14; and Arthur 12.  Their step-mother Mary was not sympathetic to Charlotte’s sons, and gave them a rough time, and Edward promised Charlotte that he would look after Harry, which he eventually did, giving him a job in his biscuit factory.

    Melbourne Directories

    There is no mention in the Melbourne Directories before 1864 of either Easby Williamson or Edward Wilson.

    In the 1864 Directory, E B Williamson is listed as a machine maker, with business premises at 21 a’Beckett Street East, Melbourne (north side between Coglin Place and Stuart Street, at the same location as Eastwood Bros., produce merchants), and home at Wreckyn Street, Hotham.  In the trade section he is listed under Agricultural Implement and Machinery Makers and Sellers.  The street-by-street listing does not show him in Wreckyn Street, but lists a Thomas Williamson instead.  Edward Wilson is shown as living in Stoke Street, Sandridge.

    In the 1865 Directory  E B Williamson and his business are not listed, and Thomas Williamson is listed in Wreckyn Street.  Edward Wilson is living in Stoke Street, Sandridge, next door to Isaac Ransom.

    In 1866, however, both E B and Thomas Williamson are shown as living in Wreckyn Street, although E B Williamson does not appear in the alphabetical listing.

    In 1867 there are no Williamsons in Wreckyn Street, although Thomas Williamson appears in the nearby Lothian Street, as a grocer.

    In 1869 Eisby (sic) B Williamson is listed in Munster Terrace, only a few streets away from Lothian Street.

    1870 shows Eisby B Williamson living in Dryburgh Street, Hotham, on the east side between Queensberry Street and Arden Street.  Thomas Williamson is still at Lothian Street.

    In 1871, Easby B Williamson is living in Flemington Road, Hotham, on the south side, between High Street and Villiers Street, next door to a David Williamson, butcher. Thomas Williamson is still at Lothian Street.

    The 1871/2 Bailliere’s Gazeteer of Victoria describes Hotham as “a suburban borough of Melbourne lying to the NW of the city, and forming part of the electoral district of Melbourne West.  It is in the parish of Doutta Galla, and is situated on the west side of the main Sydney road, which separates it from Carlton.  Numerous new colonial industries have sprung up in the borough.  Hotham lies 1 mile NW from the Melbourne Post Office, and 1 mile E from Flemington; with these places cars run continually throughout the day.  The benevolent asylum, a fine extensive building erected for the reception of aged and infirm persons, stands in this suburb; it is built of brick at a cost of upwards of  £30 000.  The foundation stone was laid on the site of ten acres in June 1840.  The suburb is rather elevated; it has a population of 7800 persons.”

    Easby Williamson is not listed in the 1872 Directory, although David Williamson is in Abbotsford Street, Hotham, and Thomas Williamson is shown in Lothian Street.

    In 1873 Easby Williamson is not listed, but of the 29 Williamsons in the Directory, seven are clustered in the Hotham area :
David Williamson       Abbotsford Street
Thomas Williamson    62 Lothian Street
William Williamson     4 Villiers Street
Samuel Williamson     10 Raglan Street
Richard Williamson     Hardwick Street
James Williamson        89 Capel Street
John Williamson          Haines Street

    The 1874 and 1875 Directories list an E S Williamson living at 24 Abbotsford Street, but no David Williamson.  A Thomas Nash also lives in this street.

    From 1876 onwards, E S Williamson disappears from the Directories.  In 1878 a John Williamson is living in Stoke Street, almost opposite Edward Wilson.

    The Williamsons left behind in London

    When Easby Williamson emigrated to Australia, he left behind his wife, Mary Sophia, and three daughters, Mary Jane, Elizabeth Martha and Louisa Sophia.  The 1861 Census lists the family living at Limehouse St Anne under the surname Burton, as used in the 1851 Census :
Mary Burton            Head        b 1821            Limehouse, MSX
Elizabeth Burton       Dau          b 1848            Limehouse, MSX
Louisa Burton           Dau          b 1850            Limehouse, MSX
Joseph Stables (Stubbs) Brother  b 1811            Limehouse, MSX

    Mary Jane Burton married William James Coram on 3rd September 1870 in the Poplar Wesleyan Chapel, one of the witnesses being Elizabeth Martha Burton.  Mary Burton's father was given as Esby Burton (sic), engine fitter, deceased, which was probably wishful thinking.

    William James Coram was the son of Samuel Coram (a farmer, deceased), and was born on 21st March 1834 at St George in the East, London, and died aged 41 in the December quarter of 1875 in the district of Stepney.  The couple had two children, Mary Jane Lottie and William Herbert.

    The 1871 Census listed :
Mary S Burton        Head        50
Elizabeth M Burton                  23
Louisa S Burton                       21
William Coram                         36
Mary J Coram                          24

    Mary Jane Lottie Coram was born in the September quarter of 1871 in Limehouse, Middlesex, and died on 10th Mar 1946 in Hooley, Coulsdon, Surrey, aged 74, and was buried on 14th Mar 1946 in Chipstead, Surrey.  She married Thomas John Langmaid in the December quarter of 1898 in West Ham, Essex.  He was the son of Thomas John Langmaid and Eliza, was born in the December quarter of 1865 in Lymington, Hampshire, England, and died in the September quarter of 1928 in Isle of Wight, Hampshire, England, aged 62.

    William Herbert Coram was born in the September quarter of 1874 in Limehouse, Middlesex.  He married Alice Wright in the June quarter of 1902 in Hackney, London.  Alice was born in 1873 in Shoreditch, London, and they had two children, Albert Wright and Kenneth.  Albert Wright Coram was born in the June quarter of 1904 in Poplar, London, and married Lilian Start in the  June quarter of 1930 in West Ham, Essex.  Lilian was born in the September quarter of 1901 in Mile End Old Town, Middlesex.  Kenneth Coram was born in 1911.

    In the 1881 Census the Coram family lived at Mile End Old Town, London :
Mary Coram            Head        b abt 1847        Limehouse, MSX
Mary J L Coram       Dau         b abt 1872        Limehouse, MSX
William H Coram      Son          b abt 1875        Limehouse, MSX
Elizth M Burton         Sister       b abt 1849        Walworth, MSX

    In 1891 the family was :
Mary Jane Coram      Head        b abt 1847        Limehouse, MSX
Lottie Coram              Dau         b abt 1872        Limehouse, MSX
William H Coram        Son         b abt 1875        Limehouse, MSX
Elizabeth M Burton     Sister       b abt 1849        Walworth, MSX

    Mary Jane Coram died on 10th February 1901 at her home at “Chapel House’, 3 Colt St, Limehouse, London, and the 1901 Census listed :
William Coram          Head         b abt 1875        Limehouse, MSX
Elizabeth Burton        Aunt          b abt 1849        Walworth, MSX
Ethel Deeks              Cousin       b abt 1889        Clapton, London

    In the 1911 Census the family was :
William Coram         Head              36
Alice Coram            Wife                38
Albert Coram           Son                  6
Kenneth Coram        Son                  0
Ethel Deeks              Cousin            22

    Louisa Sophia Burton married Joseph Deeks on 3rd August 1876 at the Brunswick Wesleyan Chapel, Stepney, London.  She was 26 years old, a spinster with no occupation listed, and lived at 4 Burn Street, Limehouse.  Her father was Esby Burton (sic, deceased), engine fitter.  Joseph Deeks was 21, a corn porter, and lived at 28 West Ferry Road, Poplar.  He was born in the September quarter of 1854 at Walton on the Naze, Essex, and his father was James Deeks, laborer, and his mother was Jemima Wyatt.

    In the 1881 Census the family lived at Hackney, London :
Joseph Deeks        Head        b abt 1855        Walton on the Naze, ESX
Louisa Deeks        Wife          b abt 1850        Limehouse, MSX
Louise Deeks         Dau          b abt 1879        Poplar, MSX

    In 1891 the family was still at Hackney :
Joseph Deeks         Head             36            Walton on the Naze, ESX
Louisa S Deeks      Wife              40             Limehouse, MSX
Louise M Deeks     Dau               12             Poplar, MSX
Edith A Deeks        Dau                 7             Clapton, London
Ethel M Deeks        Dau                 2             Clapton, London

    Joseph Deeks became a police constable, and died in the December quarter of 1892 at Hackney, and the 1901 Census listed :
Louisa Deeks          Head              48            London, SUR
Louise Deeks          Dau                21            Poplar, London
Edith Deeks             Dau               17            Clapton, London
    Ethel Deeks was living with her Coram cousins.

    Louisa Sophia Deeks died on 5th February 1902 at 2a Cross Road, Lower Clapton, London, aged 51.

    Joseph and Louisa Deeks had three children :

    Arthur Williamson

    Arthur Williamson eventually moved to Queensland, where he married Jeannie Moffat on 29th March 1886 at the Holy Trinity Church, Mackay.

    Jeannie Moffat’s family had hotel interests in Mackay.  Her father was William Ross Moffat, born in Scotland about 1842 (mother Margaret Ross), and her mother was Sarah Gainford.  Her brother, William Mount Spencer Moffat, was born in Queensland in 1874.  William Ross Moffat died in Queensland in 1899, aged 57, and Sarah Moffat died in Queensland in 1914.  Jeannie Moffat was evidently born Margaret Jane, as those are the names on her second marriage certificate, and the electoral rolls until her death about 1936.

    William R Moffat was the licensee of several hotels in Mackay, the Queensland between 1885 and 1892, the School of Arts from 1892 to 1897, and the Metropolitan in 1899 until his death.  Sarah Moffat was named as the licensee of the Metropolitan from 1898 to 1900, and A B Williamson was the licensee in 1901.  His wife, variously called Jeannie or Janet, became the licensee of Moffat’s Hotel from 1901 to 1908, and her mother was the licensee of the Cambridge Club (which was Moffat’s Hotel under a different name) from 1903 to 1908.

Arthur and Jeannie had three children, two daughters and a son.  The eldest, Alma Gainford, (born 12th February 1887, died 1971), never married, and the other daughter, Gladys Irene, (“Rena”, born 26th May 1898), married late and died in childbirth, in November 1943.  Their son, William Ross, was born on 6th January 1889, and died young.  Arthur died in Queensland on 20th November 1904, and the family lived in Sydney for a period around 1906, where Alma signed her cousin Arthur Burton’s autograph book on 19th February 1906, adding a few bars of music to her signature.  She died in Brisbane in the late 1970’s.  Arthur’s widow (named Margaret Jane Williamson) married Herbert Graham Shaw, a master mariner and nautical surveyor on the Queensland coast, in 1908, and they had a son, James Graham.  Strangely, Arthur’s death certificate gives him a middle name (Lapenia or Lapenier) and states that his mother was Charlotte Larpiniere.  His father’s name was given as Easby Burton Williamson.

    The Australian electoral rolls list both Herbert Graham Shaw and Margaret Jane Shaw in the Oxley electorate until 1925, and then Margaret Jane Shaw only in the Brisbane electorate until 1936.

Adelaide Observer 5 March 1887  -  “Births - Williamson - On 12th February, at her residence, Sydney Street South, Mackay, the wife of Arthur Williamson, of a daughter.”

    The Dictionary of Australian Artists Online has an entry for Rene (Toby) Williamson :
“Gladys Irene Williamson was born at Mackay, Queensland 1898.  Her sister Alma Gainford Williamson (1887-1971) was a potter in Brisbane’s Harvey School.  Her father died in 1904 but three years later her mother remarried Captain Herbert Graham Shaw, a nautical surveyor, and the family travelled to Sydney and Cooktown before settling in Brisbane.  She attended the commercial art course at the Central Technical College from about 1917 (she was awarded honours for “Drawing, Stage 11” in 1918) and later worked for retail firms such as ABC Drapery, Fortitude Valley, and T C Bernie’s and Barry & Roberts on Queen Street, Brisbane, illustrating their clothing catalogues.  She travelled to Europe in 1927 studying with a Countess Lillie in Florence and visiting galleries in Rome and Paris before returning to Brisbane the following year.  Williamson took further lessons with the prominent Brisbane watercolour artist, Vida Lahey.  She exhibited with the Royal/Queensland Art Society from 1928 to 1939.
“She moved to Sydney in 1936 where she enrolled in classes given by Datillo Rubbo and shared a studio in Dalley Street with former Vida Lahey student, Muriel Foote.  She exhibited her watercolours at the English Speaking Union from 6 September 1936 (or 1937) and included three watercolours in an exhibition at the Macquarie Galleries in 1938, which also showed the work of Margaret Preston, Rah Fizelle, Hans Heysen and Lloyd Rees.  She sketched behind the scenes when the Russian Ballet performed in Sydney during 1939.  Her sketching outdoor scenes around Sydney city was described in several press reports but her floral watercolours, which were much more freely executed than the typical flower paintings of the period, are those which survive.  Such works were included in displays at the Watercolour Institute of Australia (Sydney) and in the Australian Academy (Melbourne).  Air Force officer and architect Gilbert Noel Hughes helped her design a studio/home ‘The Cranes’ on Sailors Bay Road, Mona Vale, which featured in an article in The Australian Home Beautiful in 1941.  Williamson married Hughes on 6 December that year but died in November 1943 after giving birth to her son, Gilbert.

“Rene Williamson was typical of many female artists during the inter war years of the twentieth century who made a career out of painting floral studies.  However, her method of execution was much looser and freer than many other practitioners.”

    Rene Williamson’s artist friend, Muriel Florence Snell Foote, married Rene’s step-brother, James Graham Shaw, in 1945, and they had two daughters, Helen Jane, born in 1946, and Margaret Evelyn, born in 1947.  James Shaw died in 1958 in Sydney, and Muriel Shaw died in Brisbane on 11th June 1990.

    Edward Williamson

    I still have an old English grammar book and a dictionary which Edward used in his schooldays in the 1860’s, with his signature, and other doodlings scribbled on them.

    Edward Williamson married Margaret Wilson on 26th June 1883, at the home of Margaret’s parents, 78 Stoke Street, Sandridge (now Port Melbourne).  The celebrant was Frederick George Buckingham, a Baptist Minister, and Edward’s address was given as 48 York Street, Emerald Hill (now South Melbourne).  The witnesses were Peter Maclean Ross and Agnes Wilson.  E B Williamson’s occupation was stated as “Engineer”, and Edward Wilson’s as “Carpenter”.  The Wilsons had emigrated  from England, and lived in a prefabricated iron house which they had brought out with them.  I saw what may have been a similar type of house at the Pioneer Settlement Museum at Swan Hill in 1990.  The York Street address was possibly owned by the Ross family (see Chapter 8), as it was listed as William Ross’s address when he married Mary Steet in 1882, and P M Ross lived there in 1884.

    The Wilsons

    The Wilsons arrived in Melbourne in June 1854, aboard the ship Brevet (1279 tons registered, Captain Duncan Robertson), which sailed from Liverpool on 17th February 1854.  The passenger manifest for this ship lists the following people :
and Edward’s sister Alice and her family :

    There were only 47 adults, 7 children and 2 infants on the ship.  There was no trace of the Williamson family, although family tradition says that the Wilsons and Williamsons emigrated on the same ship.

    Before they left England, Edward and Sarah each sat for their portraits, but these were unfinished at the time their ship left Liverpool, so they organised for the Captain of the Brevet to bring them out with him on the ship’s next voyage, which he did, keeping them in his cabin for safety.  The portraits are now in the possession of one of Margaret Graydon’s daughters.

    Margaret Wilson was born on the 6th June 1859 at Sandridge, to Edward Wilson, aged 32, carpenter by trade, and his wife Sarah (nee Webster), aged 34.  Edward Wilson, from Keswick, Cumberland, and Sarah, from Little Eaton, Derbyshire, had been married on 24th April 1848 in Liverpool, England.  Sarah Webster, the daughter of John Webster and his wife Hannah, was born on 9th July 1824 and christened at St Paul’s, Little Eaton on 11th July.

    The Marriage Certificate states that Edward and Sarah were married in the Church of St Nicholas, Liverpool, by the curate, A J Tomlin, BA, according to the rites and ceremonies of the Established Church after Banns, and the witnesses were Robert Boyers and Susanna Boyers.  Other facts on the Certificate are :

Name                Age        Condition            Rank        Residence            Father’s name        Father’s rank
                                                                      or Prof                                                                              or Prof
Edward            full            Bachelor            Joiner       Pleasant Street    Joseph Wilson        Joiner
Sarah               full            Spinster              ----            Bold Street          John Webster          Maltster

    Joseph Wilson married Mary Anderton at St John’s Church, Preston, Lancashire, on 15th June 1807 .  The Certificate reads :
“Joseph Wilson a bachelor and Mary Anderton spinster, both of this Parish, married in this Church by Banns this fifteenth day of June in the Year One Thousand Eight Hundred and Seven by me, Wm Myers, Curate.
                        (Both parties signed the Certificate)
            Witnesses :    Jno Fothergill
                                 William Pitt”

    Their children included :
    At the time of Margaret’s birth Edward and Sarah had five other children alive (two sons and three daughters), and had lost one son and one daughter.  Two of the brothers may have been named Joe and Bert, and Agnes Wilson was a witness at Margaret’s wedding.  Another sister, Susie, married a Mr Dusting, and lived in the Wilson family home.  Susie had a son, Stan, and a daughter, Elsie, who married a Mr Fischer, and had a daughter, Bettina, who married a Mr Wilson, and thus the name returned to the family.  In 1937 Edward Williamson’s youngest son, Harold, had lunch with Stan Dusting (“a cousin”) in Canberra, and in 1956 Elsie was living at Athelstone Avenue, Camberwell, Melbourne.  Arthur Burton Williamson had many relatives on the Wilson side, and these are listed in a chart at the end of the chapter.

    Edward and Sarah Wilson’s children whom I have traced were:

    The Websters

    John Webster married Hannah, and their children, all christened at Saint Paul’s, Little Eaton, were :
    Possible marriages of John Webster and Hannah from the IGI are :
Hannah Fentem    29 August 1820    Dronfield
Hannah Gettliffe    23 December 1822    Wirksworth

Hannah Neal        24 March 1823    Derby, St Alkmund’s

Hannah Stewardson    8 October 1823    Derby, St Alkmund’s
The last is the most likely, given the birth of Sarah, their first child, a bare nine months later.  A John Webster was christened at Dronfield on 21st June 1835, which probably rules out the first marriage, as the birth conflicts with that of Mary Webster.

    A Hannah Stewardson was born on 15th February 1798 and was christened on 16th May at Bedale, Yorkshire.  Her parents were Edward Stewardson and Ann Watson, who were married at Bedale on 5th May 1797.

    On Sarah’s marriage certificate, her father’s ocupation is given as “maltster”.  In Bagshaw’s 1846 Trade Directory for Derby Borough, a Joseph Webster is listed as a maltster at Little Eaton, St Alkmund’s Parish, and a John Webster is a dispenser at the Dispensary of the Derby Self-Supporting Infirmary, Bridge Gate, Derby.  These two persons are both also mentioned in White’s 1857 History of the Borough of Derby.

    The Ransom Family (Hannah Wilson)

    Hannah Wilson married George Ransom (born in Wiltshire on 9th March 1845) in 1870,  and they had the following children:
Hannah may have married the “boy next door”, as the Melbourne Directories show an Isaac Ransom living next door to the Wilsons in Stoke Street, Sandridge, from 1862 on.

    An email from Peter Williamson passed on a reminiscence of Hannah Ransom : “Joan [Donnelly] has a vivid memory of her great aunt Hannah when at the age of 9 she was staying with Nan [Margaret Williamson].  Likely Hannah was visiting her daughter Ada who worked for Grandpa.  Joan describes her as being tall, dressed in black with a hat with black ostrich feathers.  She thought her formidable to the degree that she was frightened she might do something wrong in such august presence.”

    Several of the Ransom family left Victoria for Western Australia after the discovery of gold there in the 1890’s.  Ada divided her time between Victoria, South Australia and Western Australia.  She worked as a bookkeeper for E Williamson & Co., and possibly for the Motteram and Williamson partnership early this century, and she lived at various times with the Williamson family at 34 West Terrace.  Brian Watt remembered visiting Ada, Ethel and another sister [Lucy Evelyn], all spinsters, at their cottage at Eden Hills, South Australia, in 1931 or 1932.  He also remembers seeing their mother Hannah early in 1930 when she was living on a one acre property at Mitcham, Victoria.  Ada Ransom died at the Wakefield Street Hospital, Adelaide, on 10th April 1949, aged 74, of cancer of the stomach.  She lived at Willunga Street, Eden Hills, with sister Ethel.  Ethel Ransom died at the Malvern Private Hospital, Winchester St, Malvern, on 30th June 1951, aged 71, of myocardial degeneration and chronic nephritis.  Both sisters were cremated at the West Terrace Cemetery, but Ada Ransom’s remains were interred in the Box Hill Cemetery, Melbourne.

    Percy Lewis Ransom and Gerte Maud Rees had a daughter, Dorothy A C, born in Coolgardie, Western Australia, in 1909.  She married a Walter D Scott (born in 1909 in WA) in Perth in 1931.  Walter Scott was an advisor to government who founded of one of Australia’s first management consulting firms, introduced decimal currency into Australia, and was knighted for his efforts.  His son Brian took over the firm and served on numerous government boards.  His grandson, Mark, remembered his grandfather, “He served on ten different government commissions or boards of review, five for Liberal governments, five for Labor governments. He died just when I finished school but we were quite close and he always struck me as being a loving, a gentleman, a very wise man, generous with his time, generous with people and a greatly respected man.”  Mark was appointed Managing Director of the Australian Broadcasting Commission (the ABC) in 2006.  He was previously employed by the Fairfax newspaper group, where he was the Editor In Chief of The Age, The Sunday Age, the Sydney Morning Herald and the Sun Herald.

    The Walker Family (Sarah Alice Wilson)

    Sarah Alice Wilson married Edward Walker (born 31st January 1852) in 1875, and their children were:
Edward (Ted) Walker was a champion rifle shooter, and went to Bisley in England for competitions.

    Edward Wilson jr

    The younger Edward Wilson migrated to South Africa, and an Adelaide paper of 1907 mentions a visit the family paid to Edward Williamson :
Quiz 18 October 1907  -  “Mr and Mrs Wilson and family, of South Africa, have been spending a holiday with their brother-in-law, Mr E Williamson of West Terrace.  They left by train on Wednesday for their home via Melbourne.  They speak highly of the great improvement in Adelaide since their last visit some years ago.”  The Victorian family story is that Edward’s wife was “dripping with diamonds, but had dirty fingernails.”

    Edward Wilson was attending a billiards competition with Edward Williamson at the Globe Hotel, Rundle Street, on the night of 15th October 1907, when a drunk patron, John Jane, was ejected so forcibly from the hotel that he hit his head on the footpath and subsequently died.  Edward Williamson gave evidence at the inquest on the death, but the culprit was never identified.

    Roy Williamson and his wife Mabel visited Edward Wilson in Durban on their voyage home from England after World War I.  Edward employed a number of natives, who called him “clebber boss Joe”, a saying that became a catch-phrase in Roy’s family, being applied whenever anyone did something smart, or who was appearing as too clever by half.

    The Johnson Family (Agnes Wilson)

    Agnes Wilson married Edward Johnson, who was of Swedish descent (?).

    The Humphreys Family (Elizabeth Ann Wilson)

    In 1887 Elizabeth Ann Wilson married Richard Humphreys (born at Collingwood on 4th August 1857 to Evan and Margaret, nee Morris).  They lived in Ballarat, and later moved to Fielding, New Zealand.  They had no children, but Elizabeth’s nephew Albert Joseph Catterall lived with them from the age of three, and was commonly known as Albert Joseph Humphreys.  His name was changed by deed poll prior to his marriage to Adelaide Elizabeth McArthur in 1915.

    The Catterall Family (Caroline Wilson)

    Sarah Wilson was a keen church worker, and led an adult Bible class at the Methodist Church where the Rev John Catterall was Minister.  It was here that daughter Caroline met Charles Catterall.

    On 7th April 1883, at Hotham, Caroline Wilson married Charles Wallace Catterall (born 1864 at Colac to John, born 16th or 19th August, and Mary Hannah, nee Preston, born 1st June).  Both Caroline and Charles were aged 18, and Charles’ occupation was given as “farmer, presently at Moe, usual address Sandridge”.  A family story claims that Caroline and Charles eloped in 1882 to Port Melbourne, and that their marriage was conducted at Hotham by Rev John Catterall with his written consent, and with Caroline’s father’s written consent, as they were both minors.

Their children were:
    In 1912 Minnie Catterall married James Arthur Theodore Thorogood, later secretary of the Geelong Gas Company for many years.  They had one child, Harold, who attended Geelong College, and later served in the Army in World War II, but died soon afterwards.

    Charles Webster Catterall married Bessie May Dandy, born at Mount Moriac, in 1906, and they had eight children, two of whom were born at Geelong:
Charles Webster Catterall was a dairy farmer, and was killed on 27th December 1924, when his horse and buggy were hit by a train at a crossing near the Nilma station, Gippsland.

    Charles Wallace Catterall had a number of brothers and sisters, including:
    A brief history of the Catterall family was written by Gwen Evans, the daughter of Emma Mabel Catterall, but it is somewhat suspect, and the following extract has corrections by Coral McBride, a great-grand-daughter of Charles Catterall.
“It is thought that the Catterall family came from Preston, England [actually Chorley].  The Rev John Catterall, my great-grandfather, was the first Methodist Minister at Colac in the 1850s.  His son Charles was born there, and he was christened there when the church was opened.

“Later the family moved to Port Melbourne [from 1881-3 John Catterall was the second minister at South Melbourne, although he may have lived at Port Melbourne], where they met the Wilson family.  Rev John Catterall’s son Charles married Caroline Wilson.  They had a family of twelve children.  One of their boys, Albert Joseph, who was born at Moe on 16th April 1889, and who has been known as Albert Joseph Humphrys since his early childhood, lived with his mother’s sister Elizabeth Ann from the time he was three.  Elizabeth Ann had married Richard Humphrys.  They had no children.  The family lived at Ballarat for some years.

“Albert’s name was changed by deed poll from Catterall to Albert Joseph Humphrys prior to his marriage to Adelaide Elizabeth McArthur [or MacArthur] in 1915.  Other members of the Catterall family were Minnie (Thorogood), Eva (Featherston), and Olive (Aitken).

“Edward Wilson was a carpenter and brought with him a pre-fabricated house ready for erection on his arrival at Port Melbourne.  At a time when other emigrants were living in tents on the beach, this was the first wooden house erected at Port Melbourne [it is not certain whether the house was wooden or iron].  A small chest-of-drawers which he made was used by my great-aunt Elizabeth Ann Humphrys for cutlery, and I now use it for cottons and buttons.  It was probably a wedding present from her father.

“Mrs Sarah Wilson was a keen church worker, and led an adult bible class at the Methodist Church where the Rev John Catterall was Minister.  It was here that the daughter Caroline met and married Charles Catterall.”

    Gwen Evans noted on a family tree she prepared that Charles Catterall and Caroline Wilson eloped in 1882 to Port Melbourne.  Their marriage was conducted at Hotham on 7th April 1883 by Rev John Catterall, and required the written consent of both fathers, as they were both minors.  Their first child, Minnie, was born on 14th September 1883, so there may be some truth in the elopement story.

    The Dusting Family (Susan Edith Wilson)

    Susan Edith Wilson married Albert Henry Harvey Dusting (born in 1865 at Portland to Henry Crees Harvey and Emma Ann, nee Daniel) in 1889.  Their children included:
    Albert Henry Dusting was Melbourne’s leading fishmonger, and a strict teetotaller.  His son Edwin Stanley (Stan) was in the Commonwealth Public Service at Canberra for many  years.  Elsie married Roy Fisher, and one daughter is now Marjorie Graydon, living at 255 Warrigal Road, Burwood, Victoria.  Albert Wilson Dusting was a pharmacist, and died in the early 1970’s. His daughter Bettine married twice, first to Dudley Wilson, and secondly to Noel Tozer.  Rosalie Dusting probably died young.  Roy Williamson and Elsie Dusting were very fond of each other, and Roy used to see her frequently as he often travelled to Melbourne in the course of his work.  Peter Williamson also stayed with Elsie on occasions during his school holidays.  A curious fact was that both Albert Wilson Dusting and his wife Sylvia were born on 4th December, and they were also married on the same date.  Marjorie Fisher’s husband, Kenneth Graydon, was also born on 4th December, and they were engaged on that date in 1945.

    Albert Dusting’s siblings included:

    The Gilbert Family (Emma Wilson)

    In 1894 Emma Wilson married James Duncan Gilbert (born at Sandhurst on 3rd October 1868 to Duncan and Martha Ann, nee Kelso).  On 5th December of the same year their daughter, Emma, was born, at the cost of her mother’s life.  After the death of Margaret Williamson’s son Ernest in May 1895, Sarah Wilson took the baby Emma by train to Adelaide, where she was wet-nursed by Margaret.  Emma Gilbert lived in South Australia until the early 1980’s.  James Gilbert remarried, and had at least one other child, Duncan Thomas Gilbert, who became a doctor.  James Gilbert became the Melbourne manager of Kitchen’s, the soap company.

    The Fothergill Family (Alice Wilson)

    Alice Wilson, who was Edward Wilson’s sister, married William Pettigrew Fothergill on 18th January 1840 at the Manchester Cathedral.  Their children were :
    Joseph Wilson Fothergill married Lucy Symons Cook, and their children, all born at Prahran, were:
    William Pettigrew Fothergill was the son of John Fothergill and Susan Pettigrew, who were married on 13th February 1800 at St James, Whitehaven, Cumberland.  Their children were all christened at Holy Trinity Church, Whitehaven, Cumberland :
William Fothergill died in 1893 at Prahran, Melbourne.  His wife, Alice, died at Prahran in 1895, aged 78.  Her parents were listed as Joseph Wilson and Mary Anderton.

    The Wilsons in Melbourne

    The 1871/2 Bailliere’s Gazeteer of Victoria describes Sandridge as “ a post town and the seaport of Melbourne, on the head of Hobson’s Bay, and on a small saltwater creek or inlet called the Sandridge Lagoon, which extends from the beach in a northerly direction for a distance of half a mile, having a width of from 50 to 100 yards and a depth of from 6 to 14 feet.  Sandridge is situated in the parish of Cut-paw-paw and the electoral district of Sandridge, at the termination of the Melbourne and Sandridge railway and the Melbourne and Sandridge road, 2½ miles S of Melbourne.  The nearest places are Emerald Hill, a residential suburb of Melbourne, 1 mile NE; Williamstown, distant 2 miles on the SW side of Hobson’s Bay; St Kilda, a fashionable residence and watering place 2½ miles E; and Prahran, 3 miles ENE.  There is communication with Williamstown (also a shipping port) by steamer every hour, and by train every half-hour with the other places; also by cabs which run throughout the day.  Sandridge is a telegraph terminus; it has two piers which have been erected at great expense - one the Melbourne and Hobson’s Bay railway pier, whence the cargoes of vessels discharging are forwarded by rail; and the town pier whence cargo is conveyed to Melbourne by lorry and dray; about 2/3 of the shipping of the port discharge and receive cargo at one or other of these piers.  There is a sugar refinery with distillery attached; a steam biscuit manufactory; a steam flour mill; a soap and candle manufactory, and two foundries, all in work.  Sandridge is lit with gas, which is supplied by the Melbourne Gas Company.  The town is under the control of a borough council, and contains an estimated population of 4000 persons.  The district is flat and swampy, and not used for either agricultural or pastoral purposes, being strictly commercial.  There is a fixed red light on the end of the jetty, and a fixed green one on the end of the railway pier.  The geological formation is alluvial, covered with raised sandy beach.

    In the Melbourne Directories Edward Wilson is listed as a carpenter, living at 78 Stoke Street (on the north side between Liartet Street and Graham Street) until 1880, when he became a contractor.  Edward was a very hard worker, and eventually set up business as a building contractor.  He would be away from home for a week at a time, supervising the houses he was building, walking from Sandridge around the Bay to the various sites, and only returning home at weekends.  He supposedly made a good deal of money from his industry, but much of it was lost by the family in the depressed days of 1894, when land values slumped, and Victoria was in the grip of a depression.  On 19th December 1884 Edward Wilson died, aged 58, at his home after battling pneumonia for ten days.  Sarah Wilson died on 5th June 1916 at 240 Graham Street, at the age of 91 of “senile decay and exhaustion”.  Edward, Sarah and their son Joseph are buried together in the Melbourne General Cemetery.
The Age 6 June 1916  -  “Deaths - Wilson.  On the 5th June at the residence of her son-in-law Mr A Dusting, “Palmville,” Graham Street Port Melbourne, Sarah, relict of the late Edward Wilson of Port Melbourne, aged 91 years and 11 months.  A colonist of 62 years.  No flowers by request.”
The Age 6 June 1916  -  “Funeral Notice - Wilson.  The friends of the late Mrs Sarah Wilson are respectfully invited to follow her remains to their last resting place, Melbourne General Cemetery.  The funeral is appointed to leave the residence of her son-in-law Mr A H Dusting, 240 Graham Street Port Melbourne, tomorrow (Wednesday 7th inst) at 2.30 pm.
            R McKenzie, undertaker,  Port and South Melbourne”

    Edward Williamson in Adelaide

    Edward’s obituary in 1927 noted that “His father was a prominent engineer, and Mr Williamson also adopted the profession, being of an inventive turn of mind.  [In the nineteenth century the term “engineer” did not always refer to a professional person, but more often to a skilled tradesman, such as a fitter and turner.]  Both his parents died when he was young, and he had a hard struggle to get on.  The battling spirit, however, was characteristic of him throughout his career.”

    In 1879-82 Edward Williamson lived at Railway Place, Footscray, and then in 1883 he was living at 48 York Street East, Emerald Hill (on the south side, between Little York Street and Clarendon Street).  A blank invoice form from the 1880’s shows that E Williamson was running a business at his residence, as an “Improved Engine Packing Manufacturer”, with “Railways, Steamers, and Factories supplied with Strictest Atten-tion”.  I still have the brass plaque, proudly engraved “E Williamson, Engineer”, which probably dates from this time.  He later worked for the biscuit manufacturers, Swallow and Ariel, before coming to Adelaide.  The selection of this career was probably influenced by the location of the Swallow and Ariel “steam biscuit manufactory” only a block or two from the Wilson’s home in Stoke Street, Melbourne.  Doubtless Edward would have passed it many times, and been enticed by the smell of the baking biscuits, on his way to visit Margaret.

    Thomas Swallow was born in 1828 and migrated to Adelaide from England, arriving in Hobson’s Bay in 1853.  In 1854, having no luck on the goldfields, he set up business in Sandridge (now Port Melbourne) making ships biscuits.  Thomas Ariel became a partner in 1859, but died in 1879.  In 1888 Swallow and Ariel became a limited liability company, and the Australian Biscuit Company (Arnotts) acquired the company in 1964.

    Life in Adelaide

    Only days after their wedding, Edward and Margaret Williamson moved to South Australia.
Adelaide Observer 7 July 1883  -  Among the passengers on the steamer South Australian (615 tons) which arrived from Melbourne on 30th June were Mr and Mrs Williamson.  [It is not possible to prove that this was Edward and Margaret, but J C Williamson and his wife, the theatrical entrepreneurs who travelled frequently, were in Sydney on 15th July.]

    Edward’s brother Harry must have already moved to Adelaide, as he was married there in December 1882.

    In Adelaide Edward worked for the Aerated Bread Company, in an engineering capacity.  The S.A. Directories for 1884 and 1885 list an E Williamson, Engineer, living on the south side of McLaren Street, Adelaide, between Regent and Cardwell Streets (11th of 18 houses from Regent Street).  Over a hundred years later, McLaren Street had altered so little that it was used, with only minor alterations, as the set for a film, Tracks of Glory, set in the early 1900’s.

    The birth of Edward and Margaret’s first child, Arthur Burton, was announced in the Advertiser on Wednesday 18th June 1884 in the brief manner of the time as follows:
WILLIAMSON     On the 10th June, at McLaren Street Adelaide, the wife of E Williamson (engineer) of a son.

    The Aerated Bread Company

    The Register of 18 July 1868 describes the early days of the Aerated Bread Company :

    The manufacture of biscuits is now a firmly established native industry.  The stocks of this colonial article do not depend upon the precarious productions of hand labour, for machinery has been applied with good purpose, and the foreign commodity is virtually driven from the market.  The two great prerequisites to the creation of a demand, namely the production of an article of good quality and at a cheap rate, have been complied with, and the public have entirely overcome any scruples or prejudices against the products of local enterprise.

    The premises in which the operations of this establishment are conducted are situated in Waymouth Street near the corner of Light Square.  They were originally built a few years ago by a Joint Stock Company, who introduced the then novel process to South Australia of manufacturing bread by machinery, and by the use of carbonic acid gas in the place of yeast.  The article which they supplied in a short time found an extensive circle of customers, possessing as it did, amongst other advantages, that of being always sold at a lower price than that charged by the ordinary bakers.  Towards the end of last year, however, the shareholders, who had become dissatisfied with the management and with the prospects of the concern, resolved upon disposing of the property, and it was purchased by Messrs Jones Bros, the present proprietors, who entered into possession on the 23rd December.  They at once brought to bear a large amount of energy and business tact, which has had the effect of increasing the sales of bread from 9½ tons per week to considerably more than double that quantity.  We should state that as well as the aerated bread, the ordinary fermented kind is supplied to those customers who prefer it.  At the present time there are made about 8 tons per week of the aerated, and 14 tons of the fermented, besides a large quantity of what are known as ABC cakes, made on the aerated principle.  The proprietors have now added to the other branches of the trade the manufacture of biscuits and of lemonade and soda water, for which facilities were afforded through their having the gas, which is the chief requisite, already prepared.  In this, as well as in the bread, Messrs Jones Bros supply the wants of the public at a reduced price.  The bakery proper, being the central part of the establishment, is a spacious room of about 40 feet square, on one side of which are the ovens, six in number, each capable of baking 300 loaves in a batch, the usual number actually placed in each being 330.  In the centre of this apartment is the machinery, which consists chiefly of a large mixer, in which is placed about three bags of flour, dry.  There is above this a condenser, in which a sufficient quantity of water is impregnated to the proper proportion with gas, and then poured onto the flour below.  When the two have been thoroughly mixed the dough is let out by means of an aperture provided with a shifting knife, by which it is cut off, so that the whole process is completed without contact with the hands of the persons employed.  The gas, as most people will be aware, is carbonic acid, the same as that used in the manufacture of aerated waters, but is extracted from dolomite instead of from whiting and sulphuric acid.  The appliances for this purpose consist of two pairs of retorts, one of which only is used at a time, and two large gasometers, from which the supply is drawn off as required.  The preparation of fermented bread is carried on in a room adjoining the main bakery, fitted up with two long trough-benches.  The bread making for each day is commenced at 9 o’clock the previous night, and not finished until about 9 o’clock am.  The biscuit department of course requires another set of plant.  The machine is one of American manufacture, obtained in Melbourne, and may be worked either by hand or steam power as required, different cutters being used according to the shape of biscuits to be made.  The machine is adapted also for ship biscuits, for the purposes of which Messrs Jones have recently had erected alongside the ovens a kiln 14 feet by 10, so as to perfect the process of drying and render the biscuits capable to stand the sea voyage and long keeping.  No doubt the efforts being made by this firm as well as other manufacturers will have the effect of securing for the colony more of this trade in connection with the shipping than has hitherto fallen to our share.  This establishment, we understand, is capable of turning out as much as 6 or 7 tons of ship bread in a week.  Adjoining the bakery in front is the shop, 24 feet by 15, where retail customers are served with bread, biscuits or aerated water.  A space at the eastern end has been partitioned off for an office, but now, from want of room, it is also devoted to the work of sorting the biscuits, prior to their being filled into tins as mixed, bins being provided around the walls in which may be seen biscuits of all shapes, sizes and flavours, as they come from the ovens.  At the opposite end is the bread room, 30 feet long by 15 wide, with racks ranged all round the walls, on which the loaves are stacked ready for delivery to the carts, or for replenishing the stock in the shop.  The upper storey forms a spacious flour loft, which is at the present time well filled, while a store in Waymouth Street is also called into requisition for the same object, the proprietors having altogether something like 600 tons from which to supply the establishment from time to time.  Behind the bakery is an 8-horse steam engine by which the machinery is worked, and adjoining it the retorts and furnaces.  There is also a small flour store and a store for the dolomite, coals etc.  The third branch of the business is carried on at present in a small place partitioned off for the purposes.  The soda water and lemonade manufacture was only commenced towards the end of last summer, and therefore has had but a limited trial.  There were, however, at that time as many as seven hands employed.  The apparatus somewhat differs from that usually employed.  It consists of a condenser of copper about 100 gallons in capacity, with pressure gauge and other appurtenances, the gas being supplied from the meter in the front building, and the water from filters above.  The two being sufficiently amalgamated by the agitator, are drawn off through the nipple, and then only require bottling and labelling to be ready for use, the flavourings being placed in each bottle before being filled.  There are altogether about 30 men and boys employed about the establishment.”

    A book written by Thomas Harry in 1884, entitled “Some of our Local Manufactures and How to Develop Them” described the operations of the Aerated Bread Company at the time that Edward Williamson joined them, and the effect of the lack of interstate tariffs on their business.  Interestingly, the company seems to have abandoned the use of gas in bread making, and to have reverted to the traditional role of yeast to make the bread rise.  The premises of the ABC were at 127 Waymouth Street, covering the block on the south side of the street between Cannon Street and Tatham Street.

    The Aerated Bread Company, whose premises are situated in Waymouth Street, stands out from all others in the city in that the dough is made by machinery and not by hand.
    It has sometimes been said that dough-making by machinery “has been tried in one or two places in Adelaide, but not successfully, because the parties employed had not the patience or perhaps the skill to learn how to work the machine.”  However true this may be of other bakers in Adelaide, it does not apply to this particular Company, the machine having been worked  for a long time past with perfect success.

    As the process of dough-making is the process par excellence in the manufacture of bread, we will give a few details of the manner in which it is carried out at the premises in question.  A great deal of the success in the manufacture of dough depends on the nature and quality of the liquor with which the flour is mixed.  The process of dough-making, therefore, presupposes other processes about which we have also a word or two to say.  The yeast used for mixing with the dough is generally either supplied by the brewers, or else perhaps a patent yeast is used, in which case much more time is necessary to work the dough when hand labour is employed.  The former system is generally preferred in these colonies; the latter in America.  The Aerated Bread Company adopt neither plan, preferring, in order to ensure as perfect a yeast as possible, to manufacture it themselves.  The quality of the yeast depends in a great measure on the quantity and quality of the malt and hops used, and the temperature at which the material is brewed, and on the proportion of liquor to the flour.  Of course only the very best flour obtainable is used by the firm, but it varies considerably in strength, some mixings requiring a great deal more water than others.  There is room, therefore, for a considerable amount of variety in the methods used by different bakers, as the result of their combined experience and judgment. But the best of bakers requires good materials, especially when he has to make his own yeast.  Mention has already been made of the superior quality of the flour used by the firm.  The yeast is made from the best pale English malt and Tasmanian hops, considered equal to any grown in Kent.  From the skill and judgment required for the mixing of his materials the baker may be compared to the copper-smelter, without whose scientific mixing of the ores the resultant copper, whether from Wallaroo or elsewhere, would be of a very inferior kind.  The Aerated Bread Company have been fortunate in securing the services of a foreman who was two years foreman to the Queen’s baker at Windsor, and who may therefore be supposed to know something about his business.  Mr A E Jackman, the foreman in question, uses the same process in Waymouth Street that is followed at Windsor, and therefore the patronisers of the Aerated Bread Company may lay the flattering unction to their soul that the bread they eat is in all essential respects similar to that eaten by the Queen herself.  Since Mr Jackman’s advent, a year ago, the quality of the bread has considerably improved, a fact of which the public, by their steadily-increasing patronage seem to be aware.  Returning to the yeast it may be mentioned that the ingredients are brewed in a small vat, heated by a coil, a neat method of heating which is extensively used on the premises.  A good liquor having been obtained, the requisite quantity is poured into the large vat where the process of dough-making takes place.  In it is fixed a revolving apparatus for thoroughly mixing the ingredients.  Having observed the perfectly clean appearance of the vat, we watched the process which ensued with great interest.  Five bags of flour, containing 200 lbs apiece, were emptied into the vat, a sign was given, and the apparatus commenced to revolve, churning the flour and the liquor, scattering the dust over the coats of unwary spectators, and occasionally spurting a drop or two of the mixture in the same direction.  In just three minutes another sign was given, the machinery stopped, and the dough was made.  It was then cut into chunks and heaved into a large clean wooden trough alongside, there to rest for six hours, at the end of which time it would be ready for the moulds.  The whole process, including five minutes for emptying the machine by one man, had only taken eight minutes, and the dough could hardly be said to have been touched at all - in fact the only occasion for handling occurs during the moulding process.  So far as the quality of the dough was concerned it looked simply perfect, without even a trace or suggestion of dumpiness, but one firm compact mass of perfectly even texture throughout, and looking so clean, pure , and sweet that one felt almost inclined to start eating it on the spot.  It may be observed that the fermenting tubs and brewing vessels are all scoured twice a day by steam, and that steam-pipes for washing and other purposes are laid all over the premises.  After passing through the moulding process, where the dough gets its first taste of handling, it is placed in the ovens, the temperature of which is registered by pyrometers, thus preventing any burning or incomplete baking of the bread.  As soon as the baking process is over the bread is packed in trays holding a couple of dozen loaves apiece, and placed in racks in a well-ventilated room.  As a very disgusting picture has been drawn by “A Journeyman Baker,” writing in the Advertiser newspaper, of the state of things alleged to exist in some bakeries in Adelaide, it may be well to mention here that the water-closets are situated at some distance from the manufacturing part of the business and are connected with the deep drainage, every attention in fact being paid to ensure cleanliness throughout the establishment.  The men do not sleep on the premises, nor have the firm anything to do with their boarding arrangements.  All the hands that we saw at work had a remarkably clean appearance, and if there was a speck of dirt anywhere about it would have taken a very observant pair of eyes to have seen it.  Night bakers work ten hours a day, all the hard work, however, being done by machinery.

    The manufacture of biscuits and cakes is a distinct and important feature of the work done by the Aerated Bread Company.  Mr J Klang, a very intelligent Swede, is the foreman of this department, and under him there are about a score of hands, including half-a-dozen employed in the packing-room upstairs.  The firm also keeps thirteen horses constantly at work, the biscuits being delivered by van and dray, and the bread by half-a-dozen carts.

is very complete of its kind, and well adapted to the requirements of the trade, though the increasing demand for biscuits will soon ender a revolving oven - which is at present dispensed with - a necessity.  The dough is first mixed in an ordinary Chilian mill.  Hence it passes through two steel rollers, which flatten it out into an irregular oval shape.  This operation is repeated in roller number two, which still further reduces the thickness of the dough.  Lastly it is passed through a third pair of rollers, which are set to a gauge.  Being now of the requisite biscuit thickness, it is stamped out into patterns at the rate (as we timed it) of about 25 a minute, and it was ready for the oven.  Biscuits requiring special moulding are put through a hand stamper, which turns out about twenty a minute.  The materials for the cakes are mixed by a steam whisk, which makes 150 revolutions a minute.

    The machinery used in the biscuit department is very ingenious, and well worth a visit.  The delicious Sydenham cakes - of the quality of which we can speak from experience - the coffee, rice, and gingerbread biscuits have each their special cutting and stamping machine, the ingenuity and skill of the resident engineer being taxed to the utmost to keep the present machinery in repair and to invent more perfect and labour-saving devices.  The specially-prepared dough goes through a heavy brake, and then through two light brakes before it is ready to assume those elegant shapes which so captivate the sight of hungry youngsters.  Stowed away in casks were eight thousand dozen eggs ready to be used in the biscuit manufacture.  Sugar from Mauritius, candied peel from Birmingham, raisins and currants from Portugal and Spain, sweet new milk from the Company’s own farm near Woodville, and butter cleansed by special machinery, were among the other ingredients used in the biscuit manufacture, samples of all which could be seen safely stowed away on the premises.  Very little handling is necessary in the manufacture either of the bread or the biscuits made by this firm, the Sydenham cakes, for example - of which about a thousand are turned out every week - being made entirely by machinery, and are never touched by the hand at all.  The Company have received many honours and medals in testimony of the excellence of their biscuit manufacture, a silver medal at the Calcutta Exhibition being the latest one of the mind.  Their popularity is evinced, too, by their extensive sale, no less than 12,000 pounds weight being turned out by this factory every week.  It is the intention of the firm to have a large revolving oven erected under the supervision of Mr E Williamson, their resident engineer, to take the place of six of the ordinary bakers’ ovens at present in use.  Revolving ovens, we understand, were first invented by Mr Swallow, of the well-known biscuit-making firm of Melbourne - Messrs Swallow & Ariel - with whom, it may be stated, Mr Williamson served his apprenticeship.  Several ingenious mechanical contrivances are in use for furthering the process of baking and saving time, which Mr Williamson has constructed.

calls for no special comment, the practice being similar to that pursued by bakers for small goods.  The great object in baking is to secure a fine shade of colour.  If not sufficiently baked they are “sad” and tasteless.  If too much baked, the colour is too dark, and in the finer kinds the delicacy of flavour is somewhat lost.  The Company are particularly successful in securing the peculiar crispness and delicacy which the connoisseur appreciates.  No less than 60 different kinds of biscuits are turned out by this enterprising Company.  These are sent out either in tins or in boxes.  The cost of the tins is allowed for on return.  The boxes go out free altogether, and become the absolute property of the customers.

is a spacious, well-ventilated apartment, where lads earn capital wages constantly filling the tins &c, with the various classes of goods.  The work of packing is by no means so simple as it looks.  It requires considerable skill to secure that the biscuits shall be so arranged as to be free from breakage, and that in the mixed kinds the proportions of each sort shall be duly observed.

    In the storeroom are to be seen 2,000 tins stacked and ready for delivery, as well as a number of cakes packed in tinfoil.  The latter are also sent out in boxes containing twelve each, and will keep good for six months - a great boon to up-country folks.

is very prejudicial to the best interests of the Company.  If an extra penny per pound duty were placed on biscuits the biscuit-bakers of South Australia would be placed on an even footing with their Victorian competitors, and the local trade of 12,000 lbs weight of biscuits would be greatly increased, to the material advantage of the working classes, who would pay no more for their goods, while the labour engaged locally in this class of goods would be trebled.  Take such a line as the Sydenham cakes, for instance, of which about 1,000 a week are made by the Company.  The Victorians are permitted to swamp the local market by sending similar cakes in free, whereas if the cakes were charged either as “biscuits” or “confectionery” in the tariff, the public would get an article equal, if not superior, to the Melbourne one at the same cost as, and many more skilled hands would be kept fully employed at absolutely no expense to the consumer.  It may be said that the local manufacturer would raise his price.  Not a bit of it.  Competition would settle all that - not merely competition from outside, but from local manufacturers.

    In conclusion, it need only be added that this Company pays about £4,000 per annum in wages, and with a further protective duty this would probably be doubled in a short space of time.”

    The Advertiser printed a similar article on 22nd March 1884, with minor variations:
    “We paid a visit to the engineering department, and found the resident engineer busily engaged over some delicate bit of workmanship, the disordered piece of mechanism, with its complicated organism of screws and bolts, seeming to fly into position at his magic touch. ……

    “There were fourteen hands employed in bread-making and delivery, whose wages varied from £2 to £4 per week. …… The amount of bread made on the premises is not so large now as when the Government contracts were in the hands of the firm, but notwithstanding that the output amounts to between 12000 and 15000 loaves per week.”

    In 1882 the Manager of the Aerated Bread Company was Mr C A Motteram.  In the 1893 SA Directory, the manager of the ABC was a Mr F W Price (as C A Motteram had evidently left the company).  The company’s premises were still at 127 Waymouth Street, but on the opposite side, at number 312, were the premises of the new firm of Motteram and Williamson.  Some time after, the new firm must have bought out the old one, as in 1900 Motteram and Williamson’s owned both premises.

    The Rate Assessment Books of the Adelaide City Council list the owners, occupiers and use of all land in the City.  They show that the Aerated Bread Company rented its factory from Sir William Milne in Town Acre 196, and that they also rented a stable in Town Acre 195 (further west along the southern side of Waymouth Street).  In 1893 the firm of Motteram and Williamson started renting properties in Town Acre 186 (on the north-eastern corner of Waymouth Street and West Terrace) to use as warehouses, while their main factory was still in the old ABC building.  In 1894 Edward Williamson began renting a house on West Terrace.  Motteram and Williamson engaged a well-known Adelaide builder, William Rogers, to build their own factory in Town Acre 186 in 1904, at an estimated cost of £4000.  Once this was built, they relinquished their occupancy of the old ABC factory, and concentrated all their activities at the new site.  The warehouse and stables for the company were the old premises on Waymouth Street closest to West Terrace.  Edward Williamson took over all these buildings on the dissolution of the partnership in 1909.  He moved house from West Terrace to Dequetteville Terrace in 1912.  After his death in 1927, the factory was unoccupied for several years, before being rented by the Williamson family to a number of small businesses, before being finally sold in about 1945.  It appears that the manufacture of biscuits (at Waymouth Street at least) ceased soon after Edward Williamson’s death.  I have not found whether they were made elsewhere by the company that took over the business (Walton’s), although Peter Williamson claimed to have been given some Williamson’s arrowroot biscuits when he visited his Aunty Dede in Adelaide in 1948.

City of Adelaide – Return of Plans submitted to Council during month ended 29-2-1904 :-
Owner                Description       Location            Submitted    Date Subm    Apprvd        Fee        Value
                                                                                          By                                                     Payable
Motteram &     Factory               186 Way-       Wm Rogers    15-1-04            15-1-04         £10        £4000
Williamson                                    mouth St

Adelaide Observer 24 May 1884  -  “Chamber of Manufactures Industrial Exhibition - At noon on Thursday His Excellency the Governor formally opened this exhibition, for which very active preparations have been going on during the last week or two.  The event is one of more than usual interest and importance, because there never before has been a more thorough representative collection of our colonial manufactures than that which now overfills the exhibition building facing Frome Road. ...... Edibles and Potables - The Aerated Bread Company are exhibiting a trophy of biscuits, cakes, bread and similar goods which need only a taste to make them appreciated.”

    By 1886 the Williamsons were living at Goodwood Park, where their second son, Edward Stanley, was born, and announced:
WILLIAMSON      On the 2nd May, at Goodwood Park, the wife of E Williamson, of a son.
Unfortunately Edward Stanley lived less than a year, dying on 26th February 1887.  His memorial stands in the West Terrace Cemetery.

Adelaide Observer 26 February 1887  -  “Medals and Diplomas at the Indian and Colonial Exhibition - Appended is a list of the recipients in South Australia of medals and diplomas now being distributed from the Indian and Colonial Exhibition.  The medals are very handsome in design.  The following is the list :- ...... Aerated Bread Company.”
Adelaide Observer 9 July 1887  -  “The Jubilee Exhibition - The Aerated Bread Company will have a handsome trophy opposite the eastern entrance, having a brass railing round it.  They have been delayed, owing to their showcase not having arrived from the Indian and Colonial Exhibition.  A temporary case is, however, being put up.”

    In 1890 the Williamsons were living in Arthur Street, Unley (the old Goodwood Park?), on the south side, next to King William Road, and there their first daughter, Emma Myrtle, was born on 19th November 1890.

    Motteram and Williamson

    In 1892 Edward Williamson formed a partnership with Mr C A Motteram, with whom he had worked at the Aerated Bread Company, to make biscuits under the name Motteram and Williamson.  As suitable machinery was not available, Edward constructed a number of the cutting machines himself.  The business grew rapidly, and continued in existence until 1909, when the partnership was dissolved.  A contributing factor to the success of the business may have been the destruction by fire of the biscuit factory of the rival Menz and Co. in Wakefield Street on Wednesday July 23rd 1895.  (The Quiz of 8 August reported that Menz were threatening The Advertiser with a libel action.)

Adelaide Observer 27 July 1895  -  “Menz & Co’s Fire – An inquiry was begun on Friday afternoon by the City Coroner (Dr H T Whittell) as to the cause of the fire at Menz & Co’s biscuit factory on Wednesday night last.  The two members of the firm, Messrs W and A H Menz, were examined, and the inquiry was then adjourned till Monday at two o’clock.  Mr W Menz, in his evidence, stated that he estimated the stock in hand before the fire at between £3000 and £4000.  Neither witness could give any information regarding the origin of the fire.”
Adelaide Observer 3 August 1895  -  Menz & Co’s Fire – After a lengthy sitting the Jury assembled to make enquiries as to the cause of the fire which occurred at Messrs W Menz & Co’s biscuit factory in Wakefield Street on Wednesday evening of last week, returned an open verdict.  No less than thirteen witnesses were examined.  Foreman Cleveland and Deputy Superintendent Woolley, who were directing the operations of the firemen, and Superintendent Booker, who, when he came back from Broken Hill examined the premises, all swore positively that there had been two distinct fires in the building burning at the same time – one in the south-western corner on the ground floor, and the other in the northern end of the factory on the top flat.  During the two days over which the enquiry lasted, the taking of evidence extended over six hours, while the Jury sat for an hour and ten minutes considering their verdict.”

    An article in an Adelaide newspaper described the operations of the new firm in glowing terms :-
    “ “If these poor people can’t get bread why don’t they eat biscuits?” once remarked the little Princess Beatrice during the time of the Lancashire cotton famine.  The manufacture of biscuits is, however, far from being a simple matter, and gives employment to a large number of industries apart from food producers.  The engineer, the machinist, the die-sinker, the tinsmith, and various other trades find the biscuit manufacturer not the least valuable of their customers.

    “South Australia, owing to its magnificent wheat-producing powers, should be the home of biscuit-making, and we have no doubt that in the future, with increased experience, we shall begin to compete with England for part of the foreign trade.  The East lies near our doors and only awaits energetic exploitation.  The establishment we visited – upon hearing it was a rising one – was that of Messrs Motteram & Williamson, Waymouth Street.  We were immediately struck with the self-contained advantages of the factory. One of the partners is a practical die-sinker, who makes all the biscuit-cutters, or biscuit-stamps, that are used in the establishment.  We hear he is the only maker in the colony, other biscuit manufacturers being obliged to import their cutters.  This is a considerable advantage which the firm are not slow to improve.  The public like something pretty to look at as well as nice to eat, and Messrs Motteram & Williamson, being fully alive to the fact, are continually devising new and pretty designs, matching the original shapes with various new flavors to suit all palates.  Many of these brands are well-known to the public, the “Marie” and the coffee biscuit being great favorites.

    “The firm use a specially made flour of the finest quality.  Only certain districts are able to grow the wheat from which the flour is made up to the standard required.  All the mixing and rolling is performed by machinery, thus ensuring the greatest cleanliness.  The method of manufacture is as follows :- The flour, milk, eggs, and other necessary ingredients being measured into the mixer, a large roller weighing 7 cwt slowly revolves round a centre in the mixing pan and soon converts the mixture to a fine elastic dough.  The latter is then placed in a rolling machine called a break to roll it thinner.  The dough afterwards goes through other machines which roll it to the required width and thickness.  It is now placed in an ingenious stamping machine, the bottom upon which the dough rests being so arranged as to convey the dough along as it is cut and stamped to a series of wire trays.  While on the way to these trays the machine lifts up the scraps or trimmings of the dough which the cutters necessarily leave, the whole operation being performed with the greatest neatness.  The biscuit cutters work as follows :- Before the machine is set in motion these cutters, which are no more or less than gunmetal stamps, are fixed in the part of the machine immediately over the bottom upon which the dough rests, and as the bottom moves along as described the iron frame containing the cutters rises and falls upon the dough, keeping time with its forward movement and stamping out the dough into the required shapes ready for baking.  The trays containing the stamped dough are afterwards placed in a patent oven.  A light is arranged in the door of the oven so that the heat can be regulated or directed to any part required.  Evenness and color in baking the biscuits are thus ensured.  Shortly after being removed from the oven the biscuits are taken to the packing-room and expeditiously placed in highly ornamental tins by neat-looking girls.  Want of space prevents us from dilating further upon the various goods made by the firm.  We can merely remark that cracknells are troublesome to make and previously to baking must be boiled.  The firm also in their cake manufacture mix all the ingredients by machinery, the cake-mixer being on the principle of a gigantic eggbeater.  The advantages in a hot climate of little or no handwork are obvious.  Thanking the firm for their courtesy and information concluded an interesting visit on our part.”

    In 1894 the SA Directory had Edward listed as a “Biscuit Manufacturer”, living at West Terrace (actually Margaret Terrace, between Currie and Waymouth Streets), and the factory was located at 312 Waymouth Street.  By 1900 the family had moved to 34 West Terrace, and by 1903 Edward was a Justice of the Peace, and a well-respected business-man.  This success is even more remarkable when it is realised that South Australia was in the depths of a Depression throughout the 1890’s, caused by disastrous harvests, uncontrolled property speculation, financial mismanagement, and the collapse of several local banks in the late 1880’s.  The company later moved to new premises just east of their original building, at the western end of Waymouth Street, where a large new factory was built (telephone 232) in about 1904.  A photograph shows Edward on the steps of the building, welcoming the Governor and other distinguished gentlemen on 7th May 1912, while a young urchin looks on curiously.  The building stood, largely unchanged except that the original handsome brick facade had been plastered over, until mid 2007, when it was demolished to make way for a block of  student’s flats.

    An article in an Adelaide newspaper of 9th June 1899 described a visit to the premises of Motteram and Williamson :
    “The Manufacture of Biscuits – If proof additional to what has already been furnished in hundreds of cases were needed to convince one that it pays better to manufacture a good article and sell it at a reasonable price than to put inferior stuff on the market at a low rate, it is well furnished in the business of Messrs Motteram and Williamson, biscuit makers, of Waymouth Street, Adelaide.  When, some seven years ago, this firm took over the premises of the Adelaide Aerated Bread Company there were then several well-established factories, and if the new-comers had not set themselves against the manufacture of anything but high-quality biscuits and had not introduced a great deal of enterprise into their operations it is certain that even if they had not gone to the wall before their older rivals the business would not have prospered to the same gratifying extent as it has done.  As it is, however, the bulk of trade has increased so greatly that the present premises have been found much too small, and it is only by working night and day that it is possible to keep pace with the demand.  Indeed even at this high pressure the greatest difficulty is frequently experienced in fulfilling orders.  At present Messrs Motteram & Williamson are a little undecided as to what steps should be taken in the way of securing more room and increased plant, and the advent of Federation and its effect upon their business is awaited with interest.  Then it will be possible to judge whether the better policy will be to extend the Adelaide operations on a large scale or to curtail the proposed increased expenditure in South Australia and to at the same time open a branch factory in Victoria.  To an outsider, however, it would appear that while the present high standard of excellence is maintained, and taking into consideration the splendid connection which has been worked up, the freight and other expenses which would handicap the larger manufacturers in the other colonies, Messrs Motteram & Williamson have little to fear from that union whose advent is so eagerly awaited by the great majority of people throughout Australia.

    “On Friday last I inspected the well-equipped factory in Waymouth Street and was shown over the premises by Mr E Williamson, the very capable and energetic manager.  The ingredient room, with its bewildering array of bottles and jars, where Mr Williamson concocts the recipes which result in such delightful edibles, was first visited, following which a tour of the extensive premises was begun.  A modern biscuit factory contains a good deal more machinery than most people imagine, and Messrs Motteram & Williamson’s workrooms were found to be crowded with modern appliances, the motive power for which is supplied by a Tangye 10-horsepower engine of the latest type.  The steam-driven mixer, with a capacity of 200 lb, soon converts the ingredients into well-mixed dough.  From this the dough is placed between two breaking rollers, which perform the process of kneading, and soon give it a solid, perfect and equal consistency.  The dough is then cut into pieces and passes on to a second set of rollers, and the stamping plate descends on it and instantly cuts the stuff into the proper shape, at the same time impressing the name of the maker and other marks which distinguish the various kinds of biscuits.  The surplus dough is carried off, while the cut and prepared pieces pass on to trays, which are then placed in the beautifully-regulated revolving oven, to be baked in a few seconds.  Bush biscuits were being made at the time of my visit, and the rapidity with which the dough was transformed into the manufactured article was surprising.  From the oven the biscuits are placed on trays and then conveyed to the packing room upstairs by means of a lift.  The gun metal stamping dies, with the pretty designs of which consumers of Messrs Motteram & Williamson’s biscuits are familiar, are the work of Mr E Williamson, this factory being the only one in the colony to make them on its own premises.  In an adjoining room, which was used by the present firm’s predecessors for breadbaking, was seen a very ingenious cake mixer on the egg-beater principle, the invention of Mr Williamson, while another interesting appliance which came under notice was a drop machine, capable of shaping 90 dessert biscuits in about two seconds.  The fruit-cleaner, another clever contrivance, in which raisins are washed, brushed, and dried in a few minutes, and the boiler in which cracknels are treated before being baked were also viewed before we passed on to the storerooms to see the tons of flour, sugar, and the butter which are always kept on hand.  Messrs Motteram & Williamson have their flour specially ground for them, and it may interest housewives to know that they use only fresh eggs in their biscuits, having found from experience a dozen of the newly-laid hen-fruit to be equal to twice that quantity of the pickled product.  Butter, of course, has to be stored, and nothing is thought of putting down 10 tons at a time.

    “Ascending to the packing room, a large compartment filled almost to overflowing with trays of biscuits, tins, boxes, and benches, the final operation of packing was seen.  This is accomplished by deft-fingered girls, who also label the tins and make them ready for market.  As might be expected, many thousands of labels are used during the year, and it is pleasing to the supporter of local industry to know that the Adelaide printers and lithographers are patronised wherever possible.  Messrs Motteram & Williamson make in all some 100 different varieties of biscuits, ranging in price from 3d to 2s 6d per lb, and for many of the new sorts now on the market the public are indebted to their enterprise.  It would not be possible in a short article, of course, to enumerate the different kinds or even to state the most popular varieties, but among the more recent productions might be mentioned the milk arrowroot biscuits, the nourishing qualities of which render them especially suitable for children and invalids.  The daily output of all kinds is about a ton, and when possible a stock of about 2000 tins is kept on hand, although owing to the keen demand the surplus often falls considerably below this quantity.  For some time the facilities for manufacture were such as would allow of only the city and suburban trade being catered for, but now travellers are sent to the country districts, where the excellence of the Waymouth Street article is daily becoming more and more recognized.”

    The Critic of 24 November 1900 advertised :
    “The Commercial Carnival is in full swing at the Exhibition Building, and the commercial travellers who are engineering it are putting in a fine effort to assure its success.  The show, to a certain extent, partakes of a bazaar, with a whole host of other attractions to lure the visitor to have a good and interesting time.  The ladies who are at the stalls are showing commendable enthusiasm in the art of amateur shoptending, and the Travellers should be very thankful they have secured such a bright aggregation of lovely woman to push its interests.  Some very good exhibits are made by various firms, including ...... Messrs Motteram and Williamson, which all help to make a creditable display.  There are numerous sideshows and concerts, so that visitors will find their Amusement catered for.  The poster procession every evening is not at all too bad.”
Quiz 22 November 1900  -  “The Commercial Carnival was opened with great eclat on Saturday afternoon by His Excellency the Governor. ...... Quiz is prominent in the Poster Procession, taking notes of all before him, and other posters are ...... Motteram and Williamson’s biscuits.”

    An advertisement in the Jamestown Star of 10th December 1903 stated :
Motteram & Williamson’s
To be had from all Storekeepers.  Try them.
Support your own State.
and on 22 January 1907 :
Motteram & Williamson’s
Milk Arrowroot
• • BISCUITS • •
Best Food for Children
Made in Your Own State.

    Support for Hans Heysen

    In 1899 Edward Williamson and a local pawnbroker and second-hand dealer, Charles Frederick Pascoe, made an agreement with the struggling artist Hans Heysen, to buy all his works and sell them.  The arrangement lasted about six months, and allowed Heysen to give up working for his father, selling farm produce from a handcart, and to devote himself full time to his art, until his abilities brought him to the notice of four prominent Adelaide businessmen, who immediately offered him £400 to enable him to travel to Europe to further his painting studies, with the understanding that all his output during the trip would belong to them.  Colin Thiele, in his book Heysen of Hahndorf, paints a dark and possibly biased picture of the relationship between Heysen and his original sponsors :

    “He had to sever his arrangement with Pascoe.  He wasn’t sorry to end that particular bargain, though it had given him untold benefits; painting incessantly, month on month, his work had increased tremendously in strength and assurance.  He had been his own master, working alone as he liked to do, free to move about the countryside he loved above all other, watching its gentle seasonal changes and the incredible subtleties of its dawnlight and evening haze.  But six months or so was quite enough at this stage; and it was obvious that he couldn’t have gone on feeding Pascoe with pictures indefinitely.  In any case, there was something about Pascoe, and especially about his companion Williamson, that didn’t accord comfortably with the Heysen temperament.  Recently they had both come up to Mount Barker to check on his progress, and Williamson had looked round the empty house inquisitively.
“Where’s the woman, Heysen?” he’d asked.
Hans bridled.  “There isn’t any woman.”
“There’s always a woman.”
It was the kind of innuendo Hans had little patience with.
    Pascoe agreed graciously enough to terminate the arrangement, although he hinted later that it had run its course anyway.”

    In August 2001 I spoke to Erica Micklem, a grand-daughter of Hans Heysen, who informed me that many of the stories in Thiele’s book were told by her Aunt Martha, who had a “sharp tongue” and a rather bitter outlook on life.

    In 1902 C F Pascoe auctioned the contents of his house, as he was “relinquishing housekeeping”.  Among the items were paintings by Hans Heysen.

    The Quiz newspaper had been scathing in its judgment of an early showing of a Heysen painting : 29 October 1896  -  “The Easel Club’s Exhibition - A fleeting glance at the pictures - ...... Looking across the Plains from Magill, by H Heysen - An indistinct piece of work lacking only one thing - artistic insight.”

    The slow growth and recognition of Heysen’s talent is demonstrated in further critiques :
Quiz 18 November 1897  -  “The sixth annual exhibition of the Adelaide Easel Club was opened by the Rt Hon Chief Justice Way at the Jubilee Exhibition Building on Tuesday afternoon November 16th in the presence of a large and fashionable gathering, which included most of the artists of note in and around of the city. ...... Mr Heysen, probably the most promising member of the club for his age - he is not yet out of his teens - has some capital pictures, but he should persevere in his studies, and not fall into an error all to prevalent with young artists that they can reach the summit of fame in one bound.”
Quiz 28 July 1898  -  “The Society of Arts Exhibition ...... Among those who exhibit watercolours, a word of praise must be extended to Mr H Heysen.  His scenes are Australian - that is he says they are.  While recognising the cleverness this young man possesses, we would like to see him seeking after greater truth in his representations.  His colour is harmonious, but not always truthful; and Quiz would like to impress upon him the fact that fidelity to nature is of more importance than strong and effective washes of colour.  To whit, who beside himself has seen the colour in an old building in the hills that he gives?”

    Another version of Heysen’s early years was contained in the Quiz issue of 28 September 1899 :  “Hans Heysen, a young artist possessing the great gift of originality, is to be sent to England, where he will get higher culture as a passport to fame and gold.  His career is a singular one.  It is the old story of the bright diamond of genius flashing forth from a humble nook and corner of the world.  Six years ago, a humble lad, he made his first bow to the goddess Art in the studio of Mr James Ashton, under whose tuition he advanced from the very rudiments of drawing to the considerable capability which he has recently shown in natural studies.  Three years ago Mr J B Mather, then art critic for the ADVERTISER, perceived the young artist’s ability, and predicted through the columns of his newspaper ultimate success for Mr Heysen as a landscape painter.  For a time, however, the genius of young Heysen languished in a dearth of patronage, but some time since Mr Chas F Pascoe, a well-known picture dealer of keen business acumen, observed the budding talent of the youth, who was then following the humble occupation of driving a produce cart.  Mr Pascoe engaged Mr Heysen for a period of six months, at a salary and commission, to paint landscape scenes.  It was during this period that Mr Heysen made the studies in the Mount Barker district which, in his clever reproductions on canvas, have attracted so much attention.  Mr Pascoe subsequently held a sale of the numerous works which Hans Heysen completed at this time, and the result was highly successful.  The engagement having terminated, Mr Pascoe introduced the youthful painter to Mr Davidson, of Messrs Wigg & Sons, who, with the assistance of Dr Wigg, Mr Joyner, Mr De Rose and other gentlemen, has undertaken to send Mr Heysen to England, supplying him with sufficient funds to prosecute his studies for a period of three years.”
Quiz 3 July 1901  -  “An Adelaide art patron is Mr E Williamson, of the firm of Motteram and Williamson, the well-known biscuit makers of Waymouth Street.  He showed a keen interest in the brushwork of the successful young Adelaidean Hans Heysen, and largely through his instrumentality the clever Hans was enabled to take up painting seriously as a profession.. The walls of Mr Williamson’s home on West Terrace have adorning them some of the choicest works of Hans Heysen, and they are greatly prized by the owner.”

    The Williamsons in Adelaide

    During this time, the Williamson family continued to grow.  A son, Roy Cleveland, was born on Christmas Day, 25th December 1892.  Another son, Ernest Wilson, was born on 10th May 1895, but lived only 9 hours, dying on the same day.  Frederick Lerpiniere was born on 27th October 1896, and their youngest son, Harold Edgar, on 20th December 1899.

South Australian Government Gazette
                                        “Patent Office (Trade Marks Branch),
                                                                                                        Adelaide, April 28 1897
Notice is hereby given that the undermentioned applications for the registration of trade marks have been received by me.  All persons intending to oppose such applications, or any of them, must leave at this office a notice in writing, in duplicate, in the prescribed form, of their objection thereto within one month (or such further time, not exceeding three months, as the Commissioner may allow) of the advertisement in the South Australian Government Gazette.  A fee of 10s is payable with such notice.
                                                    FREDERICK FOOTE TURNER, Commissioner of Trade Marks.
Application No 2325.  Filed April 15th 1897  -  Cecil Augustus Motteram and Edward Williamson, trading as Motteram and Williamson, at Waymouth Street, Adelaide, in the province of South Australia, manufacturers, to register in class 42, in respect of all substances used  as food or as ingredients in food, such as flour, biscuits, cakes, fancy bread, confectionery, condiments, dried fruits, jams, conserves, jellies, a trade mark, of which the following is a representation :-
The said trade mark having been used by the said firm in respect of the articles mentioned for eleven months before December 17th 1892.”
The National Archives of Australia has documents dating to 1897 for the “Application for Trade Mark depicting a young girl sitting on a mushroom playing a trumpet in respect of all substances used as food or as ingredients in food such as flour, biscuits, cakes, fancy-bread, confectionery, condiments dried fruits, jams, conserves, jellies by Cecil Augustus Motteram and Edward Williamson trading as Motteram and Williamson.”

South Australian Government Gazette
                                            “Patent Office (Trade Marks Branch),
                                                                                                     Adelaide, August 29 1900
Application No 3152.  Filed August 28 1900.  Motteram and Williamson, of 127 Waymouth Street, Adelaide, South Australia, biscuit manufacturers, to register in class 42, in respect of biscuits, the following trade mark :-

    At some time Edward Williamson was offered the chance to become the first manufacturer of icecream in South Australia, but he declined the opportunity.

SA Police Gazette 7 May 1902  -  “Lost or Stolen – On the 2nd inst, about 11pm, in Waymouth St, Adelaide, a gold pin, horseshoe pattern, set with seven diamonds, value £10, the property of Edward Williamson; identifiable (C946).”
SA Police Gazette 21 May 1902  -  “Lost or Stolen – Edward William’s (sic) diamond pin has been recovered and traced to the possession of John Simmons, who has been arrested by F C Kelly (M) at Adelaide (C946).”
Register 5 June 1902  -  Law Courts – Supreme Court – Criminal Sittings – 4th June 1902 – Receiving Stolen Goods – John Simmons (32) was charged, on the information of Edward Williamson, with having feloniously stolen a diamond pin, valued at £10, at Adelaide on May 2.  The prosecutor’s evidence was to the effect that at 10.45 on the night of May 2 he was attending an election committee meeting in a room in the Shakespeare Hotel.  The accused and another man opened the door, and asked if they could come in.  When they were leaving the room one of witness’s friends shook some dry pampas grass, and the seeds adhered to prosecutor’s clothes.  The prisoner secured a towel and brushed the grass seeds off his coat.  Some minutes later one of the men offered to arrange a swimming match, and put up a banknote as his contribution to the stakes.  It was observed that the note purported to have been issued by a defunct bank.  This incident aroused witness’s suspicions, and he put up his hand to ascertain whether his breastpin had been taken.  Found that the pin was missing, and immediately communicated with the police.  When a constable arrived the accused and his companion had left the hotel.  In reply to a question by the accused the witness admitted that he could not swear that the banknote was valueless, because he never had it in his hand. – John Hinton, pawnbroker, deposed that the accused pledged the pin (produced) in his own name on May 6 for £2/10/-.  On May 13 Simmons visited the shop in the evening and said he wished to sell his pawnticket.  He remarked – “You know the pin is worth about £7/10/-.”  Witness told hm that he could not buy the ticket, as it would be a breach of the law for him to do so, but gave him the name of a man who would take it.  Simmons requested Hinton to accompany him, and he agreed to do so.  When they reached Rundle Street they met Constable Kelly, and witness remarked – “Here is a man who wants to sell a pawnticket for a pin which he has pledged with me.  It is alleged that the pin has been stolen.”  Simmons ejaculated, “Oh, my God!” and ran away.  The constable caught him and took him into custody.  While Simmons was running along the pavement he threw away the pawn ticket (produced), which the witness picked up. – The accused made a statement to the jury to the effect that on the night mentioned he went to the Shakespeare Hotel in company with a man who was a fellow-passenger from Melbourne.  After he left the hotel he did not see his companion again for four or five days.  He then met him in the street, and he asked accused to pawn the pin (produced) for him.  He did so, and when he returned and handed over the money some hours later the man remarked that as he was going to Melbourne he would give accused the pawn ticket, and suggested that he should sell it.  Simmons denied that he was guilty of the theft, or that he had any suspicion that the pin had been stolen when he agreed to pawn it. – The jury found prisoner guilty of receiving stolen goods, and he was sentenced to two years’ imprisonment with hard labour.”
SA Police Gazette 8 October 1902  -  “Prisoners tried at the Supreme Court during the month of June 1902 – Simmons, John (alias Ferguson), larceny; 2 years.”
South Australian Government Gazette  -  “Chief Secretary’s Office, Adelaide, November 19 1902.  His Excellency the Lieutenant-Governor in Council has been pleased to add the names of the undermentioned gentlemen to the Commission of the Peace, viz :
Edward Williamson of Adelaide”

    The Certificate appointing Edward Williamson as a JP proclaims floridly :
“Certificate by the Honourable the Attorney-General for the State of South Australia.
To all whom it may concern :
    Whereas, by certain Letters Patent, under the Great Seal of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, constituting the Office of Governor of the State of South Australia, it is amongst other things provided that the Governor may constitute and appoint Justices of the Peace for the said State:
    Now, know ye all that on the nineteenth day of November, 1902, Edward Williamson Esquire, of Adelaide was, under the aforesaid power, duly constituted and appointed to be, during pleasure, a Justice of the Peace in and for the said State, to do all such acts and things as by law appertain to the Office of a Justice of the Peace.”

SA Police Gazette 4 November 1903  -  “Prisoners discharged from Yatala Labor Prison – John Simmons (alias Dixon, alias Ferguson) tried at Supreme Court, Adelaide, on June 4 1902 for receiving stolen goods; sentenced to two years; a native of Keyneton, Victoria; a tailor; born 1869; height 5ft 2ins; complexion, dark; hair, dark; eyes, blue; nose, medium, pointed; mouth, medium; chin, round.  Two vaccines left arm; large scar left side head; small scar left knee and on left shin.  Freedom due November 7th 1903.”
Quiz 12 May 1905  -  “Mr Edward Williamson JP, of the well-known firm of Motteram and Williamson, is an enthusiastic member of the Australian Natives’ Association, and is a most assiduous attender at its fortnightly meetings.  He originally hailed from Victoria, but has been settled many years in Holy Adelaide, and has had the satisfaction of seeing the business expand in a marvellous way.”
Quiz 25 May 1906  -  “E Williamson JP, of the firm of Motteram & Williamson, is a well-known landmark of West Terrace; and has been prominently before the public for some considerable time as an enthusiast in football and cricketing circles, and is President of the Sir William Robinson UAOD Cricket Club, which have for the second time secured the premiership and the handsome shield presented by Sir Edwin Smith to the UAOD Cricketing Association, which has to be won three times before becoming the property of any club.”
Quiz 8 February 1907  -  “The Adelaide branch of the ANA held a very successful euchre tournament on Monday last. ...... The tournament was presided over by Mr J B Bannigan, assisted by past presidents E Williamson, ...... . ”
Quiz 22 March 1907  -  “Mr Edward Williamson of West Terrace, and his son, are taking a trip to the gulf ports, and will leave by the Rupara on Tuesday next.”
Quiz 12 April 1907  -  “During the trip of the Rupara to the gulf ports last week a concert was given at sea on Saturday evening March 30th, in aid of the Port Adelaide Seamen’s Mission. ...... During the interval the chairman presented Captain Thompson with a large ship’s biscuit made by Motteram & Williamson which was covered with icing, and had the following inscription - “A.S.S. Co’s picnic.  Third prize won by Capt Thompson, SS Rupara, Old Buffers’ Race, over 35 years, 23/3/07.” ”
Quiz 10 May 1907  -  “On April 24th Mr Edward Williamson, of West Terrace, was elected to the position of Vice-President of the ANA - a well-deserved honour, as Mr Williamson put his heart and soul into the work.  The remarks of the Chief President, Alderman Isaacs, point to the fact that before long Mr Williamson will occupy the Presidential chair.”
Quiz 24 May 1907  -  “Mr E Williamson, of West Terrace, who is a PA of the Sir William Robinson Lodge, UAOD, has been visiting several Lodges during the past month, and his remarks have caused great interest in Lodge circles.”
Quiz 21 June 1907  -  “The Goodwood branch of the ANA held their first annual smoke social in the Goodwood Institute last Monday evening.  An official visit was paid by the Chief President (Alderman I Isaacs) and the following members of the Board - E Williamson, ..... .”
Quiz 28 June 1907  -  “The Board of Directors of the ANA will pay an official visit to the Port Adelaide Branch on Tuesday evening next.”
Quiz 28 June 1907  -  “At the Trades Hall, Grote Street, on Friday August 2nd, there will be a grand concert and dance held in aid of the widow and children of the late P W Stewart, who are unfortunately left in distressed circumstances.  Mr W J Denny MP is chairman and Mr E Williamson JP, hon treasurer.”  [Possibly James W Stewart, late barman of the Crown and Sceptre Hotel.]
Quiz 19 July 1907  -  “The Chief President and Board of Directors of the ANA will open a Branch Lodge at Kadina on Friday July 26th, and one at Norwood on July 29th.”
Quiz 26 July 1907  -  “Chief President Isaacs, Vice-President Williamson and G Secretary Kreusler have gone to Kadina to open a Branch this (Friday) evening.”

    E Williamson & Co

    One of the terms of the partnership with Motteram was that no other members of either family would be employed by the firm.  Motteram wished to involve his several sons in the business, and so in 1909 the partnership was dissolved, as announced in the South Australian Government Gazette of 3rd June :
Notice is hereby given that the partnership existing between Cecil Augustus Motteram and Edward Williamson, as biscuit manufacturers, at Waymouth Street, Adelaide, under the name or style of Motteram and Williamson, was this day dissolved by mutual consent.  Mr Williamson will receive all moneys due to the late firm, and pay all debts due by it.  Dated this 27th day of May 1909.
                                                                                                                        C A MOTTERAM
                                                                                                                        E WILLIAMSON

Witness to the signature of Cecil Augustus Motteram - Thos Holland, solr., Adelaide
Witness to the signature of Edward Williamson - E A Thornton, solr., Adelaide.”

    Edward Williamson continued in business under the name of E Williamson & Co., Limited.  The Memorandum of Association of this Company, which was incorporated on 16th July 1909, stated that two of the objects of the new Company were:
1.  To acquire and take over as a going concern the business now carried on at Adelaide by Edward Williamson, under the style of E Williamson, and formerly carried on under the style of Motteram and Williamson, and the assets and liabilities of the proprietor of that business in connection therewith, except the freehold land upon which such business is now carried on.
2.  To carry on and continue the business of biscuit manufacturers in all its branches hitherto carried on by the said Edward Williamson.

    The capital of the new Company was ten thousand pounds, divided into ten thousand shares of one pound each, of which 9996 were allotted to Edward Williamson.  One share each was held by :
Margaret Williamson, of West Terrace, Adelaide, married woman
Arthur Burton Williamson, of West Terrace, Adelaide, music student
Harry Williamson, of Waymouth Street, Adelaide, foreman
Donald MacDonald, of 23 West Terrace, Adelaide, bacteriologist.
The first Directors of the Company were Edward, Margaret and Arthur Williamson.

    (Donald MacDonald MB, MS etc Resident Physician and Bacteriologist, Adelaide Hospital, contributed a series of articles to the Strathalbyn Southern Argus between July and December 1899.  A biographical note in the paper stated that “Dr Donald MacDonald, who is contributing a series of articles to our columns ...... had very extensive experience in the East, and is an authority on Asiatic diseases as well as an expert on bacteriological matters.  He served on the medical staff of the Japanese army during the war between the dwellers of the Land of the Rising Sun and the Chinese, and saw some active service.  He is an enthusiastic searcher for the truth, and his up-to-datedness in all scientific matters is surprising, considering the busy life he leads.  Under his care the bacteriological department of the Adelaide Hospital is likely to become one of the most valuable of its kind in the Australian colonies, and a credit to South Australia.”  The articles included series on “Bacteria”, “Eastern Piracy”, and “The China-Jap War”.)

    This change of ownership occurred just as Edward's son, Arthur Burton Williamson, left for an extended visit to England.  Brian Watt believes that his mother, Em, wrote to Arthur in 1910, asking him to return, as the business was suffering due to Edward’s drinking.

    As required by the Companies Act, Edward Williamson notified the Registrar of Companies of the location and opening hours of the office of the new company :
“To the Registrar of Companies and to all others whom it may concern.
Notice is hereby given pursuant to the Companies Act 1892 that the registered office of E Williamson & Co Ltd is situated at Waymouth Street Adelaide and is accessible to the public every day except Saturdays Sundays and Public Holidays between the hours of 10 am and 4 pm and on Saturdays (not being Public Holidays) between the hours of 10 am and 12 noon.  Dated this 16th day of July 1909.
                                                                                    E Williamson
                                                                                    Managing Director”

    The Secretary of the new Company was Ada Ransom, neice of Margaret Williamson.  Each year Ada, as Secretary, was required to provide the Registrar of Companies with a “Summary of Capital and Shares” of the Company, including a list of the persons who were members of the Company, with the number of shares held by each of them.

Quiz 24 September 1909  -  “The supporters and admirers of the West Adelaide Football Club intend repeating their last season’s complimentary social and dance in the Exhibition Building on Friday October 29th.  Mr A Knowles is hon secretary, Alderman Isaacs chairman of committee, and Mr E Williamson hon treasurer.”
The Critic 9 March 1910  -  “St Luke’s Church, Whitmore Square, was the scene of a very pretty wedding on Saturday afternoon, March 5th, when Miss Minnie Ethel Motteram, daughter of Mr C A Motteram of “Heathcote”, Millswood was married to Mr Claude A Cleland of Unley.”  Miss Gertrude Motteram and Messrs Philip and Walter Motteram were also present.
The Critic 3 August 1910  -  “The marriage of Miss Lillian Thomas, daughter of Mr B Thomas of Goodwood, to Mr Philip Motteram will be celebrated on Saturday afternoon, August 20th, at the Unley Methodist Church.”
The Critic 21 September 1910  - “A pretty wedding took place in the Methodist Church, Unley, on Saturday afternoon August 20th, between Philip Motteram, eldest son of Mr C A Motteram of Millswood, and Lillian L Thomas, youngest daughter of Mr B Thomas of Goodwood.”

    “The Story of Arnotts Famous Biscuits”, by Charles Boag, states that “C A Motteram was born in Birmingham, England, in 1853, migrating to Australia at age 11 to join his solicitor father in Bendigo.  In 1875, aged 22, he joined the Aerated Bread and Biscuit Company, Adelaide.  In 1892 he formed a biscuit manufacturing company with a Mr Williamson.  This was dissolved in 1908.  In 1909 Motteram built his own biscuit factory.  His two sons Philip and Walter and grandson John joined him in the business.  He died in 1940 [actually 1943].  Arnotts and the Motterams joined forces in 1950.  Motteram Ltd was formed in 1952, with four Arnotts and three Motterams on the board.”

Adelaide Observer 17 March 1890  -  “Deaths – MOTTERAM – On the 23rd April, at his residence, Sandhurst, Victoria, of syncope, J P Motteram, solicitor, aged 75 years.”
Adelaide Observer 2 April 1892  -  “Births - On the 22nd March, Mrs C A Motteram of Essex Street, Goodwood Park, of a daughter.”
The Advertiser 16 June 1943  -  “Death of Mr C A Motteram - After being associated with the biscuit industry in South Australia for 68 years, Mr Cecil Augustus Motteram, founder and chairman of directors of Motteram and Sons Ltd, biscuit manufacturers of Adelaide, died at his home, 23 Pier Street, Glenelg, on Sunday.  Mr Motteram, who was 90, was born near London, and when 11 years old, came out with his father, the late Mr J P Motteram, to Bendigo, Victoria, where his father was a solicitor.  In 1875 Mr Motteram came to Adelaide and for 18 years was employed by the Aerated Bread Company.  In 1893 he and Mr E Williamson formed a partnership as Motteram and Williamson, and soon became prominent manufacturers of biscuits in the state.  After 17 years the partnership was dissolved, and Mr Motteram erected his own premises in Grote Street, Adelaide.  His two sons, Messrs Philip and Walter Motteram, and a grandson, Mr J P Motteram, are members of the firm.  Mrs Motteram died in November.”

    Philip Motteram, born in 1882, became President of the Chamber of Manufactures in 1947, and by 1950 was a lecturer in Electrical Engineering at the SA School of Mines, as well as Managing Director of CA Motteram and Sons, biscuit manufacturers.

    A photograph of Glenelg beach on Boxing Day, 28th December 1911, shows the amusement pavilion at the end of the jetty, adorned with large advertising signs, including one for Williamson’s Biscuits.  Driving through the back streets of Kadina in 1972, I was surprised to find, painted on the corrugated iron side fence of a house, a faded advertising sign for Williamson’s Biscuits, proudly proclaiming them to be “Electrically Baked”.  In the early 1920’s the Company used an advertising approach which would still strike a chord today:
Williamson’s Biscuits
...Are made in Adelaide
with Australian Products
by Australians...

The Register 8 May 1912  -  “A Vice-Regal Inspection - Much interest has been evinced in South Australian manufactures by His Excellency the Governor [Sir Day Hort Bosanquet].  Under the auspices of the Chamber of Manufactures, he has visited more than a score of leading city industrial firms during the past few months, with the result that he has been brought personally into touch with the work of manufacturers to a greater degree perhaps than any previous vice-regal representative.  The factory of E Williamson and Co Ltd, biscuit makers, Waymouth Street, Adelaide, was the scene of a visit by Sir Day Bosanquet on Tuesday morning.  There were also present the president of the Chamber of Manufactures (Mr E C Vardon) and other members of that body, including the secretary (Mr H E Winterbottom).  The progressive machinery, substantial plant and scrupulous cleanliness which were in evidence led to laudatory comments from the sightseers.  The highly interesting processes concerned with the making of biscuits, from the kneading of the dough to the mechanical “serving up” of the finished article were inspected.  The dough is placed upon a machine, cut up into biscuit shapes as it is carried forward by an ingenious mechanical contrivance, stamped with the maker’s name and ornamented, and taken on - still without the touch of human hands - through a large oven.  The period occupied by the dough in passing through this oven suffices for the baking of the biscuits.  The appetising product is then ready for packing and distribution to stores and dealers.  Mr Williamson, the controller of the firm, has himself invented up-to-date devices in regard to his manufactures.  He has, however, been industrially hampered through the scarcity of girl and boy labour.  With an adequate supply in the direction indicated he would be in a position to considerably enlarge his present creditable establishment, which gives employment to about 100 assistants.  At the conclusion of the visit the Governor and other guests expressed pleasure at what they had seen, and particularly at the manifest progressiveness of the firm.”
The Advertiser 8 May 1912  -  “Manufacture of Biscuits - Messrs E Williamson & Co’s biscuit factory in Waymouth Street was on Tuesday morning inspected by His Excellency the Governor (Sir Day H Bosanquet), the president of the Chamber of Manufactures (Mr E C Vardon), and a number of prominent members of that body.  The spacious rooms afforded plenty of light and ventilation, and the cleanliness of the place impressed the visitors.  Mr Williamson stated that inability to hire labour was retarding the expansion of his business.  Some of the machinery installed is Mr Williamson’s invention.  After the inspections Mr Williamson provided light refreshments, and thanked the visitors for their attendance.  He expressed satisfaction at the interest being taken in the manufactures of the state by His Excellency and the Chamber.”


    In 1912 the Williamsons moved to a large house at 25 Dequetteville Terrace, on the corner of Flinders Street, the site of the present Royal Coach Motel.  The house was called “Carmel”, and was Edward’s home until he died.

    The site of Carmel is part of original block number 241, frontages to Flinders Street and Dequetteville Terrace in the subdivision of Section 255 into the Town of Kent Town in 1854.  At that time Kent Town was in the East Torrens District Council, but a petition of residents got it transferred to Kensington and Norwood Corporation in 1856.  The earliest records show William John Blackham owning blocks 239, 240 and 241, somewhere on which he had a 6-roomed stucco house, cellar, stables etc.  By 1859/60 land amounting to 1½ of these three allotments was in other ownership.

    For some reason the corner allotment, being part of 241, had a number of owners, including one who had it from 1882 to 1903, but no one built anything on it until 1905.

    John Rutherford Wood became owner of the allotment in 1904/5, and in the following Council assessment (1905/6) was assessed for “house and land” having an Annual Value of £50 (the assessor’s estimate of the amount a tenant could expect to pay in annual rent).  He was succeeded as owner/occupier by John Henry Champness 1906/7 to 1911/12, on the same Annual Value.  Edward and Margaret Williamson became the owner/occupiers in 1912/13 with a new Annual Value of £80, which suggests that some upgrading and/or additions occurred at that time.  Margaret Williamson was the sole owner/occupier from 1927/8 to 1936/7.  The AV became £90 in a general upward revision in 1920/21, but the increase to £130 in 1927/8 probably reflects further improvements. The new owner in 1937/8, followed later by his widow, saw the house occupied to 1969/70, but in the following year it was taken over by the Royal Coach Motel, which had acquired number 24 in 1968/9 and built the first part of the Motel on it.

    The Williamsons in Adelaide (continued)

The Critic 10 September 1913  -  “An enthusiastic meeting of gentlemen who had formed themselves into a subcommittee for the purpose of perpetuating the memory of the late Mr Archibald Mackie was held in the clubhouse of the Commercial Travellers and Warehousemens’ Association on Saturday evening.  The convenors were Messrs ...... E Williamson.  Mr R D Fox moved and Mr E Williamson seconded :- “That a portrait in oils or some other approved form be adopted.”  This was carried unanimously.  It was decided to include the names of the following as representing all members :- Messrs ...... H R Holder.”
The Critic 17 December 1913  -  “Mr George Webb, one of the finest portrait painters in the Commonwealth, has just completed a lifelike picture of the late Mr Archibald Mackie for the Commercial Travellers’ Association, of which he was for so many years an efficient and progressive secretary.”
The Critic 19 July 1916  -  “Australia Day Anniversary, 28th July - An Appeal for further contributions to the SA Soldiers’ Fund - Present rate of expenditure exceeds £33 000 per annum - More money absolutely essential.  The following donations are gratefully acknowledged :  E Williamson and Co £25.”
The Critic 3 January 1917  -  “New Year’s Eve at the Town Hall - Our hospitable Mayor and Mayoress (Mr and Mrs I Isaacs) entertained at the Adelaide Town Hall on New Year’s Eve.  Invitations had been issued for a reception from 10.30 to members of the Ministry, the Adelaide City Council, representatives of the city in the Federal and State Parliaments, ex mayors of Adelaide, and heads of departments in the corporation service.  The balcony was brilliantly lighted, and May’s band rendered excellent music. ...... Supper was served at 11.30 and the guests then proceeded to the balcony, where the band rendered patriotic airs. ...... Among the invited guests were :- ...... Mr and Mrs C A Motteram, Mr and Mrs E Williamson.”
The Critic 2 January 1918  -  “Mr and Mrs E Williamson are staying at Mount Lofty.”
The Critic 3 March 1920  -  “Reception by Lady Mayoress - On Thursday afternoon the Lady Mayoress (Lady Hackett) again extended her liberal hospitality and held a reception in her charming drawing-room at the Town Hall. ...... The Lord Mayor’s secretary announced the guests.  During the afternoon, operatic selections were renderred on the vocalion.  Immediately on arrival the guests were served with delicious ice-creams, which reduced the temperature.  Afternoon tea followed, and then rock melon was handed round.  Among the guests were :- ...... Mrs A B Williamson, Mrs E Williamson, Mrs F Motteram, Miss Motteram ...... .”
The Critic 21 July 1920  -  “Lord Mayoral Ball [in honour of Edward, Prince of Wales] - The brilliant and much anticipated mayoral function given by the Lord Mayor (Mr Frank Moulden) and Lady Mayoress (Lady Hackett) passed off most successfully on Wednesday night.  The whole of King William Street was barricaded on either side, and motors, taxis and cabs followed one another in solemn procession up the street.  Decorations started at the foot of the stairway inside the gates, and from then on the guests were in a pergola of pink roses. ...... The dais was a rustic teahouse hung with pink wisteria, a becoming frame to the Lord Mayoral party.  From a bed of green moss all round the ledge sprung miniature rose trees.  The stage was given over to the orchestra, Miss Dorothy Daly’s Jazz Band, which rendered delightful music.  In front of the organ hung a black curtain upon which was depicted the two hemispheres, surmounted by the Imperial crown in coloured lights, symbolic of HRH’s dominions.  The organ lofts were carpeted in crimson felt for “sitting out”, screened by wonderful imitations in pink hollyhocks and rhododendrons.  From above, rustic skeleton umbrellas festooned with pink roses, and the lights had silk shades en suite.  The whole was most judiciously handled, as it gave a light and pretty effect without being overdone.  In the supper room big pale pink and mauve bonbons hung overhead, and a special word of praise is due to the floral decoration.  Such roses and carnations it would be difficult to surpass.  The supper must have more than satisfied the most hungry of guests.  Turkeys, sucking pigs, in addition to other delectable edibles, were in profusion, and the practical appreciation of the guests was speedily demonstrated.  The Royal party and Lord Mayoral party sat at the top table, the rest of the guests stood.  There was not the usual pushing to enter the supper room; nearly all were accomodated at once. ...... Those present included :- ...... Mr and Mrs E Willliamson.”
The Critic 29 June 1921  -  “Mayoral Ball - On Tuesday night, June 28th, the first of the mayoral functions was held in the Adelaide Town Hall, when the Lord Mayor and Lady Mayoress (Mr Frank Moulden and Lady Hackett) invited a large number of Adelaide citizens to meet their Excellencies the Governor-General (Lord Forster) and Lady Forster and Sir Archibald and Lady Weigall. ...... Among those present were :- ...... Mr and Mrs E Willliamson.”
The Critic 24 August 1921  -  “Mayoral Ball - On Tuesday evening, August 23rd, the Norwood Town Hall presented a gala appearance when the mayoral ball given by the Mayor and Mayoress of Kensington and Norwood (Mr and Mrs P Gannoni) was held.  The ballroom was hung with flags and brilliantly illuminated with red and blue electric lights.  For the twilight dances the red lights were extinguished with pleasing effect.  The Mayor and Mayoress received on a dais comfortably arranged as a miniature drawing room on the left of the hall. ...... The Mayor’s secretary announced the guests.  Miss Evelyn Peters’ Jazz Orchestra occupied  the stage, which was effectively decorated with potplants and foliage. ...... Supper was served in the lower hall.  The tables were decorated with yellow Iceland poppies, and the assembly room was set aside for smoking and cards.  Among those present were :- ...... Mr and Mrs E Williamson.”

    Winding up of E Williamson & Co

    On 8th December 1924 a Notice of Special Resolutions to voluntarily wind up and for appointment of a Liquidator for E Williamson & Co Ltd was filed with the Registrar of Companies :-
“Notice is hereby given that at an Extraordinary General Meeting of E Williamson & Co Limited, duly convened and held at the registered office of the Company, Waymouth Street, Adelaide, on Monday, the 24th day of November 1924, the following Special resolutions were duly passed :
(a)    That the company be wound up voluntarily.
(b)    That Ada Ransom, Secretary of the Company, be appointed Liquidator.
Dated this 3rd day of December 1924.
                                                                    J A Rinder
                                                        Chairman of the said Meeting”

    A new Company, in which Edward Williamson had no part, was formed to buy and carry on the business, and his consent was required before it could be registered.
“To the Registrar of Companies,
E Williamson & Co Limited and Ada Ransom of Adelaide in the State of South Australia, Company Secretary, the Liquidator thereof, hereby consent to the registration of a new Company to be called “E Williamson, Limited”.
                            Dated this 4th day of December 1924
                                                Ada Ransom
    The Memorandum of Association of the new Company listed its aims, among them being :
1. The name of the Company is “E Williamson, Limited”.
2. The objects for which the Company is established are :-
(i) To purchase or otherwise acquire the goodwill, stock in trade, plant, machinery, furniture, horses, vehicles, trade marks, book debts and freehold property comprised in Certificate of Title Register Book Volume 1156 Folio 23 of E Williamson & Co Llimited in liquidation.
(ii) To carry on and continue the business of biscuit manufacturers in all its branches hitherto carried on by the said E Williamson & Co Limited.
(iii) To carry on all or any of the business of makers, exporters and importers of and wholesale and retail dealers in biscuits and cakes of every description and bakers, confectioners, box makers, paper makers, printers, paper bag makers, and manufacturers of and wholesale retailers of and in articles of personal and household consumption.
4.    The Capital of the Company is £25,000, divided into 25,000 shares of One pound each.
We the several persons whose names and addresses are subscribed hereto, are desirous of being formed into a Company in pursuance of this Memorandum of Association, and we respectively agree to take the number of shares in the capital of the Company set opposite our respective names.
    Dated this tenth day of December One thousand nine hundred and twenty four.

Names, Addresses and Descriptions of Subscribers      No of shares taken by each subscriber
James Gartrell of Adelaide                                                                           1 (one)
Lloyd Prince of Adelaide                                                                             1 (one)
Company Director
Olive Abbott Rinder of Millswood Estate                                                 1 (one)    
(Married woman)
Henry Stephen Dunks of Parkside                                                              1 (one)
Master Baker
James Arthur Rinder of Adelaide                                                                1 (one)

    James Rinder, who appears to have been the Manager of Walton’s in Adelaide, was appointed as the Managing Director of the new Company, for which a Certificate of incorporation was isued on 11th December 1924.

    The financial details of the sale were included in an Agreement between the two parties :-
Agreement made the seventeenth day of December One thousand nine hundred and twenty four between E Williamson & Co Limited of Waymouth Street Adelaide in the State of South Australia (hereinafter called ‘the Vendor Company”) and Ada Ransom of Waymouth Street aforesaid Company Secretary the Liquidator thereof of the one part and E Williamson Limited of Waymouth Street Adelaide aforesaid (hereinafter called “the purchaser Company”) of the other part whereby it is mutually agreed as follows :
1. The Vendor Company and the Liquidator thereof as such Liquidator shall sell to the purchaser company and the purchaser Company shall purchase
(i)    All the moveable chattels of the Vendor Company situated at or upon or about the leasehold premises of the Vendor Company being portion of the Town Acre Nod. 186 situate in Waymouth Street Adelaide aforesaid comprising the plant and machinery, horses and vehicles furniture and stock in trade of the vendor Company Together with the goodwill of the business of the vendor Company and the exclusive right to use the name “E Williamson” as part of the name of the purchaser Company.
(ii) All the book and other debts and choses in action of the Vendor Company and the securities for the same.
(iii) All trade marks of the Vendor Company, and
(iv) That piece of land situated in the City of Adelaide being portion of the Town Acre Nod. 125 containing nine perches or thereabouts and being the whole of the land comprised in Certificate of Title Register Book Volume 1156 Folio 23.
2. The consideration for the said sale shall be the sum of Fifteen thousand pounds which shall be paid and satisfied as follows, viz: As to the sum of Ten thousand pounds in cash and as to the sum of Five thousand pounds by the allotment to the Vendor Company or its nominees of  five thousand fully paid up shares of One pound each to be numbered 1 to 5000 inclusive.
3. The said sale shall be completed on the seventeenth day of December One thousand nine hundred and twenty four or on such other day as shall be mutually agreed when the said cash and shares shall be paid and issued respectively to the Vendor Company.  On such payment and issue the Vendor Company and the Liquidator as such Liquidator shall at the request and cost of the purchaser Company execute and do or cause to be executed and done all such assurances and things as shall be reasonably required by the purchaser Company for vesting in it the property hereby agreed to be hereby sold and giving to it the full benefit of this Agreement.
4. The purchaser Company shall accept without investigation objection or requisition such title as the Vendor Company has to the property hereby agreed to be sold.
5. The purchaser Company shall subject to the consent of the office and to the completion of purchase be entitled to the benefit of the current insurances of the premises.
6. For the purpose of apportioning stamp duty payable in respect hereof the said chattels referred to in sub-paragraph (i) of Paragraph 1 hereof shall be taken to be of the value of Twelve thousand seven hundred and twenty five pounds nothing being allowed or paid for in respect of the said goodwill.

    In witness whereof the Common Seals of the abovenamed Companies have been hereunto affixed the day and year first before written.
The Common Seal of E Williamson & Co Limited was hereunto affixed by Ada Ransom the Liquidator thereof and signed by her as such Liquidator in the presence of
        J A Rinder
        Grote St Adelaide

A Ransom    Liquidator
The Common Seal of E Williamson Limited was hereunto affixed By Order of the Board in the presence of
        J A Garnett    Director
        H S Dunks    Director
        A Ransom    Secretary

    The Summary of Capital and Shares of E Williamson Limited, compiled by the Secretary, Ada Ransom, on 31st March 1925, did not list Edward Williamson as a shareholder, but showed that Walton’s Limited, Confectioners, then owned 7099 of the 15000 shares issued.  By 1927 Ada Ransom had been replaced as Company Secretary by Sydney A Butcher. The 1931 Summary showed that Walton’s, of Grote Street Adelaide, then owned 14200 shares, with the four Directors each owning 200 shares.  The Directors at this time were :-
Henry Stephen Dunks            Vaughan Place, Adelaide
Lloyd Prince                           ℅ Wilkinson & Co Grenfell St Adelaide
Robert Keith Wood                ℅ G Wood Son & Co North Tce Adelaide
John George Robertson           ℅ D & J Fowler Ltd King Wm St Adelaide
Henry Dunks, James Rinder, ℅ Walton’s Ltd, Company Manager, and his wife Olive Rinder, 20 Lynton Avenue Millswood, had ceased to own shares in the Company in the previous year.

    The final mentions of Edward Williamson’s original Company are contained in two  Notices nearly a year after it was sold :-
“To the Registrar of Companies, Adelaide.
I beg to inform you that a meeting of the abovenamed company was duly held on the twenty-fifth day of November 1925 for the purpose of having an account laid before them showing the manner in which the winding-up of the Company has been conducted and the property of the company disposed of, and the same was done accordingly.
Dated this twenty-fifth day of November 1925.
                                                A Ransom

“At a General Meeting of the members of E Williamson & Co Limited, duly convened and held at 304 Waymouth Street, Adelaide on Wednesday, the 25th day of November 1925. The following Resolutions were duly passed :-
  1. That the account submitted to this meeting and showing the manner in which the winding-up has been conducted and the property of the company disposed of, be received and adopted.
  2. That the books accounts and documents of the Company, and of the Liquidator thereof, be retained by the said Liquidator for three (3) months, to be then destroyed or otherwise disposed of as the Liquidator shall think fit.
Dated this 25th day of November 1925.
                                                J A Rinder

    The firm of E Williamson Limited was purchased outright by Walton’s in September 1930, as agreed in the following Agreement :-
An Agreement made the Twelfth day of September 1930 between James Arthur Rinder of Millswood in the State of South Australia Manager of the first part Olive Abbott Rinder of Millswood aforesaid wife of the said James Arthur Rinder of the second part and Henry Stephen Dunks of Parkside in the said State Master Baker of the third part and Walton’s Limited a Company having its registered office situate at Grote Street Adelaide in the said State of the fifth (sic) part whereas the parties of the first three parts are shareholders in E Williamson Limited a Company duly incorporated on the Eleventh day of December 1924 under the Companies Act 1892 as a Limited Company and having its registered office situate at Waymouth Street Adelaide aforesaid for the number of shares more particularly set out and shown in the schedule hereto and whereas Walton’s Limited (hereinafter referred to as “the Company”) was duly incorporated on the 29th day of September 1903 under the said Act as a Limited Company and whereas the nominal capital of the Company is now £100,000 divided into 100,000 shares of one pound each of which 44,333 shares have now been issued
        now it is hereby agreed and declared
  1. Each of them the parties of the first three parts shall sell and the Company shall purchase all the shares of each of them the parties of the first three parts in E Williamson Limited.
  2. The consideration for the said sale shall be the allotment and issue to each of them the parties of the first three parts of the number of fully paid up shares in the capital of the Company set opposite to his or her name in the third column of the schedule hereto such shares to bear the distinctive numbers mentioned in the fourth column of such schedule.
  3. Each of the parties of the first three parts will forthwith sign and execute proper transfers of the shares in E Williamson Limited to the Company or its nominee or nominees.
  4. The Company shall effect the appointment of the said Henry Stephen Dunks as a Director of the Company and the retention by him of that office until the 31st day of March 1940 unless he shall sooner resign or shall cease to be a member of the Company or shall become bankrupt insolvent or compound with his creditors or he shall be declared lunatic or become of unsound mind or he shall be absent from more than eight consecutive meetings of the Board without the consent of the Board or he shall be guilty of conduct in contravention of the Articles of Association of the Company for the time being in force or which in the opinion of the other directors is of such a nature as to be prejudicial or detrimental to the best interests of the Company And the Company shall cause all necessary provisions and alterations to be made in its Articles of Association to effect the purposes aforesaid.
  5. This agreement shall be subject to the confirmation by a special resolution of the shareholders of the Company in General Meeting.
    In witness whereof the hands of the said parties have been hereto set and the Common Seal of the said Company has been hereto affixed the day and year first before written.
    Signed        James Arthur Rinder
    Signed        Olive Abbott Rinder
    Signed        Henry Stephen Dunks
    The Common Seal of Walton’s Limited was hereto affixed

        The Schedule Hereinbefore Referred To
Name of Shareholder Number of shares in E Williamson Limited Number of shares in the Company to be issued as fully paid up Progressive number of shares
James Arthur Rinder 3300 3300 47634 – 50933
Olive Abbott Rinder 901 901 50934 – 51834
Henry Stephen Dunks 3300 3300 44334 – 47633
     As a result of this purchase, it appears that James Rinder became the Managing Director of Walton’s Limited.

    E Williamson Limited was in turn wound up in 1931, as the Registrar of Companies was informed :
“Notice is hereby given that at an extraordinary general meeting of the shareholders of E Williamson Limited duly convened and held at the offices of Walton’s Limited Grote Street Adelaide in the State of South Australia on Monday the 30th day of November 1931 the following special resolutions were duly passed namely –
(1) That the Company be wound up voluntary
(2) That James Arthur Rinder of Adelaide in the State of South Australia Company Secretary be and is hereby appointed Liquidator for the purposes of  such winding up.
                 Dated this 2nd day of December 1931
                                                Lloyd Prince
                                                Chairman of Meeting”

                “E Williamson Limited
To the Registrar of Companies
Pursuant to Section 145 of The Companies Act 1892 I beg to inform you that a meeting of the abovenamed Company was duly held on the 28th day of February 1933 for the purpose of having an account laid before them showing the manner in which the winding up of the Company has been conducted and the property of the company disposed of and hearing any explanation that may be given by the Liquidator and the same was done accordingly.
                Dated the 1st day of March 1933
                                                J A Rinder

    On 21st September 1903 an Agreement was signed between Alfred Walton, Alfred Wilkinson, Peter Wood, James Gartrell and William Douglas Taylor, the proprietors of the firm of A Walton & Company, wholesale and retail confectioners, to transfer the business to a new Company, A Walton & Co Limited.  On 16th August 1921 this Company changed its name to Walton’s Limited.  The shareholders in this Company at 31st March 1920 were :-
Walter E Chinner            Grenfell St            Merchant            1000
Lloyd Prince                   Grenfell St            Merchant            1000
Wilkinson & Co Ltd       Grenfell St            Merchant            8000
Peter Wood                    North Tce            Merchant            3334
James Gartrell                 North Tce            Merchant            3333
G Wood Son & Co        North Tce            Merchant            3333
Ernest Allnutt                  King William St    Merchant            1000
Edwin Vaughan Joyner   King William St    Merchant            1000
D & J Fowler                 King William St    Merchant            8000

    James Rinder first appears in the Shareholders’ List in 1925, and remained until he resigned on 31st March 1936.  On 29th June 1935 Walton’s Limited became a Private Company, that is it did not have any public shareholders.  At an Extraordinary general meeting of the Company held on 13th February 1956 a special resolution was passed “that the company be wound up voluntarily”.  The final meeting of the Company was held on 5th April 1956.  The majority of the assets of the company appear to have been distributed between D & J Fowler Ltd and Wilkinson & Co Ltd.

    An advertisement for E Williamson Ltd in 1930 stated that their milk arrowroot biscuits were used throughout the Adelaide Childrens’ Hospital.

    Later years

    Peter Williamson tells of the time that Edward and Margaret were invited to a ball.  On arrival, Edward left Margaret to her own devices while he chatted with his male friends.  He became so engrossed in their company that when the ball was over, he returned home without her.

    Edward Williamson bought a car on 24th December 1918, but never used it, and it remained for years on blocks in the garage at Carmel.  It was a 20.1 hp Talbot, registered number 1753, which was possibly a car originally owned by the Angas Park Fruit Preserving Company, Nuriootpa, and first registered in 1912.

    My father, Arthur Edward (Ted), regularly visited his grandparents at Carmel, and remembers a white cockatoo which was a pet of theirs.  Joan Donnelly remembers pouring a bucket of water over this cocky, to “christen” it Nebuchadnezzar, a name given to commemorate its alleged old age.  The cocky never forgave her.  The house had a central passage, with a large dining room on the right.  This room had a large rectangular table for meals, and a fireplace area where the family would sit after meals and talk.  There was also a wireless set with an exposed cone speaker.  The kitchen was next to the dining room, with a connecting door between the two, as well as a door onto the central passage.  In this large room was a pendulum clock with a fast beat and a fast strike, which was nicknamed “busy-britches”.  On the other side of the passage was a large bathroom, with a stepped floor halfway down the room.  Among the furniture here was a walnut shaving stand with three carved legs supporting a shelf for the shaving items, and a central pole holding a swivelling mirror.  Many years later, after the death of Edward’s son Arthur, his widow Kathleen had the central pole cut off flush with the shelf to make a handsome table which is now in the front hall of my parents’ home.  The house had a tower at the front, and the children often climbed the wooden stairs to the top to see the view over the parklands and the city.

    The Williamsons had a live-in housekeeper, called Priscilla Wright, who later became a companion to Margaret after Edward’s death.  The housekeeper did most of the cooking and cleaning in the house.  She had a sister, Rae, and after Margaret died the sisters ran a boarding house in Tynte Street, North Adelaide, where Ted stayed once when his mother went interstate.

    Edward Williamson was kind to his grandchildren, and often gave them a florin (two shillings) when they visited.  Once when returning home by tram after a visit, Ted dropped his purse containing a number of these florins down the window cavity of the tram.  They stopped the tram, and found the purse which had fallen through onto the road a hundred yards back.

    Edward enjoyed a drink, and was boastful of his wealth, like many newly-rich people.  It is claimed that after a few drinks he would sometimes light his pipe or cigar with a one- or five-pound note, to show how well-off he was, although Joan Donnelly flatly denies this.  Brian Watt believes that he was almost an alcoholic, and went on brandy benders for months at a time.  In his later years he was rather deaf.

    Edward invariably wore a hat, remembered by Joan Donnelly as a top hat, but more probably a bowler, even to the extent of appearing in it at the meal table.  His excuse to his daughter-in-law Mabel, who looked surprised at first encountering this habit, was that “the light affects my eyes”.  According to Joan, he had a curious way of clapping, slapping his right hand on his left upper forearm.

    At the conclusion of a meal, Edward would indicate that he had had enough with the self-coined pig Latin expression “Quantrum sufficum.”

    None of Edward’s sons remained in the family business, and he carried it on alone until ill-health forced him to dispose of it shortly before his death, although the trading name was retained by the new management.  He died on 26th July 1927, at the age of 69 from cancer of the œsophagus.  His obituary in the S.A. Register of Thursday 28th July stated that he had been in failing health for several years.  It continued: “the deceased did not take an active part in public affairs, being of a retiring disposition.  He was always ready to lend a helping hand to others, and his kindness won for him a wide circle of friends.  The late Mr Williamson was connected with a few organisations, and was one of the earliest members of the St Andrew’s Freemason’s Lodge.”  Another obituary stated that “Mr Williamson did many kind acts without seeking other than the pleasure the doing of them gave him, and many whom he has assisted financially and otherwise will regret his death.”  The Honorary Magistrate of 31st August 1927, the monthly magazine for Justices of the Peace, contained an obituary which was almost identical to that published in the Register.

    He was also a member of the Commercial Travellers’ Association, to whose club he donated a large seascape by H Septimus Power, called “Percherons bathing in the breakers”.  Vox Populi of the Advertiser column “Out Among the People” recalled in 1959 “We have pleasant remembrance of Mr E Williamson, poetic personality and man of business.  In his original Waymouth Street biscuit factory, with its appropriate Gothic windows, and, I think, entrance, vacated for larger premises next door, he had installed a pipe organ for the benefit of his son, Arthur Williamson AMUA, one of our best known organists and teachers.”

    Another painting purchased by Edward was one of the Fox Glacier in New Zealand, painted by a J Peele, which is now owned by Peter Williamson.  Malcolm Williamson also owns a painting of a land- and sea-scape by this artist, dated 1899.  James Peele (1847 – 1905) was born in Australia, immigrated to New Zealand in 1865, and worked as a professional artist from 1889.  Largely self-taught, Peele lived in Melbourne from 1889, returning to paint intermittently in New Zealand, exhibiting works that revealed the subtle relationship between land and sky.  He was a member of the Victorian Society of Artists and taught in Melbourne and Adelaide.  During the New Zealand summers Peele returned time and again to paint the West Coast Sounds. He died in Christchurch.

    The “Nineteenth Century New Zealand Artists: A Guide & Handbook” has an entry for James Peele :
“Known for his oil paintings of scenic beauties. Born Geelong, Australia [actually born in London and emigrated to Victoria with his family in 1852] and had his first art lessons there.  Put to business when 14 years old; worked as bank clerk in Adelaide then probably in about 1865 arrived in New Zealand and worked for the Bank of New Zealand in Invercargill; was branch manager in Rangiora and in Amberley 1883.  In 1889 resigned on a pension owing to deafness, and having been an amateur painter in watercolours for some time now decided to take up painting as a profession.  Went to Melbourne to study and won 1st prize and the gold medal of the Victorian Society of Artists for a painting of the Otira Gorge.  Was expelled from the Society in 1892 for literally taking his paintings out of a show after show was hung, because the committee had rejected what he thought was his best work.  Taught and painted in Adelaide and in Melbourne making three-monthly excursions to New Zealand in the summers, visiting the West Coast Sounds on the Tarawera and making many sketches to develop the rest of the year.  He must have visited Christchurch 1898–99 as was listed as a Christchurch artist in Wise’s.  In 1902 returned to New Zealand to live with his daughter and son-in-law H. E. Hargreaves at New Brighton, Christchurch, where he died.”

    Edward was much interested in music, and owned a collection of many instruments.  The organ mentioned above was built by Edward, probably from an imported kit.  Edward also played this organ.  Joan Donnelly remembered that at one time Edward had acquired, for unknown reasons, a number of coffins, and that Edward was seen late one night playing the “Dead March” on the organ, surrounded by the coffins.  When Arthur had no further use for it, Edward donated it to the Brompton Methodist Church.  This church was closed in 1946, and the organ remained there unused for quite a while before a new home was found for it in St Peter’s Lutheran Church at Loxton, where it was installed in 1953 “to commemorate those fallen in the two World Wars”.  Although having been rebuilt and converted to electric operation at a cost of $5000, the basic form of the original organ is still very evident.  As rebuilt at Loxton, it has 24 stops and 902 pipes.

    A newspaper article of 7th December 1906 reported the dedication of the organ at Brompton :
A NEW CHURCH ORGAN – A small pipe organ, which has done service at the Brompton Methodist Church for several years, has given place to a new organ of a more up-to-date character.  This has been brought about by the energy of Mr T J Bishop (choirmaster) and Mr T Park, whose efforts have been backed up by the pastor (Rev W H Cann) and members of the congregation.  The cost of the new instrument was £150, but with additions and alterations, its present value is estimated at £400.  Towards the cost £110 in cash and promises have been received, and it is expected that with the Christmas effort that is to be made the whole of the money required will be received.  The organ is dedicated to the memory of the late Mr William Thomas Lawton, who for 32 years was choirmaster.  A silver tablet, the gift of Mr W H Rosenhain, has been placed on the organ.  The organ was opened in the church, which was crowded, on Thursday evening, when a sacred concert was given under the direction of Mr T J Bishop.  Mr E Williamson unlocked the instrument, and Mr Arthur Williamson displayed the power and beauty of it with Rheinberger’s “Sonata in C minor”, first movement, as an opening number.  He also played Hollin’s “Spring song” and a bracketed number, “Barcarolle” (Hofman), “The answer” (Walstenholme), and a “Gavotte” (by Handel).  In addition Mr Williamson played the accompaniments to concerted numbers sang by a choir of 50 voices.  The soloists were Misses Bishop, E Prime, Northwood, and Mr Barnes, and a violin obbligato was played by Mr C Northwood.  The Rev W H Cann reviewed the work at the Brompton Church done by Mr Lawton, and spoke of him as one of the early pillars of the church.  During the 32 years Mr Lawton had been in charge of the musical part of the church services he had paid all the expenses connected with the choir, and he had filled all the chief circuit offices.  Mr T Park gave the organ financial statement, indicating that £110 in cash and promises had been received, and Mr T J Bishop thanked the donors.”

    Mr Bishop was not satisfied with this report, as he indicated in a letter to Edward Williamson :
Mr E Williamson
    Dear Sir,
            Noticing that the report re organ had not done you justice I took the liberty of correcting and adding to the same as the extract printed this day’s “Tiser” (Page 5 Col 6) will show.
                                                                                Yours Faithfully
                                                                                    T J Bishop”

    The amended report stated :
“Mr T J Bishop writes :- ‘Will you kindly allow me slightly to add to the report respecting the organ in Brompton Church in your issue of December 7?  The organ was originally built for Mr E Williamson, West Terrace, Adelaide, and on his own premises for his private use.  It is true that the value of the organ has been enhanced by polishing, decorations, alterations to working parts and front, but the organ is practically the same as before, and it is the generosity of Mr Williamson in selling the instrument at such a low price as to make it largely a gift to the Brompton people that has enabled them to possess an organ worth £400 at a cost of about £160, for which they are deeply grateful.’ ”

    Edward was probably not a great reader, as the only books which I possess which are known to have belonged to him are two fairly lightweight titles given to him by his grandson Edward (Teddy) as birthday or Christmas presents.  These are “Rodney Stone” by Arthur Conan Doyle, and “The Green Eyes of Bast” by Sax Rohmer.

    Edward Williamson’s made his last Will on 15th July 1927, just eleven days before he died.  His solicitors were Scammel, Hardy and Skipper, of Adelaide.
“This is the last Will and Testament of me Edward Williamson of Dequetteville Terrace Kent Town near Adelaide in the State of South Australia Out of Business.  I revoke all former Wills and testamentary dispositions made by me and declare this to be my last Will.  I appoint my wife Margaret Williamson my sons Arthur Burton Williamson Harold Edgar Williamson and Walter Archibald Thornton of Adelaide aforesaid to be the executors and trustees of this my Will.  I give and bequeath all my household furniture and effects in and about my dwelling house at the time of my decease unto my said wife absolutely and I also give and bequeath to my said wife my Life policies in the Australian Mutual Provident Society for Five hundred pounds Three hundred pounds and Two hundred pounds respectively with all bonus additions.  Also all moneys which may be payable by any Friendly Society (Druids or Oddfellows) of which I may be a member also moneys which may be payable out of the Mortuary Fund from the Commercial Traveller’s Association.  I direct my trustees to pay to my brother Harry Williamson the sum of Two pounds ten shillings per week during his life.  I give and bequeath to the treasurer for the timebeing for the Home for Incurables the sum of Fifty pounds for the use of such Institution.  I give and bequeath to my nieces Rena Williamson and Alma Williamson daughters of my late brother Arthur Williamson the sum of Fifty pounds each and in the event of either of my said nieces predeceasing me the share of the one so dying is to go to the survivor,  I give and bequeath to my nieces Isobel Williamson Margaret Scott Nellie McMullen and Norma Lavis and my nephews Alfred Williamson and Frank Williamson children of my brother Harry Williamson the sum of Fifty pounds (£50) each.  I give and bequeath to Mrs Ransom and Mrs Catterall sisters of my wife the sum of Twenty five pounds (£25) each.  I give and bequeath to my wife’s nieces Ethel Hayes Ada Ransom Ethel Ransom Lucy Ransom and my wife’s grandniece Jessie Ransom and Emma Gilbert the sum of Twenty five pounds each.  I give and bequeath all my real estate and the residue of my personal estate whatsoever and wheresoever unto my trustees upon trust (subject to the power to lease hereinafter contained) to sell and convert into money my real estate and such portions of my personal estate as shall not consist of money and to invest the moneys in my estate and to arise from the sale conversion and getting in thereof in the name of my trustees for the time being of this Will upon the securities or investments authorised by law with power to vary the investments from time to time as the said trustees shall think fit for any other or others of the securities as authorised and upon further trust to pay to my said wife out of the income arising from my trust estate the annual sum of Five hundred and twenty pounds payable quarterly during the term of her natural life and if the income arising from my estate be insufficient to pay my wife the said annuity I direct my trustees to make up any deficiency out of the capital moneys of my estate and I direct that this annuity shall be free from all succession and Estate duties and income tax both State and Federal which shall be paid out of the residue of my estate.  And to pay to Isobel Hill Williamson the daughter of my brother Harry Williamson the sum of ten shillings per week during her life such sum to be paid monthly.  And I direct my trustees to invest the balance of the income arising from my estate during the lifetime of my said wife and on her decease to divide the residue of my estate equally between my children Arthur Burton Williamson Emma Myrtle Watt Roy Cleveland Williamson Frederick Lerpiniere Williamson and Harold Edgar Williamson.  Provided always that if any child of mine shall die in my lifetime or during the lifetime of my said wife who either before or after my death or the death of my said wife shall attain twenty one years then in every such case the last mentioned child or children shall take if more than one equally between them the share of his her or their parent would have taken under this my Will if such parent had survived me and/or my said wife.  I declare that my trustees may postpone for so long as my trustees may think fit the sale and conversion into money of any part or parts of my real and personal estate under this my Will to be sold or converted into money (including leaseholds or other property of the terminable or wearing out nature) and in particular that my trustees may permit and shall not be under any responsibility by permitting any portion of my estate which at my death may be invested to remain in the same state of investment for so long as they shall deem expedient.  I empower my trustees to sell such part or parts of my real or personal estate as they shall think fit and out of the proceeds arising from such sale or sales to pay the said calls.  I empower my trustees to renew any mortgage of my real estate existing at the time of my death for such period and upon such terms as they in their discretion shall think fit and for the purpose of paying off any existing or any future mortgage to borrow money upon such terms and conditions as they shall think fit.  And I authorise my trustees to let from year to year or for any term of years or for any less term than a year at such rent and subject to such covenants and conditions as they shall think fit any portion of my unsold real or personal property and to accept surrender of leases and tenancies and to expend money in repairs and improvements as shall seem to them expedient and generally to manage at their discretion all or any portion of my unsold real or leasehold property.  But from the time of my decease my unsold real and leasehold property shall be considered as money for all purposes and shall together with the outstanding personal estate be subject to the trusts declared by this my Will concerning my trust estate and the rents interest profits dividends and yearly produce thereof shall after payment thereout of all incidental expenses and outgoings be deemed income for the purpose of such trusts and be paid and applied accordingly.  I request my executors to appoint my son Harold Edgar Williamson Secretary to my Estate.  In witness whereof I have hereunto set my hand this Fifteenth day of July One thousand nine hundred and twenty seven.
Signed by the said Edward Williamson the Testator as and for his last Will and Testament in the presence of us present at the same time who at his request in his presence and in the presence of each other have hereunto subscribed our names as witnesses.
                                                                                J F Towt
                                                                                Stanley Timms”

    Margaret Williamson continued to live at Carmel until her sudden death there on 30th April 1936, at which time it was sold.  Margaret’s will contained substantial bequests to several Methodist charities.  Both she and Edward are buried in the West Terrace Cemetery, with their infant sons.  She was a small woman, not much over five feet tall, and was always called “Little Nan” by her grandchildren. My father has few recollections of her, except that she was a staunch family member, who played a large part in keeping the family, which revolved around her, together after Edward’s death.  Ted attended her funeral in the front room of Carmel with his father.  It was always said that Lal got her short stature from Little Nan.  I still have Edward’s 15 carat gold monogrammed cuff-links.

    Margaret was a staunch Methodist, and Joan Donnelly remembers holidays at Carmel, and the gloomy atmosphere which pervaded the house on Sundays, when even the simplest pleasures were frowned upon.  One Sunday Joan, an avid reader, hid herself under her bed to avoid discovery while she devoured a new book by Gene Stratton Porter.  She remembers her fear as feet entered the room, and the corner of the counterpane was lifted, and her relief to find it was her aunt Em, who quietly retreated with the words “I just wondered where you were”.

    Lal used to spend nights at Carmel with her grandmother, and she was there the night that Margaret died.  Margaret used to read in bed till late at night, and often did not rise until midday, after being served breakfast in bed.  On this night, when Lal said goodnight, Margaret was engrossed in a novel which she wanted to finish, “to see if this woman, Beesom, gets her just reward.”  In the morning Lal entered her bedroom to find that she had peacefully died during the night, still propped up on her pillows, with just her head and one hand showing over the quilt.  Margaret’s funeral service was conducted at her home, and she therefore had the distinction of being born at home, married at home and buried from home.  Ted Williamson remembered attending the service with his father, to whom he held on tightly for mutual comfort.

    One of the terms of sale of the family business was an agreement that the name of “Williamson’s Biscuits” would be retained for 20 years after the sale date, and so Williamson’s Biscuits could still be bought until shortly after the end of World War II.  At this time Roy Williamson came over from Sydney to terminate the agreement concerning the use of the name.  Peter Williamson remembers visiting his uncle Fred in 1948, and still being able to buy Williamson’s biscuits, which came in a green, oval packet.

    Some or all of the land owned by the Williamson family in Adelaide was sold in January 1945 to the Adelaide Development Company.  This land comprised “that piece of land being Part Town Acre 186 in the City of Adelaide having a frontage to West Terrace of 84 feet 6 inches or thereabouts being the land comprised in Certificate of Title Register Book Volume 366 Folio 172 together with all buildings thereon.”  The sale price was £1800.

    Harry Williamson

    The S.A. Directory lists Harry Williamson between 1897 and 1920 as a biscuit-baker or biscuitmaker, living at various addresses in the City or North Adelaide.  He married Georgina Hill Sparks at Alva House, Adelaide, on 27th December 1882, and they had six children :
Alfred must have married a second time, as his obituary names his wife as Gertrude.
Florence Williamson, of Hyde Street, Tusmore, died on 19th March 1942, aged 49.  John married a second time, Ethel Stewart Carmichael, who died on 12th May 1963 aged 72 (born 23rd September 1891 at Telowie to Andrew Carmichael and Lilly Matson).
    Georgina was the daughter of William Sparks, a labourer who was born about 1831 in Forfar, Scotland, and his wife Isabella, born about 1833.  Georgina was born in Edinburgh, Scotland, and the family arrived in South Australia in 1863 on the ship Adamant with children Charles (c 1854 - ), Elizabeth (c 1861 - ) and Georgina (1862 - 1926).  Isabella Sparks died on 10th August 1881.

    Harry was not gifted mentally, and Edward employed him as the foreman of the biscuit factory.  He used to come to lunch at Edward and Margaret’s home every Wednesday, and called Margaret “Aunty”.  The family moved house frequently, and Harry would announce “We’re moving the sticks again, Aunty.”  After Edward’s death, Harry received an annual legacy from his estate, which delayed the winding-up of his affairs until Harry died.  Ted Williamson did not recollect ever meeting his grand-uncle Harry.

    The annual records of E Williamson & Co presented to the Registrar of Companies, and the local Directories list Harry Williamson’s residences each year :
1900                 146 Gouger Street
1905                 Wright Street
1906                 109 Angas Street
1911                  12 Halifax Street
1913                  Waymouth Street (probably using the Company’s address)
1914 to 1916     68 Melbourne Street, North Adelaide
1917 to 1922     24 McKinnon Parade West, North Adelaide
1923 to 1924     1 Third Street, Knightsbridge (the residence of his son J F Williamson)

    Georgina died on 22nd July 1926, aged 63, at which time they were living at 2 Watson Avenue, Rose Park.  She had suffered a cerebral haemorrhage and hemiplegia for 8 or 9 days, and died in the Adelaide Hospital.  The funeral notice informed the relatives and friends of Harry Williamson that “the funeral (motor) of his late wife will leave the residence of his son, Mr A B Williamson, 4 Robert St, Glenelg, on Friday at 3 pm, for the North Brighton Cemetery.”  

    Harry died at a private hospital on 23rd July 1945, aged 85 and was “peacefully laid to rest” with his wife, Canon H R Cavalier officiating.  Four months earlier, his eldest daughter, Isobel, had died, and she is buried with her parents, “a patient sufferer at rest”.

Adelaide Advertiser 14 January 1903  -  “The Postal Department – Resignations and Appointments – A notice contains the following list of appointments :- …… Alfred Burton Williamson, to be telegraph messenger, Adelaide, vice S A B Oates, promoted, March 17, 1902.”
Adelaide Advertiser 8 November 1904  -  “Commonwealth Gazette – Saturday November 5 – Postal Department – Alfred Burton Williamson, telegraph messenger, Adelaide, to be messenger, grade I, Adelaide.”
Adelaide Advertiser 12 December 1911  -  “Commonwealth Gazette – Saturday December 9 – Postal Department – Reclassification of Offices – The classification of the position of mechanic at each of the undermentioned places, occupied by the officer named, has been raised from Grade IV to Grade V, from September 20, and the present occupant of the position has been promoted therein, with increase of salary from £138 to £144 :- Mount Gambier, Alfred Burton Williamson; …… . ”
The Critic 31 December 1913  -  “The engagement is announced of Margaret Watts, second daughter of Mr H Williamson of North Adelaide, to Basil P, fourth son of Mr A H Scott of Beechwood, New Wanstead, Essex, England.”  [The couple married in Victoria in 1914.]
SA Police Gazette 13 April 1921  -  “Lost or Stolen – On the 5th instant, from Currie St, Adelaide, a gent’s black enamelled bicycle, upturned reversible handlebars, Brooks saddle, odd pedals (rubber on right pedal), Kelly roller chain, Michelin tyre on front, Dunlop thornproof tyre on back, Eadie free wheel, hub brake, value £5, the property of John Franklin Williamson; identifiable (C1475).”
SA Police Gazette 25 January 1922  -  “Lost or Stolen – On the 18th instant, from Currie St, Adelaide, a gent’s black enamelled bicycle, upturned handlebars, fixed wheel, roller chain, rat-trap pedals, Brooks saddle (new springs), Dunlop Railroad tyre on back, plain Dunlop tyre on front, mudguards over both wheels (front one broken), of old appearance, hand pump atached, value £5, the property of John Franklin Williamson; identifiable (C234).”
The Critic 30 August 1922  -  “Mayoral Ball - No mayoral function has ever achieved such brilliancy as the ball in the Exhibition Building given by the Lord Mayor and Lady Mayoress (Mr and Mrs Lewis Cohen) on Thursday night.  The effective decoration of coloured lights in panels from floor to ceiling, against a background of fluted art muslin to match the lights - red, blue, green and gold - was a scheme which could only have been carried out in a building of that size, and the result, as a background to evening frocks, every colour of the rainbow, imparted quite an Eastern touch.  The design, which included over 5000 lights, is  said to have been modelled on a Moorish palace.  The Adelaide Symphonic Dance Band was seated on the stage behind tall palms.  In the extreme front a fountain was erected which sprayed delicate perfume over the passersby.  A strong light was cunningly introduced within the fountain, and a somewhat smaller fountain was set on the table in the supper room, which was situated in the western annexe, screened off behind the large, comfortably furnished dais where the Lord Mayor and Lady Mayoress received their guests, announced by the Lord Mayor’s secretary. ...... Additional light was thrown upon the pretty frocks from above.  A huge crown of coloured lights hung in the centre of the hall and clusters of red and blue lights alternated with clusters shrouded in asparagus fern.  Red baize carpeted the outer edge of the hall, the centre being reserved for the dancers.  Refreshments were served in the basement, where the smoking room for the men was also located.  The Premier, Sir Henry and Lady Barwell, arrived at 8.20 pm, and at 8.30 pm the strains of the National Anthem heralded the arrival of His Excellency the Lieutenant Governor (Sir George Murray) and Miss Murray.  Immediately after their appearance on the dais dancing began. ...... Among those present were :- ...... Mr and Mrs Harry Williamson, Messrs F and H Williamson.”

    Frank Williamson became the Assistant Town Clerk of Burnside in the 1940’s and 50’s, and lived at 22 Hyde Street, Burnside for many years until his death on 17th June 1970.  His death was announced in the Advertiser :
WILLIAMSON - John Franklin (Frank).  Late of 22 Hyde Street, Tusmore, on June 17, at hospital.  Frank, loved husband of the late Ethel (Car).  Loved father of Peggy (Mrs Brown), Joan (Mrs Nicholls) and Nancy (Mrs Goebel, Brisbane).  Cremated at Centennial Park.

    Thirteen months later the same paper recorded the death of his elder brother :
WILLIAMSON - Alfred Burton.  On July 21 [1971], at a private hospital, dearly loved husband of Gertrude (Trudy), loving father of Bill, Sheila and Constance.  Father-in-law of June and Bill, fond grandfather of Denise, David, Lynton, Kerry and Mark.  Great-grandfather of Dominique.  Aged 85 years.  So mote it be.

    Alfred, who lived at 2 Gower Street, Glenelg East, was cremated at Centennial Park.  Another funeral notice was inserted by the Lodge St Leonards No 131 SAC, in respect for “our late Foundation Brother”.

    The Sydney Branches

    Before continuing the story of the direct line, I will briefly digress to give the history of the Williamsons who moved to Sydney.  Emma, or Em as she was known, married John Gordon Watt at Chatswood, NSW, on 13th November 1915, and the couple settled in Sydney.  Emma died on 8th August 1967.  Gordon Watt was born at Gosford on 21st April 1888 to George and Susan.  George Watt was mayor of Gosford at the time of the opening of the Hawkesbury Railway Bridge in 1888.  One of Gordon’s brothers was Alan Stewart Watt (13th April 1901 – 18th September 1988), a noted diplomat later knighted, while another, Victor Robert (1886 – 1970), was a well-known painter of rural watercolours.

    He enlisted in the Army on 5th August 1915, with Regimental Number 3255, and served in France as a private in the 3rd Battalion.  He embarked from Sydney on 20th December 1915 on the HMAT Suevic as part of reinforcements for the 18th Infantry Battalion, with the rank of Acting Corporal.  In civilian life he was a commercial traveller, and his address at the time of enlisting was Gordon Road, Chatswood, NSW.  He was married and his wife’s address was given as “Care of E Williamson, Carmell (sic), 25 Dequetteville Terrace, Kent Town, Adelaide, SA.”  He was a Congregationalist by religion.  He returned to Australia on 18th January 1919.  (The next entry in the AIF Nominal Roll was for Regimental Number 3256 - Ray (sic) Cleveland Williamson.)  Gordon worked as a salesman for Nestlé, and died at Vaucluse on 19th September 1955.  Their only child, John Brian Lerpiniere, was born on 17th November 1921 at Rose Bay.  He lived in the family home at 62 Hopetoun Avenue, Vaucluse, until only a few years before his death, when he sold it and moved to East Lindfield.  Brian, as he was known, died in a Sydney nursing home on 21st April 2001.  During the Second World War, Brian enlisted in the 2nd AIF at Anambah, NSW, with Service Number NX124488.

The Critic 11 September 1912  -  “Tonight in the Elder Hall the University Choral Class and Conservatorium Orchestra will give a performance under the direction of Mr Frederick Bevan.  “The Legend of the Fair Melusina” (Hoxmann), Bach’s sacred cantata “A Stronghold Sure” and the “Ave Maria”, “Vintage Song” and finale to Mendelssohn’s unfinished opera “The Loreley” will be performed by a full chorus of 140 voices and the orchestra.  The solos will be divided between Misses ...... Emma Williamson ..... (soprani).”

    Roy attended Prince Alfred College, and hoped to attend University, but his father, Edward, refused to support him financially.  He worked for a short time at Edward’s biscuit factory, but soon argued with his father and left.  He then worked briefly in the Tramways Trust in Adelaide.  In April 1914 Roy and a friend cycled from Adelaide to Melbourne, then north through the Australian Alps to Mount Kosciusko, which they reached in July, just before the outbreak of the first World War.  Roy immediately cycled back to Adelaide where he tried to enlist.  Being turned down because of astigmatism, he moved to Sydney, to work as a commercial traveller for James Stedman-Henderson Ltd (owner of the Sweetacres name), the well-known confectionery firm.  The diary which Roy kept during his bicycle trip is detailed in Chapter 9.

    Roy enlisted successfully in the AIF at Holdsworthy, NSW, on 24th August 1915 (Regimental Number 3256 - John Gordon Watt was Regimental Number 3255.)  His occupation was listed as commercial traveller, his height 5’ 10½", weight 140 lbs, with a fair complexion, grey eyes and light hair.  His religious denomination was Methodist.  He embarked from Australia on 23rd December 1915 on the HMAT Suevic for Egypt as part of reinforcements for the 18th Battalion.  He was admitted to hospital in Cairo with mild influenza in February 1916, and following his recovery, was landed at Marseilles on 25th March 1916.

    Roy’s four major battles were Pozieres, (later described as the greatest hell), Bullecourt (where he was wounded in the right little finger), Passchendaele and Villers Bretonneux.

    He received several temporary promotions, and as an acting Sergeant was wounded in the arm on 3rd May 1917, returning to service on 28th September.  A letter which he wrote after this incident was printed in the Chronicle of his old school, Prince Alfred College, in August 1917 :
“Soldiers’ Letters
Corpl. R. C. Williamson writes:--
                                                                                    No. 10 General Hospital, Rouen.
                                                                                                                May 7, 1917
    “Last Thursday morning, about 4 o’clock, while engaged in the now favourite pastime of attacking Hindenburg’s line, I was hit through the little finger on the right hand by a piece of shrapnel.  I was close up near the Huns’ wire at the time, and can consider myself very lucky indeed, as the woodwork of my rifle was badly shattered, and a good many pieces of shrapnel lodged in it.  I was carrying my rifle at the trail with fixed bayonet at the time I was hit.  We were following our own barrage of fire up very closely, and I think I was hit by our own shrapnel.  The Huns’ machine gun fire was very severe, and lasted for over six hours. It seemed marvellous how one could be missed by a machine gun bullet.

    “We did not expect so much machine gun opposition, as we thought most of his guns would he knocked out by heavy artillery fire.  However, his barbed wire (which was very thick) was cut a great deal more than we expected, and was fairly easy to get through.

    “It took me nearly six hours to get back to our front line, as the Huns were sniping at us all the time, and we had to jump from shell-hole to shell-hole in order to try and get back safety.  Many of the wounded did not get back at all, as Fritz knocked many of them, and made it impossible for the stretcher-bearers to work in the open in day time.

    “Another chap and I had a narrow shave when getting back.  We were both taking cover in a shell-hole when a shell landed on the edge of the hole and buried the two of us.  The concussion was awful, and it has slightly affected my ears, so that every time I swallow, my ears pain me.  The doctor said that they would be O.K. in a few weeks’ time.

    “After arriving at the main dressing station on an artillery limber, I had a good feed, and was inoculated with an anti-tetanic injection in the chest. All the walking cases were then sent in motor buses to the casualty clearing station, and we had another feed, and were issued with cap comforters in place of our steel helmets.  The hospital train left the casualty clearing station at about 11 p.m. on the 3rd, and we arrived at Rouen about 10 o’clock the following morning.  I was amongst the sitting cases on the train, as my wound was not severe.  We were all absolutely dog tired, and for the first time in my life I think I slept sitting up.  The hospital trains are well equipped and comfortable to ride in.  Each carriage has a nurse and numerous attendants.

    “At the railway station the train was met by motor ambulances, and we were driven straight to the hospital (which is a Tommy one) and were into a hot bath and into blue hospital clothes almost immediately.  Some of the boys have been boarded for England, but there is no chance for me, as my wound is a clean one, and should be properly healed in a week or two.  I will most likely be sent to a convalescent camp in a day or so, in order to make room for others.  While in the convalescent camp I hope to get a run into Rouen and have a look at the place, especially the cathedral, which is a magnificent building.  I have had a glimpse of Rouen and the Seine, and am anxious to see the place properly, as there are theatres and concert halls going in full swing.

    “There are dozens of hospitals here, and this one is built on a racecourse.  We are all in tents.  It was at this hospital that Prince Frederick of Prussia died.  He was shot by an Australian when attempting to escape near Bapaume, after being brought down in his aeroplane.  This is mostly a Hun prisoners’ hospital, and there are dozens in tents within 20 yards of the tent I am in.  They are behind barbed wire, and well guarded.

    “An officer from C Company was going on leave with me, but he, poor fellow, was killed.  He was going to be married while in England.  It was jolly hard on him, as he had never had leave, and he was a splendid fellow.  I was in three stunts with him - -Pozieres, Warlecourt, and this one.

    “We are getting a better issue of Australian clothes now, and there are very few  “Ossies" dressed in “Tommy clobber."  The usual practice was for those Anzacking it in England and the bases to get Australian uniforms, and the chaps in the line to get Tommy stuff.  We will soon be getting issued with our own tan boots instead of the awful black things we wear at present.

    “We have been getting an orange about every three days in our rations, and plenty of bread (i.e., one-third and one-half loaf a day; it varies nearly every day).  Potatoes are a luxury now.  We generally have a canteen handy when we are out of the line, and buy milk, salmon, sausages, sardines, biscuits, &c.  I paid three francs for a small tin of Huntley & Palmer’s gingernuts, and that was equal to a penny per biscuit, so you will see that things are dear over this way (5 francs = 3s. 8d.)  Australia must be a cheaper place to live in at present than England.

    “You must not worry about me, as I am all right; at present I am one of the lucky ones.  I am alive and kicking and that is the main thing.  You know, the good die young; so you see what excellent prospects I have of old age!”

    He received several temporary promotions, and as an acting Sergeant was wounded in the arm on 3rd May 1917, returning to service on 28th September.  In June 1918 he returned to England to join the No 6 Officers Cadet Battalion at Magdalen College, Oxford, for officer training.  He returned to the 18th Battalion in France as a Second Lieutenant in February 1919, rose to the rank of Lieutenant and as Acting Adjutant helped supervise the repatriation of the 18th Battalion to Australia.  He embarked for Australia on 4th July 1919 on the Wiltshire, arriving on 16th August, and being discharged on 10th October.  His name was inscribed on an honour roll in the Pirie Street Methodist Church of all parishioners who had served in the War.  When this church was demolished, the board was removed to the Pilgrim Uniting Church.

    On his return from the rigours of war to Adelaide on the ship Wiltshire, Roy and his wife Mabel were met at the gangplank by Edward and Margaret Williamson.  Edward shook his son’s hand and said, “Well, Roy, did you have a good time?”  This apparent lack of understanding was the last straw for Roy, who resumed his employment with James Stedman-Henderson Ltd, and after a three-month trial in Adelaide moved permanently to Sydney.  He became a Director in 1932 and General Manager in 1945.

    Roy married Mabel MacArthur at the Parish Church, Kennington, London, on 19th December 1918.  They had a daughter, Joan Maud, (born 1920), and two sons, Alan Cleveland (20th February 1922) and Peter MacArthur (1934).  Joan married William Miles Donnelly (born on 10th September 1921, died of emphysema on 23rd November 2000) on 30th June 1943, and lived at 190 Warrimoo Avenue, St Ives.  They had two daughters, Anne Barbara, and Paula Margaret, whom I met in 1990.

    Anne married Timothy John Sudholz on 9th March 1963, and their children are Jennifer Margaret, William Stuart and David Andrew.  Jennifer married Barry John Nolan on 18th April 1987, and their children are Benjamin Edward and Samantha Kate.  William married Wilma Margaret Baines on 27th September 1992.

    Paula married Andrew Hamilton Young on 8th July 1972.  They were divorced in May 1979 after the birth of two children; Justin Hamilton and Angela Hamilton.  Paula remarried, in 1983, to Geoffrey Wayne Furlong (born in 1936), but they have since divorced.

    In Sydney Roy was the manager of Sweetacres, a Nestlé company, and travelled extensively throughout Australia and New Zealand.  He often travelled by plane in the early days of Australian aviation, and soon became an inveterate plane traveller.  He made several trips from Adelaide to Perth by plane, the first in 1926, a two-day trip involving an overnight stop at Forrest.  Two photos show him with his mother and brothers Harold and Fred in front of a large De Havilland DH-66 Hercules, which flew the route between 1929 and about 1932.  Roy died on 27th October 1958, and Mabel, who was born on 22nd August 1895, died on 15th March 1971.  Before her marriage, Mabel was the private secretary to Lord Dewar, the scotch whisky baron.

    Peter has never married, and was a neurologist until his retirement in February 2001.  He says that his grandmother, Margaret Williamson, came to Sydney early in 1935 to see him, and gave him a gold sovereign, which he still has, and which she gave to all her grandchildren.

Alan married Faye Winterton, and their children are :
    Alan was killed on his 45th birthday on 20th February 1967 in a car crash returning home from work at night.

    The Watts and the Williamsons kept close company, and often had afternoon tea or a light evening meal together on Sunday.  Roy and his sister Em were very close, but often the visits would end up in heated bickering, as Em could come out with ridiculous assertions and claims.  Roy was highly principled and strict, so that his children should be of the same mould, but was a good family man and father, and all three of his children dearly loved and respected him.

    Frederick Lerpiniere Williamson

    Fred Williamson developed an early interest in the new science of radio (or “wireless”) broadcasting, and a brief summary of his early career is quoted from a newspaper of the early 1920’s.  “Mr F L Williamson is a well-known figure among local wireless amateurs by reason of his experimental work in the early days of radio in this State.

    “Like most of the early experimenters in South Australia, Mr Williamson began work first with the crude spark coil coherer set.  That was in 1910, when wireless was an unknown quantity.  There were no stations to communicate with in those days, and the work of Mr Williamson consisted of experiments at his home across short distances.

    “In 1913 Mr Williamson sent across to Melbourne to obtain components for a crystal set, no material being available in Adelaide.  With this set he picked up ships and spark stations, and a year later was granted a receiving licence with the call sign XWA.  Experimenting then came to an abrupt end owing to the outbreak of war.  At the cessation of hostilities Mr Williamson resumed his work, and as soon as valves were obtainable in Australia he erected a one-valve set, and gradually increased the power as the necessary gear became available.

    “Mr Williamson then obtained an experimental licence with the sign 5AH, and together with Messrs H A Kauper, of 5BG and LC Jones, then 5BQ, he conducted experiments in the transmission of speech, the transmission being done with receiving valves.  Experiments were continued with this apparatus until the proper transmitting valves were obtainable.

    “Following a series of successful tests with amateurs in Melbourne with Morse, a higher powered telephone transmitter was installed, and speech and music were broadcast throughout Australia and New Zealand.  Mr Williamson was the first experimenter in this State to transmit music and speech.

    “Since then he has directed his attention to short wave Morse communication, and is now engaged on that work, using wavelengths of 80, 40, and 20 metres.”

    The following are extracts from “A History of Radio in South Australia” by John F Ross.  As well as mentioning the contribution of Fred to the advancement of the science, they give a general idea of one facet of life in the early 1920’s.  I can also imagine that Edward Williamson would have been very interested in this new technical marvel, and would have given every support to Fred in his experiments.  Unfortunately he died before radio became commonplace.

    “Mr Fred Williamson was a leading South Australian experimenter with his station 5AH at 25 Dequetteville Terrace, Kent Town.  He was acknowledged as one of the pioneers in the State in the transmission of speech and music by radio and carried out the first practical demonstration of radio telephony.  The tests were carried out in 1922 in co-operation with Mr Harry Kauper 5BG at Dulwich about 2km away and then shortly after with Mr Lance Jones 5BQ at Westbourne Park some 5km away.

    “Mr Williamson had originally started off with the pre-war call-sign XWA using a spark set and crystal receiver and had improved his station in line with the state-of-the-art to the stage where in 1924 the station was one of the best in operation. Hours of transmission varied in accordance with a roster and in August 1924 he operated to a schedule of 8 pm. - 8.30 pm. every Tuesday evening on 190 metres.  Phone and Morse signals were heard in New Zealand in 1924 and an experimenter in San Francisco also reported having received clear signals.  This reception in America was one of the first transmissions from Australia to be clearly heard in that part of the world.

    “It was in 1922 that the first practical experiments of any significance in the transmission of speech and music were carried out in South Australia.  Mr F L Williamson with his station 5AH in Dequetteville Terrace, Kent Town was the first to successfully broadcast speech and music.  With the co-operation of two other notable experimenters, Mr H A Kauper 5BG and Mr L C Jones 5BQ, rapid progress was soon made.  Mr Williamson together with Mr Kauper who lived at the time at Gurney Road, Dulwich were able to receive each other’s broadcasts.  While these tests continued, Mr Jones was building up more powerful apparatus in order to bridge a greater gap in his home in Carlisle Road Westbourne Park.  One of the problems was the construction of a high voltage d.c. source derived from the a.c. mains, as high voltage batteries of high capacity for extended transmission tests were very costly.  The experiments were quite successful and from this period great advancement was made in improving performance and efficiency.

    “Other experimenters quickly followed suit in telephony working and experiment-ers on the receiving side increased at a great rate.  The Sunday morning and evening transmissions in particular were looked forward to by the many listeners with their crystal sets and battery operated tube sets.  “Concerts” grew in number and attractiveness.  The possessor of a receiving set proudly invited his friends to listen-in to the wireless concert and was not at all perturbed at any caustic comments on the quality of the music produced by the receiver.

    “Very few thought seriously of the quality of the speech or the music at the time.  The novelty and wonder of hearing a voice or musical instrument in headphones or loud-speaker was sufficient appeal.  The early transmitters and receivers were still in the experimental stages and there were few standards of comparison.  Some broadcasters were enterprising in providing programme material.  Mr J W Hambly-Clark experimenting with 5AA cut his own Edison type cylinders as he played violin solos and broadcast these by placing a telephone carbon microphone down the throat of the long phonograph horn speaker.  The up and down movements of the speaker were evident in the output.  Never-theless, the programmes were appreciated even though the they were interspersed by plentiful “hullos” and comments on the quality of transmission, modulation, etc.

    “Typical of the keen interest shown in early broadcast experiments or tests was the broadcast of the election results in April 1924.  On 5th April a 20 watt station was hastily installed in Salisbury Chambers, King William Street and with Mr J H Chesterfield in charge of the equipment the election results were broadcast as they were received from the Returning Officer.  In the Theatre Royal Building in Hindley Street a receiver and loudspeaker system was installed.  A crowd estimated at 4000 - 5000 people assembled to witness the experiment and follow the results.  The congestion in Hindley Street was of such proportion that a large squad of police was required to make way for traffic.  In between election result announcements, music was played to the appreciative audience.  The transmissions were also received in other parts of the State.  Groups assembled at Bute, Kadina, Gawler, Roseworthy and at Mt Barker and eagerly followed the broadcast until midnight.

    “It is doubtful whether any scientific invention introduced to the people of South Australia was received with such widespread enthusiasm as radio.  The study of the new invention was taken up with keen interest all over the State and created a tremendous demand for radio components and equipment of all descriptions.  It resulted in a mushroom growth of radio dealers and manufacturers which in turn brought about keen com-petition and along with it many weird and novel circuits which needed careful examination by constructors.  Apart from the local weekly technical magazine dealing specifically with radio, the newspapers ran regular articles on radio doings with photographs, circuits and advertisements inserted by dealers explaining the advantages of their components, kit sets and fully assembled receivers.”

    Fred Williamson participated in many demonstrations of radio to the general public, including one on the evening of Thursday 16th October 1924, when nine receivers were set up on a special train to Hallett’s Cove.  More than 400 people turned up to listen to three local stations, and occasionally a Melbourne station, during the journey.  Another demonstration occurred at the end of February 1925, on the tugboat Robbie Burns on the Port River.  Some 130 members of the Wireless Institute were entertained by music from 5CL and 5DN received on three receivers, including Fred’s “eight tube super-heterodyne set of considerable dimensions which gave loud volume using a loop antenna”.

    Fred Williamson assisted with the first broadcasts of 5DN from a location at Parkside, and he also assisted with the station’s first land-line outside broadcast, which was a concert by the Elder Conservatorium Band.  He worked on the technical staff of 5AD for many years and in 1959 was their senior technician.

    Fred Williamson married Edith Mary Jesmond Mitton (Aunty Dede) on 11th April 1928 at the Baptist Church, North Adelaide, and they lived at 24 Salisbury Terrace, Collinswood.  He died on 17th May 1976.  Their son Geoffrey Lea (born 1935) married Christina (Kirsty) McKay, and they have a daughter, Rebekah.  Geoff now lives in Melbourne, where he was the Registrar of Swinburne Institute of Technology (now University of Technology).

    Edith Mitton was born on 15th October 1899 at Wayville, to Ernest Josiah Mitton and Harriet Elizabeth Hawkes.  She had a younger sister, Isobel Ellison Mitton, born at St Leonards on 3rd August 1901.  Ernest Mitton was born at Walkerville on 5th September 1864 to Robert Coales Mitton and Mary Ann Benson. He was the ninth of their sixteen children.

    Harold Edgar Williamson

    Harold Williamson was born with a cleft palate, which severely affected his speech, and his looks, and made him very shy with strangers.  He married Ethel Kathleen Churchill (Kath) Gillham on 29th July 1937 at the Unitarian Church Vestry, Adelaide, and they adopted two boys, Malcolm and Bruce between 1943 and 1946.  From the 1930’s onwards, they lived at 121 Burnside Road (now 441 Glynburn Road), next door to Arthur Williamson.

    Harold and Kath owned a stationery shop on the north-western corner of Kensington Road and Sydenham Road.  The shop also sold haberdashery, and operated a small lending library.  At one time they sourced a supply of children’s clothes, and commissioned a signwriter to paint an advertisement for “homemade babies’ wear” in the window of the shop.  A week later, a strange woman entered the shop in night attire and a dressing gown, and asked for a “homemade baby”.  Only then did Harold and Kath check the signwriter’s effort, to find that he had omitted the last word of the sign.  Harold qualified as an accountant, and later worked with Chryslers, and then at the Army Barracks at Keswick.  He was an avid stamp collector.

    Harold was very good to Lal and Ted, especially Lal, who was his only niece in Adelaide.  He built a lawn tennis court at the rear of his house, and the children were always welcome to play there, even when they had moved to Tranmere House.

    After the war, when Ted Williamson was living at 123 Burnside Road and his mother was in England, he quarrelled with Harold over a brick fence which Harold wanted to erect between their two properties.  The two did not speak for several years, until Roy, who was very fond of Harold, counselled that blood was thicker than water, and that Ted should initiate peace overtures.  Ted met Harold in the Marryatville Hotel, and shook his hand, and the quarrel was forgotten.  Harold died on 26th July 1976.

    When Phillip was born in 1947 he had a cleft lip, and Phyll’s mother Madge exclaimed “It’s not surprising, what with him living next door.”

    Kathleen Gillham was aged 28 at the time of her marriage.  Her parents were Archibald Richard Gillham and Ethel Annie Selway, who were married on 6th June 1908 at the Methodist Manse, South Terrace, Adelaide, the bride being 24, the daughter of Frederick Edward Selway.  Archibald Gillham was born on 6th February 1884 at North Unley, the son of Archibald Shields Gillham and Jessie Maria Hill, who were married on 4th April 1881.  Kathleen Gillham died on 5th August 2008 in Adelaide, at the age of 99½.

    Arthur Burton Williamson

    Arthur Williamson, called Art by his mother and Arthur by others, was born on 10th June 1884, at McLaren Street, Adelaide.  He was educated at Malvern College, Malvern, recently opened and located on the north side of Winchester Street, between Duthy Street and Balmoral Street.

    The Programme of the Fourth Annual Sports Day of Malvern College, held on the Unley Oval on Wednesday 27th September 1899 included a 30 yards Flag Race for four teams of eight contestants.  Arthur Williamson was a member of Team B, and W Motteram was a member of Team D.  The Programme acknowledged that “We are indebted to the following ladies and gentlemen for trophies and donations to the Sports Fund : ...... E Williamson Esq ...... .”

    The Fifth Annual Sports Day was held on Adelaide Oval on Thursday 20th September 1900, and included a One Mile Handicap Bicycle Race (Open), in which Arthur Williamson started from the 70 yard mark (ahead of seven other starters, and behind one on the 120 yard mark).  Once again E Williamson was thanked for his donation to the Prize Fund.  The prizes were distributed by Mrs Gurr, Mayoress of Unley, at a concert held in the Unley Town Hall on Friday evening, 21st September.

    The Sixth Annual Speech Day of Malvern College was held in the Victoria Hall on Monday 17th December 1900, with the Chief Secretary (Hon J G Jenkins) as chairman.  The programme included a sketch, “The Compliments of the Season”, starring
                                        Father Xmas            F McMillan
                                        The Old Year           A Williamson
                                        The New Year         B Stevens
In his address, the Principal, J Hamilton Royce, noted that “Mr D H Hollidge MA joined the staff as Vice Principal in January last.  Mr Hollidge has entire charge of the classes containing pupils who are preparing for the Public Examinations at the University. ...... During the greater part of the year Mr C Annells MA assisted in the work of the Upper School. ...... In September last we released him from his engagement, ...... and his place has been ably filled during the past term by Miss S Howchin BSc. ...... Our duty is first and chiefly to educate, and we contend that a careful study of the literature of English and one ancient and one modern language, balanced by Mathematics and Science, supplies a better education than the cramming of three subjects selected merely for examination purposes. ...... While looking after the intellectual education of the boys entrusted to our care we have not neglected their physical training.  Herr W Leschen’s weekly visits are looked forward to with eagerness by his classes, and the drill and gymnastic exercises performed under his guidance and teaching do much towards providing the “mens sana in corpore sano”.”  The Special Prize List included the name of Arthur Williamson as one of seven successful competitors at the Preliminary Examination [for entrance to the University].  His prize was a handsome copy of “Uncle Tom’s Cabin”, embossed with the College motto “Suaviter in Modo : fortiter in re”.

    Arthur Williamson showed an early interest in music, and studied at the Elder Conservatorium in Adelaide.  A certificate from the University of Adelaide shows that he passed in Pianoforte Playing at the Public Examinations in the Practice of Music on 22nd June 1899, just after his 15th birthday.  His teacher was Miss Elsie Jefferis ARCM, ISM of Kermode Street, North Adelaide.  [A Dr Jefferis was the pastor of the Brougham Place Congregational Church at this time.]  He won the Elder Scholarship for composition, which he held for three years.  He was a pupil of Dr Ennis for the organ, and of Mr I G Reimann for the piano.  At this time he was organist at several Adelaide churches, including the Wellington Square Methodist Church for more than five years, and the Flinders Street Baptist Church between 1905 and 1908.

    I have two books which were given to Arthur by Guli (Gulielma) Hack, one in October 1907 “with grateful thanks”, and the other “with many thanks for all his kindness”.  The SA Advertiser noted on 26th June 1909 that “Miss Guli Hack ARCM has resigned her position as a member of the teaching staff of the Conservatorium, but the resignation will not take effect before the end of the present year.  Miss Hack is going to be married.”  [She married William Ashley Magarey, the son of William James Magarey, and Sir Henry Bundey’s nephew, and George Murray’s partner, on 5th March 1910 at her father’s residence, Hackney.  Both the bride and groom were 42 years of age.]

    Life in Adelaide

    Between 1907 and about 1913 Arthur had a serious relationship with Clytie May Hine (born 8th May 1887), a singer and pianist who was also studying at the Elder Conservatorium. Books of song music which he wrote during this period are dedicated to Clytie, and I have numerous books which she gave him as birthday and Christmas presents.  The Adelaide papers of the period, especially the weekly ones such as The Gadfly and The Critic, covering political, social, arts and theatre news, contained many items about the musical circle in which Arthur and Clytie moved :
Quiz 19 September 1890  -  “Miss Gulielma Hack, the Elder Scholar at the Royal College of Music, is doing remarkably well.  Her three years will expire about next Easter, when Miss Hack will return to South Australia.  It is most unlikely that the young lady will go upon the stage.”
Quiz 29 May 1891  -  “Miss Gulielma Hack, who has been studying for three years at the Royal College of Music, London, has returned to South Australia, and will enter the musical profession as a teacher.”
Quiz 29 July 1892  -  “Miss Guli Hack ARCM appears to have been quite a social as well as an artistic success in Sydney.  At her concert the fashionable Jewish element is said to have been very conspicuous, and the display of jewellery is reported to have been quite Oriental in magnificence.”
The Critic 9 October 1897  -  Pianist Mark Hambourg will appear at the Town Hall on Saturday evening.  Miss Guli Hack will assist at the recitals.
The Critic 4 December 1897  -  “A conservatorium of music is to be established in Adelaide. ...... It is practically settled that Professor Ives shall occupy the principal chair.”
The Critic 26 February 1898  -  “Jno. Barton Hack, deceased pioneer SA colonist, at one time held 64 city acres, enough to blossom out as an antipodean Rothschild.  Unfortunately for him and his family, he sold out too soon, the price per acre being considerably less than what per-footage would fetch now.  Sanitary Inspector Hack of the City Corporation is a son, and Miss Hack ARCM is a grand-daughter.”
The Critic 11 June 1898  -  “The Chancellor of the Adelaide University will hold a conversazione at the University this (Thursday) evening to inaugurate the foundation of the Elder Conservatorium of Music.”
The Critic 25 June 1898  -  “Frederick Bevan has been appointed Professor of Music at the Elder Conservatorium.  He is 37 years of age, and a Londoner.”
The Critic 6 May 1899  -  “Mrs T P Hudson (Miss May Habgood) died recently.”
The Critic 21 October 1899  -  “Mr Hans Heysen, the young South Australian artist, for whom a good career is predicted, departed for Marseilles on Saturday.  He proposes to study in Paris.  His taste for a Continental artistic career has been gratified by the generosity of Messrs George Brookman and Charles De Rose [both associated with various mining companies].”
The Critic 21 October 1899  -  “The Easel Club’s Show.  Hans Heysen is represented by Dunn’s Old Mill, On the Road to Norton’s Summit, and Study of Gums.  His works show undoubted talent, though the crudeness of his colouring makes one glad to know this clever young South Australian has gone to Paris to receive tuition from the best masters.”
The Critic 17 March 1900  -  “Mr Bryceson Trehearne is the new professor of piano at the Conservatorium.”
The Critic 7 April 1900  -  “The Elder Conservatorium of Music is now comfortably housed in its new premises on North Terrace.  The teaching rooms are laid out on each side of two wide corridors, and the rooms are well lighted and of large size.  There is a main hall for concerts, which will seat 1000 people.  The building has cost £16 000.  The architect is Mr F J Naish, and he is to be complimented upon the excellence of his design.”
The Critic 21 April 1900  -  “The piano recital of Mr Bryceson Trehearne ARCM, the new professor of music at the Conservatorium, was a triumph.  Mr Trehearne simply took his audience by storm.  His technique is wonderful, memory marvellous, poetic interpretation perfect, brilliancy superb. ...... In appearance he is tall, slight, with deep brown velvety eyes - the eyes of a musician and a romanticist.  He has a modest, unassuming appearance, and looks earnest.”
The Critic 28 April 1900  -  “The formal opening of the new Conservatorium building will take place on Friday evening the 27th.”
The Critic 5 May 1900  -  “...... the Elder Conservatorium - the magnificent concert hall with its gleaming white walls, and beautifully carved dome roof of dark wood, brilliantly lit by incandescent burners.”
The Critic 22 September 1900  -  “The popularity of Mr Bryceson Treharne was fully exemplified on Saturday evening, when, notwithstanding many other attractions, the large hall at the Elder Conservatorium was crowded to hear his piano recital.  In the front row of softer-seated chairs were His Excellency and Lady Tennyson. ...... Miss Guli Hack, looking very charming in embroidered cream silk net over pistache green with a bertha of black velvet and pink roses, was the vocalist.  “Bry”, as his pupils affectionately call him, is affecting an “intense” style which is disappointing.  He is too great an artist to need any eccentricity of dress to advertise him.  Let him leave to less talented beings that Paderewski head of hair like an electrified mop, and that Schumann tie of softest white silk.  It only needed the addition of a velvet coat and a large sunflower to make him a complete Bunthorne young man [a character in Gilbert and Sullivan’s “Patience”].  His brainbox is full of brains, and it is dangerous not to keep one’s head cool, though so far Mr Treharne has shown no sign of that dread disease that makes one’s head too big for one’s hat.  He is a modest genius.”  Guli Hack was a teacher of singing at the Conservatorium.
Music November 1900  -  The Public Schools Musical Competitions - Mr W J McBride judged the pianoforte playing with the following results :- Under 14 years, 2/- prize, Clytie Hine, Currie Street.”
Minutes of Committee Meeting of the Adelaide Glee Club 2 September 1903  -  “Mr A B Williamson was elected as honorary accompanist for the balance of this year.”
The Critic 3 October 1903 -  “The Town Hall was crowded on Saturday evening when Mark Hambourg gave the first concert of his Adelaide season.”
Annual Business Meeting of the Adelaide Glee Club 3 February 1904 - Secretary’s Report for 1903  -  Functions which the Club took part in after Arthur Williamson joined were :
11 November - Complimentary Concert for Miss Ethel Hantke, Town Hall
12 November - Annual Meeting of the Sunbeam Society, Victoria Hall
19 November - Annual Social of the Australasian National League, Town Hall
12 December - Annual Smoke Social, South Australian Hotel
“In addition the Club serenaded Miss Ada Crossley at the South Australian Hotel on 17 October, and it is pleasing to be able to report that Miss Crossley was delighted with the compliment. ...... The annual invitation concert and the annual smoke social are considered the most important of the Club’s engagements.  The smoke social was well attended, and the Club’s efforts were again highly creditable.  Additional attraction was lent to the programme by the inclusion of instrumental items by Messrs Davies, Jones and Parsons, and a recital by Mr Logue.  The Honourable J G Jenkins occupied the chair, and maintained the high reputation he holds as a chairman. ...... The services rendered by our hon accompanist were very valuable, and deserve our highest appreciation, and I hope Mr Williamson will retain that position for a considerable period.”  During 1903 Arthur Williamson attended 9 out of a possible 15 weekly rehearsals, and 4 out of 4 concerts.
Minutes of Committee Meeting of the Adelaide Glee Club 1 June 1904  -  “Mr Williamson was authorised to get the piano in the Victoria Hall tuned.”
The Critic 15 June 1904  -  “The Adelaide Glee Club were very successful with their subscription concert held on June 4th at the Victoria Hall.  An excellent programme was submitted. ...... Encores were numerous and graciously responded to. ...... Solos were rendered by Messrs ...... Williamson (pianoforte).  Mr Williamson accompanied throughout tastefully.  Numerous glees and part songs were well rendered.”  The Victoria Hall was situated in the YMCA Buildings, on the western side of Gawler Place between Featherstone Place and Grenfell street.
Minutes of Committee Meeting of the Adelaide Glee Club 6 July 1904  -  “Mr Walmsley reported that he and Mr Williamson have looked at some pianos at Mr Hooper’s in Pulteney Street, and had selected one as a suitable piano for the Club’s use for £30 cash, or if purchased on the time payment system at a cost of £3 interest yearly.  He recommended the purchase of same.  It was decided to pay a deposit of £5 to Mr Hooper and a monthly instalment of £1. ...... It was resolved to remove to the Australasian National League’s room on July 20, and to give Messrs Ware notice of removal.”
Quiz 30 September 1904  -  “The Victoria Hall was well filled on Saturday evening last when the Adelaide Glee Club gave another of their subscription concerts, and they were assisted by Miss Martha Bruggemann and Mr D H Bottrill.  The programme submitted was a good one, and embraced chorus songs, part songs, piano solos and quartettes. ...... The hon accompanist (Mr A B Williamson) also deserves a pat on the back for his quota towards the evening’s enjoyment.”
Annual Business Meeting of the Adelaide Glee Club 1 February 1905 - Secretary’s Report for 1904  -  “I have pleasure in complimenting the Club on the progress made during 1904.  Notwithstanding the fact that on several occasions the singing was equal to the Club’s best efforts, I cannot conscientiously state that generally any advancement was made in that respect.  We started the year with 40 members, 14 left during the year for various reasons and 12 new members were admitted, leaving the strength at present at 38.  The average attendance at rehearsals was 23, as compared with 22 during 1903, and at concerts the average was 30, as compared with 25 for the previous year.  At the last annual meeting the members decided to give subscription concerts, and to admit subscribers to the same.  For the sum of 10/6, each subscriber was entitled to 5 tickets for each of two concerts, and 2 for the smoke social.  The concerts were substituted for the annual invitation concert which the Club has been in the habit of giving.  This innovation has met with very satisfactory success, both from a musical and financial viewpoint.  Thirty-one subscribers for the whole year were admitted, and 7 for half the term.  The first concert took place in the Victoria Hall on June 4 when Miss Hilda Felstead and Mr H H Davies (violinist) were engaged to assist.  These artistes very kindly and voluntarily made a reduction in their fees.  The second concert was given in the Victoria Hall on 24 September, and on this occasion the Club engaged Miss Martha Bruggemann, and the programme was further enhanced by the inclusion of two recitals by our old friend Mr D H Bottrill, who gave his services gratuitously.  The smoke social, which was given in the dining room at the South Australian Hotel on December 10, was not as largely attended as is usual with our socials.  The Mayor (Theo Bruce Esq) occupied the chair and made some very complimentary remarks on the quality of the concert given.  In addition to the programme of music, additional variety was lent by the inclusion of two humorous recitals by Mr Maurice Ralph, to whom our best thanks are due for his kindness in assisting at very short notice and inconvenience to himself.  Each of these performances were very successful, and reflected credit on the Club and our hon conductor.  The only other concert in which the Club took part was on the occasion of the complimentary concert tendered to Miss Hilda Felstead at the Town Hall, and I think the Club’s performance outdistanced any of its previous performances for a considerable time.  Miss Felstead was very grateful to the members for their assistance.  On August 4 the Club serenaded Mr Watkin Mills at the South Australian Hotel, and that gentleman expressed his appreciation of the honour in high terms. ..... In consequence of a resolution carried at the last annual meeting, your committee made enquiries for obtaining a room not connected with a hotel in which to hold our rehearsals.  The best offer received was from the Australasian National League, whose executive placed the use of their assembly room at our disposal on Wednesday evenings, the only condition being that this society should supply a piano and allow the League the use of it occasionally. ...... I cannot close my report without placing on record our high appreciation of the services rendered by our hon conductor and hon accompanist.  Both of these gentlemen have carried out their duties in a meritorious manner, and we cannot thank them enough.”  Arthur Williamson attended 13 out of a possible 44 rehearsals, and all 4 concerts.
Jamestown Review 8 April 1905  -  “Musical Competition - The musical competition held under the auspices of the Chamber of Manufacture was brought to a successful conclusion on Monday evening last at the Chamber of Manufacture Exhibition, where all the competitions were held. ......  In the instrumental competition Herr Schrader [the judge] found it a difficult matter to judge on account of the high standard and general ability displayed by the competitors, and announced his awards as following :- ...... Pianoforte playing, senior division, Miss C M Hine equal second prize.”
The Critic 23 August 1905  -  “The Conservatorium Concert - The annual concert of the choral and orchestral classes of the Elder Conservatorium under Mr Bevan’s direction attracted a large audience on Monday night.  Mendelssohn’s “First Walpurgis Night” and Elgar’s “Banner of St George” constituted the programme for the evening. ...... Mr Williamson presided at the organ.”
The Critic 30 August 1905  -  “The Adelaide Glee Club intend to celebrate their 21st year in October next with a smoke concert, to which will be invited as many of the members as possible who were on the books in the early days. ...... The Club are also giving a concert at Kadina on November 13th.  Mr A H G Edwards, who has been secretary of the Club for the last four years, reports that the Club is flourishing, and has a membership of about forty.”  A B Williamson was the honorary accompanist of the Club.
Quiz 29 September 1905  -  “The concert room at Bricknell’s Cafe was crowded to over-flowing on Monday evening, September 25, when the Adelaide branch, No1, of the Australian Natives’ Association held a very successful concert, the event being the vice president’s musical evening.  After the business of the lodge had been disposed of, an unusually good musical programme was submitted. ...... Mr A B Williamson was the accompanist.”
The Critic 11 October 1905  -  “The Glee Club Concert - The Adelaide Glee Club gave their second subscription concert at the Victoria Hall on Wednesday October 4th.  There was a large and appreciative audience.  The chorus, composed of 30 members sang, generally speaking, with better results than last year.  There is good material in the society and a fine field before them, but stout hearts only will be able to face a few of the difficulties before they reach the platform of success.  Mr Arthur Williamson played as pianoforte soli Schütt’s “Nocturnette” and “Etude Mignonne”, and gave evidence of sound taste and technical skill.  Mr Williamson also acted as accompanist.”
The Critic 11 October 1905  -  “The Conservatorium Concert - A large audience was attracted to the Elder Conservatorium on Monday evening October 9th, when the Ladies’ Part Singing and Orchestral Class presented an interesting programme under the conductorship of Miss Guli Hack ARCM.  Lady Le Hunte, Lady Way, and Mr and Mrs Bertram Hawker were amongst those present.  The Singing Class (in which are many cultured choristers) numbers over 100.  The orchestra was largely recruited from the ranks of local professionals, though several students appeared in the string section. ...... Mr Williamson presided at the organ.”
The Critic 1 November 1905  -  “Elder Conservatorium Chamber Music Concert - The last chamber music concert by the staff of the Elder Conservatorium was given in the Elder Hall last Monday.  Miss Guli Hack was the vocalist of the evening, and Mr Arthur Williamson accompanied her.  Mr Williamson is to be congratulated on his playing of the very difficult accompaniment of [Miss Hack’s first number, “Long After”].”
The Critic 1 November 1905  -  “The Adelaide Glee Club “came of age” on Saturday evening, having been established in 1884.  The occasion was celebrated in festive style at the South Australian Hotel amidst clouds of smoke and the clanking of glasses, and reminiscences of the early days of the club poured freely forth. ...... The musical programme was excellently carried out, and it was shown that the club possesses some good voices.” Arthur Williamson attended this function and provided a piano solo.

    A history of the Adelaide Glee Club, published on their 70th anniversary in 1954, states : “The history of Glee Clubs dates back to the year 1783, when in London several gentlemen used to meet and sing motets, madrigals and catches after dinner at private residences.  In 1787 a society named “The Glee Club” was formed, and meetings used to take place at various taverns in London.  The Adelaide Glee Club was founded in the year 1884.  Prior to the foundation of the Adelaide Glee Club the only musical societies for male singing in Adelaide were German societies, the principal one being the Adelaide Liedertafel, which of course sang songs in the German language.  The Liedertafels in Germany were formed during the depression after Napoleon’s rule in Germany, the first being formed in Berlin in 1808.  A newspaper report in 1884 of one of the Liedertafel’s concerts reported “that the concert was concluded with the singing of the National Anthem in English.”  Shortly afterwards a correspondent to an Adelaide newspaper extolled the singing of the Liedertafel, and deplored the fact that glee clubs based on English societies  were not formed.  He said that attempts to form clubs had been made but did not succeed.  The letter was signed by a name of German origin.  This brought a reply by another correspondent who considered that the previous writer was boosting the prowess of the Liedertafel and belittling the English residents’ ability to sing.  The first correspondent in reply stated that he had lived in England for 30 years prior to his arrival in South Australia eighteen months before, and that his desire was to hear male voice singing in English.  This stimulus evidently stirred up local action, and towards the end of the year several gentlemen met in the rooms of Mr G Niesche, Photographer, of Rundle Street, at premises where the Regent Theatre now stands, and decided to form a men’s society to sing in the English language.  To stress this point they formed and named the society the  “Adelaide English Glee Society”, the conductor being Mr H Evans, a master at Prince Alfred College.  This name after a few years was changed to the “Adelaide Glee Club”, as the original name was considered too cumbersome (whether the objection was made by persons who sometimes became inebriated and found the pronunciation difficult is not known).  After a few years the conductor, Mr Evans, left the Province, and Mr A Walmsley took over the reins of leadership, which he carried out with success for a period of 22 years.  The firm establishment of the club can be credited to Mr A Walmsley, assisted and followed by Mr A H G Edwards, the hon secretary, who held that position for 36 years with credit.  The club in its early years limited its membership to 25.  This was governed by the transport then in vogue.  Travelling to country centres to give concerts was by a “drag”, a large vehicle drawn by five horses.  Annual Smoke Socials were inaugurated in 1892.  The Hon C C Kingston, who presided at many of these functions, on one occasion requested that the limit of 25 be raised by one to enable him to join the club.  He said, if as an added incentive for the club to accept him as a member, he would even refrain from singing.  Programmes of the club are held back to the days of the Adelaide English Glee Society, with the oldest being in 1885, when they performed in the presence of the Premier, the Hon T Playford.  The progress of the state can be seen from these programmes of the club’s performances.  In the year 1897, at a concert given at the Exhibition Gardens, it was stressed that the grounds would be illuminated by Electric Light.  Evidently this was a very early use of this illuminant, because at a later date, 1901, the programme states that the pavilion and grounds of the Unley Oval would be lit by Acetylene Gas.  Prior to 1905 the club existed without patrons or guarantors or outside subscribers, the support of the club being by members’ subscriptions and fees derived from concert engagements.  All positions were honorary, and if there was any surplus at the end of the year an honorarium was given to the conductor.  On one occasion when the annual meeting was held in a social room of Ware’s Exchange Hotel, members voted the conductor an honorarium of ten pounds.  The hotels at that period were open until 11 pm and the conductor, to express his thanks, ordered drinks for all present.  Programmes show that the club assisted to raise funds for the Bushmens’ Corps during the Boer War.  During World War I hundreds of pounds were raised by concerts for the Red Cross and other war charities.  Prior to Broadcasting in this state, it was the practice of the club to give three concerts a year in the Adelaide Town Hall.  These were well patronised by the public, and many times the “house full” sign had to be exhibited at the doors.  In the year 1924 Broadcasting came into being, and the attendances at concerts gradually decreased until the concerts had to be discontinued.  The club has, during its lifetime, competed in male voice singing contests, and the results show a high percentage of the highest awards.”

    A photograph of the club, taken for its 21st anniversary in 1905, listed the members as :
TOP ROW : C Humble, L A Sands, Mullett, R Sellers, R J Hancock, B Knight, O L Petherick, H Pomeroy, R Gurr, A G Prince
SECOND ROW : H J Heinemann, A Shorthose, W G Tucker, W Duval, P S Whiting, J A Dale, K O Schneider, E A Osborne, H Batt, E A Hughes
THIRD ROW : F S Dorman, T H Prince, J Hall, A H G Edwards (Hon Secretary), A Walmsley (Hon Conductor), A B Williamson (Hon Accompanist), A S Lewis, W E Priest, A E Hawkings
FRONT ROW : F N Lewis, C H Ulbrich, W R  Wright, E A Bailey, A Lloyd.

The Critic 20 December 1905  -  “Conservatorium Concert - On Monday evening, December 11th, the students of the Conservatorium gave their final concert of the session in the Elder Hall.  There was a fairly large audience which included Lady Way and the Vice-Chancellor of the University (Dr Barlow).  The programme was more diversified than usual, containing vocal, instrumental, and orchestral items.  The University Choral Class under the conductorship of Mr Frederick Bevan sang Mendelssohn’s 114th Psalm, with organ accompaniment by Mr Arthur Williamson. ...... During the evening the prizes and diplomas won during the year were distributed. ...... Lady Way distributed the prizes gained during the year to :- ...... the winner of the Frederick Bevan prize for the best accompanist of local music, Mr Arthur Burton Williamson; and the winner of the Ennis prize for best performer on the pianoforte, Miss Louise Koeppen Henderson.”
Adelaide Glee Club engagements for 1905 were :
8 March - Social
Easter Saturday - Engagment by Mr P A Howells to sing in the concert at the Exhibition Building, for which the Club received £5 5 0.
8 June  - Subscription Concert, Victoria Hall
7 July - United Labour Party Concert
19 July - Woodville Institute Concert
4 October - Subscription Concert, Victoria Hall
13 November - Kadina Town Hall Concert
9 December (?) - 21st Anniversary Smoke Social, South Australian Hotel
The Critic 24 January 1906  -  “The ANA continental held in the Exhibition grounds on Monday evening proved a great success, and an immense number were present. ...... Mr A Williamson made an able pianist.”
The Advertiser 2 April 1906  -  “The Conservatorium scholarships for 1906, tenable for three years, have been awarded as follows :- Violin, Miss Daisy Kennedy, Singing, Miss Clytie Hine, …… .”
The Critic 9 May 1906  -  “Conservatorium Concert - The first concert of 1906 by the students was given in the Elder Hall on Monday evening. ...... Miss Clytie Hine, the Elder Scholar for 1906, gave Haydn’s familiar Recit and Aria “And God Said” etc and “With Verdure Clad”.  Miss Hine’s voice is powerful, but she has a decided tendency to go out of tune.”
The Gadfly 23 May 1906  -  “Miss Florence Jurs herded a young Conservatorium flock at the Lyric Club last Wednesday, and various youthful stars from the Ennis fold distinguished themselves in their usual spontaneous manner.  Miss Jurs and her sisters contributed considerably to a programme that really deserved a better fate than it received at the hands of the lyrists, who were evidently labouring under a delusion that the affair was a conversazione.  A rhythmic accompaniment of tongue-wagging was kept up by some inconsiderate persons, and if Miss Jurs had not been possessed of an unusually patient temper she would have arisen and shut that concert with a bang.  Among the songsters, Miss Clytie Hine, a graceful Melba in embryo, trilled and lilted some of the most melodious notes I have heard for some time,  In these days of many screechers it is refreshing to find a voice that could put a nightingale or a lark or any other joke out of countenance; and your Aunt Tabitha [the gossip columnist] hopes that some kind person will arise and present this clever girleen with a slice of European tuition.”
The Critic 23 May 1906  -  “Lyric Club Concert - There was a large attendance at the Lyric Club on Wednesday evening, May 16th, when the musical programme was arranged by Miss Florence Jurs.  Miss Clytie Hine (Elder Scholar) displayed a full and promising voice in a bracket of Sterndale Bennett’s songs, “May Dew” and “Dawn, Gentle Flower”; except for a tendency to sharpness both items were creditable and enjoyable.”
The Critic 27 June 1906  -  “Adelaide Glee Club - The Adelaide Glee Club opened their 22nd season at the Victoria Hall on Thursday 21st June, when there was a large attendance, including Lady Le Hunte and suite.  The programme was on lines similar to that of previous years.  It is a matter of regret that there is still too much of the humorous element included in the programme.  Instead of pandering to the taste of a certain section of the audience, the introduction of more unaccompanied quartets would raise the musical status of the society.  The Glee Club may be congratulated on their performance this year, which was considerably above the standard attained at the performances of the last two or three years. ...... Mr Arthur B Williamson played as pianoforte soli Sinding’s “Chant Sans Paroles” (op 31, no 5) and Chopin’s “Waltz” (op 42); in the latter he manifested neatness and fluency of execution. ...... The pianoforte accompaniments to the vocal numbers were shared by Miss Maud Brown and Mr Williamson.”
The Critic 27 June 1906  -  “Conservatorium Staff Concert - The first concert of 1906 by the staff of the Elder Conservatorium of Music was given in the Elder Hall on Monday evening in the presence of a fairly large audience which included Sir George and Lady Le Hunte and suite.  Miss Martha Bruggemann was the vocalist of the evening, having taken Miss Hack’s place at the eleventh hour, the latter lady being indisposed. ...... Miss Bruggemann’s beautiful soprano voice has never been heard to better advantage than in the recitative aria “Hope of Bliss Untold” and “Whither Away, My Heart” from Cowan’s “Sleeping Beauty”.  Mr Arthur Williamson accompanied in excellent style.”
The Critic 18 July 1906  -  “Elder Conservatorium - A students’ concert was given in the Elder Hall on Monday evening.  Owing to the stormy weather there was only a fairly large attendance.  Lady Le Hunte and suite were among the audience. ...... The only other example of ensemble playing was the first movement of Mozart’s Sonata in D major for piano and violin, played by Miss Kathleen Holder and Miss Daisy Kennedy, who holds the violin scholarship for 1906.  Miss Kennedy, who is very young, shows great promise; her intonation throughout was perfect, and her tone fairly strong.  Her wrist movement is stiff, but that is a fault which will be overcome by practice.  Miss Holder’s light, rippling touch was heard to great advantage. ...... Mr Arthur Williamson’s number was one of the most enjoyable on the programme, Bach’s Prelude and Fugue in G minor for the organ.  The principal subject in the fugue was brought out most distinctly, yet without being too forcible. ...... In the vocal division the most exacting solo was sung by Miss Winifred Cowperthwaite, who sang “Elizabeth’s Prayer” from Wagner’s “Tannhauser”.  Mr Arthur Williamson accompanied her on the organ with much taste.”
The Critic 1 August 1906  -  “Elder Conservatorium Concert - The second orchestral concert of the session was given by the students in the Elder Hall on Monday evening. ...... Miss Clytie Hine sang Taubert’s “In a Distant Land”.  The effect was spoiled in some places by the intonation.”
The Critic 1 August 1906  -  “Mr Edward Reeves’ tenth annual students’ competition was held in the Victoria Hall on July 13, 14, 16, 17 and 18. ...... Valuable assistance was rendered by Misses ...... Clytie Hine ...... in contributing vocal items.”
The Critic 15 August 1906  -  “Conservatorium Concert - Mr Bevan’s choral class gave a concert in the Elder Hall on Monday evening in the presence of a large audience which included Sir George Le Hunte, Lady Way, and Dr and Mrs Barlow.  The programme consisted of Beethoven’s Mass in C and Mendelssohn’s “Loreley”, accompanied by the Conservatorium orchestra.  The solos in the Mass were in all cases taken by two voices instead of one, the soprano solos were sung by Miss Clytie Hine, the Elder Scholar for 1906,  and Miss Ethel Ridings.”
The Gadfly 26 September 1906  -  “At the Lyric Club on Thursday night ...... various choice voices from among Mr Bevan’s Conservatorium flock warbled gems from Sir Arthur Sullivan’s music. ...... Miss Clytie Hine and other popular folk assisted, and the show was one of the most successful of the season.”
The Critic 26 September 1906  -  “The Lyric Club - Mr F Bevan’s programme, An evening with Sir Arthur Sullivan, at the Lyric Club on Thursday 20th September attracted one of the largest audiences of the season.  Mlle Antonia Dolores was among the visitors of the club. ...... Other soloists of the evening were Misses Clytie Hine ...... “
The Critic 10 October 1906  -  “Conservatorium Concert - One of the principal events of the year is the performance by the Conservatorium Ladies Part-Singing Class under the direction of Miss Guli Hack ARCM.  The concert given by this class at the Elder Hall on Monday evening 8th October excited added interest on account of the first performance of two new works by Australian composers.  The large and appreciative audience included His Excellency the Governor.  The class numbers 140 voices, and the excellence of their work testifies to assiduous rehearsals.  The orchestra was composed of students in the string section, the wood and wind being supplied by local professionals. ...... Miss Delprat led the orchestra ...... and Mr Arthur Williamson presided at the organ.”
The Critic 24 October 1906  -  “The Liedertafel Concert - There was, of course, a very large attendance at the Town Hall on Thursday night for the Liedertafel concert. ...... Mr Arthur Williamson acted as accompanist.”
The Critic 31 October 1906  -  “Music - Dr Ennis’s annual organ recital attracted a large and distinctly appreciative audience to the Elder Hall on Monday evening. ...... Mr Arthur Williamson played the pianoforte accompaniments.”
The Critic 5 December 1906  -  “Elder Conservatorium - On Monday evening December 3rd the students of the Conservatorium gave their final concert of the session in the Elder Hall.  There was a large audience which included His Excellency the Governor, Lady Way, and the Vice-Chancellor of the University (Dr Barlow).  The programme opened with Schumann’s “Advent Hymn”, which was given by a section of the University Choral Class under the baton of Mr F Bevan, Mr A Williamson presiding at the organ. ...... Two Elder Scholars, Miss Clytie Hine and Mr Harold Savage, sang Mendelssohn’s duet “My Song Shall Be Alway Thy Mercy”, the voices blended well and the number was given in a  tasteful and devotional manner. ...... Miss Kathleen Holder distinguished herself in her brilliant and sympathetic playing of Liszt’s fantasia on Verdi’s “Rigoletto” and was deservedly recalled. ...... During the evening the diplomas and prizes won by students were distributed by Lady Way.  They were : Elder Scholars : Clytie May Hine, singing; Daisy Fowler Kennedy, violin; ...... .”
Jamestown Star 18 December 1906  -  “Port Pirie Male Voice Choir - The members of the Port Pirie Male Voice Choir held their first grand concert for the season 1906-7 on November 29th.  The invitations issued were well responded to, the Institute Hall being crowded in every part, and the programme was most successfully carried out.  On this occasion the members of the choir were assisted by Miss Clytie Hine (Elder Scholar), a young lady who has an exceedingly nice voice which seemed well cultivated.  In her first number - Spohr’s “Rose softly blooming” - there was apparent a decided nervousness, which somewhat marred the effect, but in her two subsequent efforts - “Over hill, over dale” (Cooke) and “‘Neath my lattice” - from Sullivan’s “Rose of Persia” - Miss Hine quite charmed her audience.  Her voice was well under control, and although wanting in body, was very sweet in tone.  An encore was demanded after each song.”
The 16 January 1907  -  “On Wednesday evening Professor Bevan gave a concert, vocal and instrumental, in the Elder Hall.  His Excellency the Governor and the Bishop of Perth were among the invited guests who enjoyed the evening thoroughly.  The programme opened with two organ solos by Mr Arthur Williamson.”
Annual Business Meeting of the Adelaide Glee Club 6 February 1907 - Secretary’s Report for 1906  -  “There was a substantial increase in the membership - we began the year with 39 members, 21 new members were elected, and 10 resigned or were struck off for non-attendance, leaving a total of 50 at present on the roll. ...... Mr Williamson, who occupies the dual position of hon accompanist and deputy conductor, has also rendered very valuable assistance.  Mr Williamson has shown exceptional skill at the piano and we hope to see him filling the same position in the Club for many years.  The Club has had a very slack year as regards concerts, as only four public appearances are recorded, viz
21 June - First Subscribers’ Concert, Victoria Hall
30 August - District Trained Nurses Association Concert, Hindmarsh Town Hall
15 September - Subscribers’ Smoke Social, South Australian Hotel
21 November - Second Subscribers’ Concert, Victoria Hall
The average attendance at concerts was 35, as against 25 during the year 1905.”
The Gadfly 6 March 1907  -  “Adelaide Conservatorium loses one of its sweetest singers shortly.  Miss Clytie Hine, who last year snatched the Elder Scholarship from all comers, has now won another in Melbourne, and will presently betake herself thence to study.  The Melbourne scholarship is of considerably more value than the local prize, so the graceful young warbler is to be congratulated.”
The Gadfly 13 March 1907  -  “The whole population of South Australia, with an exception or two, rushed to the ‘Gadfly’ office last week to inform the editor in a loud and indignant voice that Miss Clytie Hine was not deserting Adelaide for Melbourne-town, and that she had relinquished her scholarship, won at Marshall Hall’s Conservatorium, in order to continue to grace this weary city.  Your Aunt Tabitha salaams, thanks the populace for the correction, and hopes Adelaide will be duly grateful.”
The Critic 13 March 1907  -  “Miss Clytie Hine, who first learned to chirp in Adelaide, has taken a scholarship in Marshall Hall’s nightingale factory.  She is goodly to look upon, even when singing.  Few girls are.  Once more Tortoise Town has scored.  “By Clytie!” as the Chinaman would say.  Miss Clytie Hine is a pupil of Professor Bevan and it is a feather in the cap of the Elder Conservatorium that the prize has fallen to her.  Also she was one of the youngest of the competitors.  Miss Hine has declined the scholarship, as she wishes to continue her course at the Elder Conservatorium.”
The Gadfly 17 April 1907  -  “Miss Clytie Hine visits Melbourne again shortly to give a vocal recital.  This young lady, who, the other day, annexed a scholarship at Marshall Hall’s Melbourne Conservatorium, is not availing herself thereof, but prefers to continue under her teacher at the Adelaide Conservatorium.”
The Gadfly 1 May 1907  -  The Misses Holder were “among the musical folk who rushed to the recital of that clever damsel, Miss Carlien Jurs”, in the banqueting room of the Town Hall last week.
The Critic 8 May 1907  -  “The first Conservatorium concert this season was held on Monday evening, and the Elder Hall was well filled.  His Excellency the Governor was present. ...... Miss Clytie Hine gave a pretty and unaffected interpretation of “Elizabeth’s Prayer” from Wagner’s Tannhauser.”
The Gadfly 22 May 1907  -  “At ‘Tannhauser’ on Friday night, I noticed ...... Miss Kathleen Holder.”
The Gadfly 22 May 1907  -  “Two youthful Adelaide musical folk, Misses Clytie Hine and Muriel Mattinson, go to Melbourne shortly to give a recital.  Miss Muriel Mattinson, a young Conservatorium pianist, will give a recital in the Semaphore Town Hall this evening (22nd).  She is to be assisted by Misses Mary Roach (fiddler), and Clytie Hine (warbler), and Mr Arthur Williamson (accompanist), all from the Conservatorium fold.”
The Gadfly 22 May 1907  -  “Some prominent gallery patrons who, during the opera season at the Theatre Royal in the past week, have been frantically waving to friends and relatives in the circle and stalls:- ...... Mr Williamson.”
The Critic 29 May 1907  -  “Miss Clytie Hine, of the Elder Conservatorium, is giving a recital in Melbourne on June 5th.  She will be assisted by Miss Muriel Mattinson, whilst Miss Violet Parkinson will act as accompanist.  The Adelaide soprano is described in the Melbourne press as having “already reached the top of the profession in Adelaide”.  This is rather extravagant praise, but Miss Clytie Hine has certainly a remarkably fine and coruscating voice.  Her singing leaves one refreshed; there is no suggestion of monotony.  Recently she captured a scholarship at Marshall Hall’s Conservatorium against all comers.”
The Critic 19 June 1907  -  “ The Victoria Hall was crowded with a large and appreciative audience on Thursday evening, when the Adelaide Glee Club gave their first subscription concert of the season. ...... Miss Clytie Hine, who recently returned from Melbourne, was the only lady vocalist.  Her charming soprano voice was displayed to advantage in the two bracketed numbers “In Enchantment” (Reginald Bevan), and “O My Love’s Like a Red, Red Rose” (Arthur Williamson).  Her first two songs, Scarlatti’s “Le Violette” and Purcell’s “Nymphs and Shepherd” did not offer so much opportunity, but were loudly applauded. ...... Mr Arthur B Williamson (the club’s accompanist) in addition to accompanying the singers, played two bracketed numbers, Schumann’s “Nacht Stuck” and “Romance”.”
The Gadfly 19 June 1907  -  “Misses Muriel Mattinson, Clytie Hine, and Violet Parkinson, of the Elder Conservatorium, returned from Melbourne town last week.”
The Gadfly 19 June 1907  -  “At the Conservatorium Orchestral Concert last week were ...... Miss Holder ...... .”
The Critic 26 June 1907  -  “ A large audience, which included Lady Le Hunte and party, was present at the Conservatorium on Monday evening when the first staff concert was given. ...... Mr Arthur Williamson was an efficient accompanist.”
The Gadfly 3 July 1907  -  “At the Lyric Club on Wednesday evening (26th) were ...... Misses Holder, Mrs F Holder ...... .”
Quiz 26 July 1907  -  “At the meeting of the Adelaide Branch [of the ANA] on Monday evening, Mr S J Jacobs delivered a stirring and patriotic address, for which he received a hearty vote of thanks.  The music for the vocal part of the programme was supplied by Mr A B Williamson.”
The Gadfly 14 August 1907  -  “Any lingering doubts which may have remained in the minds of musical Adelaideans as to the late Sir Arthur Sullivan’s worthiness to be ranked as one of the world’s great composers (apart from his series of comic operas) must have been dispelled by the first performance in SA, on Monday night last, in the Elder Hall, of the sacred musical drama “The Martyr of Antioch”, by the University Choral Class and Conservatorium Orchestra, under the conductorship of Frederick Bevan.  This beautiful work is of large proportions, abounding in melody, fully scored for chorus, orchestra, and organ, and is one in which the interest increases as the performance proceeds.  On Monday night everything went with a swing, and congratulations should be handed out all round. ...... Misses Clytie Hine and Muriel Cheek shared with Miss Ridings the soprano solos, and achieved distinction in all. ...... The organ interlude was played ‘Andante religioso’ by Arthur Williamson, who attended to the organ parts.”
The Critic 14 August 1907  -  “The annual concert by the Choral Class of the Elder Conservatorium was responsible for a large audience at the Elder Hall on Monday night; Lady Le Hunte was present.  Sullivan’s dramatic cantata [“The Martyr of Antioch”] was produced for the first time in this State, although some of its numbers are familiar. ...... Miss Clytie Hine sang “To Yonder Orb”, and “For Thou Did’st Die” with taste and expression. ...... Mr Arthur Williamson presided at the organ.”
The Gadfly 28 August 1907  -  “Mr and Mrs T H Jones entertained a number of friends at an ‘at home’ [at ‘Palm View’, South Terrace] on Monday afternoon, 26th, to meet Miss Elsie Jones [their daughter, a singer who had recently returned home after five years’ study and touring].  The guests were received in the drawing room, where a delightful programme of sweet melodies was provided by ...... Miss Hine, Mr Holder ...... .  Afternoon tea was served in the dining room, the tables being decorated with very gorgeous pink roses.  Among the guests were Mr and Mrs Holder, ...... Miss Clytie Hine, Mr Arthur Williamson.”
The Critic 28 August 1907  -  “Mrs T H Jones gave an enjoyable musical “At Home”  for her friends to meet her daughter, Miss Elsie Jones, on Monday afternoon at her residence, “Palm View”, South Terrace.  An excellent vocal and musical programme was rendered by ...... Miss Hine ...... and Mr Holder, vocalists.”
The Gadfly 9 October 1907  -  “A large and enthusiastic multitude dashed to the Lyric Club for Mr Bevan’s evening last week, and was duly rewarded by an excellent collection of sweet noises. ...... Mr Bevan unearthed three of his star pupils of the soprano gender - Misses Doris Wylie, Clytie Hine and Muriel Cheek - who gathered in all the adjacent laurels and applause.”
The Critic 9 October 1907  -  “Music - There was an overflowing attendance at the Lyric Club on Wednesday evening when an extremely enjoyable programme was given under the management of Professor Bevan, entitled “An evening with Sir Henry Bishop”. ......  Miss Clytie Hine won well-merited applause for her rendering of “Tell Me, My Heart”. ...... Among the crowded audience were ..... Mrs W Hall Henderson, Mrs Frank Magarey.”
The Critic 16 October 1907  -  “There was a very good attendance at the Elder Conservatorium on Monday evening when the Ladies Part-Singing Class performed under the management of Miss Guli Hack. ...... Mr Williamson officiated at the organ with good results.”
The Critic 20 November 1907  -  “On Monday evening a large audience were present when the string section of the Elder Conservatorium gave a concert under the capable baton of Herr Heinecke. ...... Mr A Williamson officiated at the organ.”
The Critic 4 December 1907  -  “Music - The Elder Hall was crowded on Monday evening with a large attendance of admiring friends and relations of pupils in addition to the usual music lovers, the combined attraction being the last concert of the season and distribution of diplomas and prizes. ...... Miss Dora Wylie sang the soprano solo “Hear My Prayer”, melodiously given with chorus.  The organ accompaniment was supplied by Mr Arthur B Williamson.  Miss Daisy Kennedy gave the finale from Bruch’s “Concerto in G minor” with much brilliancy.  Her violin was Mr Shrobree’s Leonora No 9, an Adelaide manufacture. ...... Mr Arthur Williamson brought the programme to a close with Lemare’s “Charming Reverie”, which was delightfully executed.  Lady Way presented the prizes and diplomas won during the year.”
The Gadfly 4 December 1907  -  “There was a goodly gathering at the Adelaide Glee Club’s shivoo on November 27. ...... The club glee-ed with frantic joy in several pretty and tricky items. ...... Mr Arthur Williamson, an accompanist, deserves several kind words.”
The Critic 4 December 1907  -  “A crowded audience enjoyed the second concert given by the Adelaide Glee Club this season.  The programme was an interesting one, the items for the most part being old English airs, the whole affair printed in “ye olde” style.  The club of about 30 members rendered some very excellent part-singing. ...... Mr Arthur B Williamson acted as accompanist.”
Annual Business Meeting of the Adelaide Glee Club 5 February 1908 - Secretary’s Report for 1907  -  “The number of members on the roll at the end of the year 1906 was 50, 22 resigned or were struck off, and 14 new members were admitted, leaving the total on the roll at the end of the year at 42.  Forty-six rehearsals were held, the average attendance being 20 as compared with 25 the previous year.  The Club performed at five concerts, viz
4 June - YMCA Anniversary, Exhibition Building
13 June - First Subscribers’ Concert, Victoria Hall
21 August - Women’s Work Exhibition, Exhibition Building
28 August - Smoke Concert, South Australian Hotel
27 November - Second Subscribers’ Concert, Victoria Hall
The average attendance was 29 as against 35 during the year 1906. ...... The Club is indeed fortunate in possessing so excellent a pianist as Mr Arthur Williamson.  Mr Williamson’s performances as a soloist and accompanist are quite a feature of our concerts, and his unassuming manner has made him a great favourite with the members.”  Arthur Williamson attended 3 committee meetings out of a possible 9.
Adelaide Advertiser 27 April 1908  -  “The University of Adelaide – A meeting of the council was held on Friday.  Present :- The Vice-Chancellor, Hon G Brookman, Mr Fowler, Sir Charles Todd, Professor Bragg, Mr Williams, Mr G J R Murray, Professor Mitchell, Mr S T Smith, Dy Stirling, Dt Hayward and Professor Ennis. …… On the recommendation of the examiner [Professor Ennis] the council awarded the Elder scholarship for composition to Arthur Burton Williamson.”
The Critic 20 May 1908  -  “Conservatorium Concert - An appreciative audience attended the Elder Hall on Monday evening for an orchestral concert under the leadership of Herr Heinecke.  His Excellency the Governor and Lady Le Hunte were present. ...... Vocal items by Miss Clytie Hine and Miss Ivy Jones, ...... the former charmed the audience by her brilliant rendering of Meyerbeer’s “Roberto tro che adoro”.  Both were encored, and had to return and acknowledge the applause.”
The Critic 1 July 1908  -  “Mrs J P Stevens and Miss J Eitzen gave a delightful “at home” at the Exhibition Rink on Tuesday afternoon.  The invitation card admitted you and another ticket for [roller] skates was handed to you on entrance.  Only a few of the guests skated, the others preferring to watch the whirling throng. ...... The guests who regarded discretion as the better part of valour, at any rate when they had their best bib and tucker on, were ...... Miss Clytie Hine.”
The Critic 12 August 1908  -  “Conservatorium Concert - The Choral University Class under Mr F Bevan is always a favourite with the Conservatorium audiences and a crowded attendance filled the Elder Hall on Monday evening.  Lady Le Hunte was present with a party from Government House. ...... Handel’s “Jephtha”, in which the solo parts were sung by Misses Olive Bassnett, Ethel Ridings, Clytie Hine, Muriel Cheek and Messrs Harold Savage and J M Wilkinson, seemed to be thoroughly enjoyed by those present, and applause was frequent.  The final chorus fairly brought down the house and both vocalists and orchestra are to be complimented on their united efforts. ...... The second part of the programme was Mendelssohn’s “Hymn of Praise”.  Miss Doris Wylie and Miss Hine were equally successful in their duet “I waited for the Lord”, and Miss Hine and Mr Walter Wood in “My song shall always be thy mercy”. ......  Mr A Williamson acted as organist.”
The Gadfly 12 August 1908  -  “Bryceson Trehearne, master of piano hammering at Adelaide Conservatorium, is an energetic maestro, who isn’t afraid of doing more for his students than lies within the exact letter of his salary.  Of his own accord he has formed a recital class and a musical literature society among his advanced pupils, and if all the young Paderewskis and Carrenos in embryo don’t attain to the higher culture it won’t be his fault.”
The Gadfly 2 September 1908  -  Mark Hambourg gave piano recitals in Adelaide.
The Gadfly 2 September 1908  -  “Daisy Kennedy, the Adelaide fiddler girl, is being greatly congratulated by a sheaf of chums on the high praise hurled at her bronze head by Kubelik.  ‘Tis said the maiden will have a farewell concert shortly, and then depart to Germany.”
The Gadfly 9 September 1908  -  “A frilly crowd braved the wild, bleak wind on Thursday evening in the firm determination to be present at the burst of melody at the Elder Hall, which burst had been specially prepared for the purpose of gathering in the wily shilling and fearfully elusive half-crown to swell the funds of the ‘Varsity Sports Association.  Dr Ennis took the programme under a protective wing, and unearthed sundry Conservatoire damsels to exercise the top q’s and low z’s, and manipulate meowsical instruments for the entertainment of the throng.  His Ex. and Lady Le Hunte, Lady Way, and a fashionable crowd were present, and ...... Clytie Hine, Daisy Kennedy ...... were among the melodious people they applauded.”
The Critic 9 September 1908  -  “The Elder Hall was crowded on Thursday evening when a concert was given by the University Sports Association, under the patronage of His Excellency the Governor and Lady Le Hunte, both being present. ...... The programme was as follows :- Bishop’s Serenade “O by Rivers”, the Misses Ridings, Clytie Hine and Basnett and Messrs H Savage and Wilkinson, beautifully rendered; ...... delightful violin solo by Miss Daisy Kennedy; ...... Miss Kennedy contributed two more violin solos, “Nocturus” (Chopin Sarasate) and Vieuxtemp’s “Polonaise”; ...... Miss Clytie Hine gave a pretty rendition of Meyerbeer’s “Roberto o tu che adoro”; ...... Miss Clytie Hine and Mr Alexander Cooper were responsible for a charming duet “It was a Lover and his Lass”.”
The Critic 7 October 1908  -  “The Sullivan Lecture - Mr Bevan’s final “Arthur Sullivan” lecture at the University was highly successful, although illness and family bereavements had diminished the number of students helping in the musical illustrations.  Those still available were Misses ...... Clytie Hine.  The evening, as on the former occasions, took the shape of an informal concert with equally informal connecting remarks by Mr Bevan.  The lecturer knew Sullivan well, and dropped a dark hint that he himself came very near being the original singer of the captain’s part in “HMS Pinafore”.  The audience included Mrs Hall Henderson.”
The Critic 14 October 1908  -  “The Elder Conservatorium was crowded on Monday evening when Miss Hack’s Choral Class gave their concert under the fair lady’s leadership. ...... The orchestra was under the management of Miss N Kyffin Thomas, Miss C Jurs,  pianiste, and Mr A Williamson, organist.”
The Gadfly 14 October 1908  -  “Miss Clytie Hine is leaving for England shortly.”
The Gadfly 25 November 1908  -  “The last evening of the Lyric Club season ...... on Saturday night drew a big attendance. ...... Daisy Kennedy gave up a picnic in order to bring her fiddle along and play for the last time in South Australia.  She was given a big bout of applause and good wishes in consequence.”
The Gadfly 2 December 1908  -  “Miss Clytie Hine leaves for England in March.  The Misses Kennedy leave for Germany this week.”
The Gadfly 2 December 1908  -  “Miss Clytie Hine and Mr Arthur Williamson are collaborating in a song and organ recital in the Elder Hall on December 7th.”
The Critic 2 December 1908  -  “A very good audience assembled at the Lady Colton  Hall on Saturday night, when a complimentary concert was tendered to Miss Ethel Sever, a clever little violinist of only 16.  Owing to both the pedals being broken in moving the piano Mr Gordon Short was unable to give his solo, and it was a handicap to Miss Sever’s numbers.  Miss Clytie Hine gave some charming solos, Schumann’s “Ich grolle nicht”. Purcell’s “Nymphs and Shepherds”, and an air from Sullivan’s “Rose of Persia”.  She also rendered an enjoyable duet with Mr Walter Wood, “‘Twas a Lover and his Lass”.  Miss Mary Rosman and Mr Arthur Williamson acted as accompanists.  The hall was prettily decorated with fern, the front of the stage banked with potplants.”
The Gadfly 2 December 1908  -  “Clytie Hine, who gained the distinction of coming a very good second in the examination [for the Elder Scholarship, won by Clara Kleinschmidt], is also a singer-maiden, and a graceful and tuneful one, whose pretty warble has been at the service of many a philanthropic movement.  She will depart for Fog-town and its extra special study in a few months.”
The Gadfly 9 December 1908  -  “In the Elder Hall on Monday night Clytie Hine AMUA and Arthur Williamson, also AMUA, entertained the populace at a vocal and organ recital of very tuneful dimensions.  The young singer’s beautiful soprano voice was raised aloft in a number of melodious ballads and classic ditties, one of her best being Brahms’ ‘O That I Might Retrace the Way’, which she sang with great taste and sympathy.  Perhaps the most successful item of all was a dainty and dramatic little song, ‘The Blue Flame’, composed by Mr Williamson.  The programme contained four songs of this clever young Adelaide composer, all very tuneful and out of the ordinary run.  On the organ he acquitted himself valiantly, and managed to get much tone and melody out of the large instrument.  His Bach Prelude and Fugue in C was one of his best numbers, though the ‘Priere et Berceuse’ proved most popular.  It was played with great delicacy of tone.”
The Critic 9 December 1908  -  “Miss Clara Serena Kleinschmidt will be tendered a grand complimentary concert on Saturday next, December 12th.  The concert is under vice-regal and civic patronage, and a fine programme has been arranged, contributing artists being Misses Guli Hack, Ethel Cooper and Clytie Hine, and Messrs R Nitschke and Eugene Alderman.  Miss Kleinschmidt was recently awarded the Elder Scholarship at Trinity (London) College of Music, and will leave shortly to begin work.”
The Gadfly 16 December 1908  -  “At the concert given by Clara Kleinschmidt last Saturday, Clytie Hine lifted her beauteously sweet soprano for the girl who won the scholarship from her, and had a splendid reception. ...... Arthur Williamson shared accompanying honours.”  In England Clara Kleinschmidt took the stage name of Clara Serena, and achieved considerable success.  She was a constant guest artist at Covent Garden, performed with world-renowned orchestras under the batons of Beecham, Barbirolli, Boult, Sargent and Goosens, and had 15 Royal Command performances.  Later in life she returned to Adelaide, dying at Aldersgate Retirement Home.
The Critic 16 December 1908  - ‘The Kleinschmidt Concert - A genuine pleasure and sweet surprise awaited those who filled the Town Hall on Saturday evening on the ocasion of the complimentary concert tendered Miss Clara Kleinschmidt. ...... On Saturday night a large number of her German compatriots from the hills country were present, and naturally waxed enthusiastic. ...... The assisting artists combined to produce an excellent result.  Miss Clytie Hine AMUA (proxime accessit for the scholarship awarded to Miss Kleinschmidt) displayed her sweet flexible soprano voice at its best.  She probably never sang better than in the “Roberto” air from Meyerbeer’s “Roberto il diavolo”, and “L’ete” (Chaminade).  Each had to be supplemented.  Mr Arthur Williamson played her accompaniments.”
The Gadfly 23 December 1908  -  “Miss Clytie Hine is contemplating a trip to Melbourne next month.”
The Gadfly 3 February 1909  -  “Miss Clytie Hine expects to leave for England at the beginning of April.”
Annual Business Meeting of the Adelaide Glee Club 3 February 1909 - Secretary’s Report for 1908  -  “The Club performed at eight concerts, viz
13 June - First Subscribers’ Concert, Victoria Hall
23 July - Manthorpe Memorial Church Concert, Unley City Hall
13 August - Annual Smoke Concert, South Australian Hotel
26 August - East Parade Methodist Sunday School Concert, Norwood Town Hall
16 September - Grand Concert to celebrate the jubilee of the Adelaide Liedertafel, Exhibition Hall
17 September - Grand Smoke Social to celebrate the jubilee of the Adelaide Liedertafel, Exhibition Hall
22 September - Salvation Army Fair, Salvation Army Citadel
8 December - Second Subscribers’ Concert, Victoria Hall
The average attendance at the concerts was 41, as compared with 29 during the year 1907.  At the close of the year there was a total of 61 members on the books. ...... An officer who would be hard to replace is our excellent deputy conductor and pianist.  He has the Club’s interests at heart, and by his unassuming manner has endeared himself to us all.  Unfortunately Mr Williamson’s studies have prevented him from attending the rehearsals as often as he would desire, but at the concerts his playing was a feature of the programme.”
The Critic 31 March 1909  -  “Miss Clytie Hine is a passenger for London by the Malwa.”
The Critic 26 May 1909  -  ‘The Adelaide Glee Club’s concert at the Victoria Hall last Thursday was a splendid success.  The items rendered were all operatic, and some old favourites were resurrected. ...... Items were tendered by ...... Arthur Williamson.”
The Critic 16 June 1909  -  “The engagement is announced of Miss Guli Hack, eldest daughter of Mr Charles Hack, of Hackney, to Mr W A [William Ashley] Magarey of East Terrace.”
The Critic 19 January 1910  -  “Miss Guli Hack has resigned her position at the Conservatorium owing to her approaching marriage.”

    Trip to London

    Clytie Hine sailed from Adelaide on Thursday 1st April 1909, on the P&O steamer RMS Malwa, for London via Fremantle, Colombo, Aden, Brindisi and Marseilles, for an advanced course of study at the Royal College of Music.  The Register noted:-  “The P&O liner Malwa - the latest addition to the fine fleet of this company - arrived at the Outer Harbour on her first homeward trip at 7 o’clock on Thursday morning.  There was a large booking of passengers in the eastern States and the number was further augmented here.  The total on board when the steamer left was 470, of whom 57 joined at the Outer Harbour.  Included in the South Australian cargo were 1332 cases of apples for London.  The steamer resumed the voyage in the evening.”  Arthur followed on the P&O steamer RMS Mooltan (4828 tons, Captain G C Henning, RNR) on his birthday, Thursday 10th June 1909, following the same route.  It is believed that they were originally booked on the Waratah, which was lost without trace off the South African coast in July 1909, but changed their plans to take ships which sailed through the Suez Canal and the Mediterranean. It must have been fashionable to make the trip to England, as only weeks before, on 21st May, Mr and Mrs Percy Grainger had left for London on the NDL steamer Seydlitz, and on the same ship, bound for Bremen, was Martha Bruggemann, another pupil from the Conservatorium.

    The couple stayed in St Mary’s Road, Highbury (or Canonbury) in North London, Arthur in No 28, and Clytie in No 39.  Photos of Arthur at this time show a darkly handsome young man with wide eyes and masses of curly brown hair.  He was a tall, spare man who always dressed well, held himself erect, and walked briskly.

    The pair travelled around England, possibly Ireland, and the Continent.  Arthur took many fine photographs which have survived, but which are mostly undocumented.  He developed and printed these photos himself, and their clarity and detail is exceptional.  These photos were taken on glass slides, of which only one seems to have survived.  One tiny photo shows a young lady in Edwardian dress, standing in a London garden, who may be Clytie Hine.  He also collected postcards, of which I have a great number.  From these it is possible to deduce the spots at which their ship called during the voyage,  including Ceylon, Bombay, Port Said, Naples, Marseilles and Gibraltar.  There are of course many cards showing views of London streets and buildings, and many of other country towns such as Woolwich, Litchfield, Bath, Stratford-on-Avon, Arundel, St Alban’s, Oxford and Cambridge, Salisbury, Canterbury, York, Chester, Waltham Cross, Brighton, Folkestone, Hythe, Edinburgh, Glasgow, Torquay and Derwentwater.

      One card shows views of Matlock, the possible home of Arthur’s grandmother, and another series shows the nearby Haddon Hall.  One shows a street scene in Derby, and two give views of Little Eaton, a town a few miles north of Derby, and the birthplace of Arthur’s maternal grandmother.  Only a few cards were posted home to 34 West Terrace, Adelaide, with brief inscriptions.  These mostly show the area of London where they were staying, or where they went to church.  One postcard thanked his father for the photos which he considered “a very good likeness of you”, and which he would “take to Derby when I go again”.  The postcards from England are dated between 6th August 1909 and 20th April 1910, and one was sent from Brussels on 26th March 1910.  There is a series of cards from Brussels, Antwerp, Bruges, Waterloo, Ostend and Paris.  Mementos of this trip are a number of farthings, halfpennies and pennies dating from the late 1800’s to the early 1900’s, and a few Belgian coins of the same era.

    Autographs from Arthur’s time in London include Thomas F Dunhill (9th March 1910), C Hubert Parry (Professor of Music at Oxford 1900, died 1918), Constance L Gibbs (23rd August 1909), Alfred Lussignea, and C V Stanford (Professor of Music at Cambridge 1887, died 1924).  (The Critic of 11 December 1912 reported that Brewster Jones, a young Adelaide pianist who won the Elder Scholarship and attended the Royal College of Music about the same time as Arthur Williamson, “studied the piano for three years under Mr Franklin Taylor, composition lessons being given him by Sir Charles Villiers Stanford, whilst Sir Frederick Bridge tutored him in counterpoint.  Mr George Clutson, the wellknown songwriter, also schooled him in composition.”)

The Critic 6 July 1910  -  “Following are extracts of a letter from Miss Martha Bruggemann, on her first concert, to a friend in Adelaide :  “I had a brilliant success on my first ballad concert in London .  Our concert last night was great.  My voice was as clear as a bell; got my top C and C sharp splendidly.  I got a great reception for my first four numbers, the clapping was tremendous.  I went back and bowed several times, but eventually had to sing an encore, after which I had two beautiful bouquets sent up, one from the committee and secretary of the guild; the other had no name on it, but later I was told it was from Mrs Henniker Heaton. ...... Mesdames Ada Crossley and Amy Sherwin were present. ...... Clytie Hine and Arthur Williamson were also in the audience.”

    Arthur returned to Adelaide on RMS Malwa, boarding at Marseilles and arriving in Adelaide on Saturday 1st October 1910, having experienced favourable conditions throughout the voyage.  Clytie remained in London, and her birthday present to him in 1912 was two slim books on the sights of London.  Her last present to him, for his 1913 birthday, was a handsome volume of the Poems of Walt Whitman, a sentimental choice.  In February 1912 Arthur told the members of the Adelaide Glee Club that it was his intention to return to England for an indefinite period at an early date, but evidently nothing came of this.  My father remembers an LP recording of Elgar’s “Starlight Express”, the cover notes of which stated that Lady Elgar had auditioned singers for the work, including a Clytie Hine, who had “such a beautiful voice”.  Roy Williamson met her in London several times during World War I.  Further details of her later life are given at the end of this Chapter.  She never returned to Australia.

The "Malwa" was built in 1908 by Caird & Co, Greenock for the Peninsular & Oriental Steam Navigation Co (P&O Line).  She was a 10,883 gross ton ship, length 562ft x beam 61.2ft x depth 24.6ft, two funnels, two masts and twin screw.  There was passenger accommodation for 407-1st class and 200-2nd class.  Launched on October 10th 1908, she sailed from Tilbury on her maiden voyage for Columbo, Melbourne and Sydney on January 29th 1909.  In 1910 she was in collision with the British steamer "Nairn" off Colombo, and in 1917 was requisitioned for use as a troopship.  She resumed the Australia service on September 24th 1920 and continued on this route until December 16th 1932 when she was sold for breaking up in Japan.

    Life in Adelaide (continued)

Annual Business Meeting of the Adelaide Glee Club 26 January 1910 - Secretary’s Report for 1909  -  “The Club met on 43 occasions for rehearsals, the average attendance being 37.  At concerts the average attendance was 43, as compared with 41 during last season.  The membership increased from 61 at the beginning of the year to 71 at the conclusion.  Three subscribers’ concerts were given as usual, the first took the form of an operatic concert, and was given in the Victoria Hall on 20 May before a crowded and enthusiastic audience.  In addition to the Club’s members, Miss Martha Bruggemann performed with conspicuous ability.  The Club achieved a great success on this occasion. ...... the Club also carried out or assisted at the following.  Other functions held were :
3 March - Continental at Woodville in aid of Messina Eartquake Fund
6 May - Benefit Concert for Miss Bruggemann
Our deputy conductor and pianist left for a trip to England on June 10, and the Club has been deprived of his valuable services since then.  He performed with brilliant ability at the op con.  We all, I am sure, wish you a very enjoyable and profitable trip, and will be glad to welcome him home at any time.”  Arthur Williamson AMUA was re-elected Deputy Conductor and Accompanist in his absence.  The Committee meetings of the Glee Club were held in Mr H R Holder’s rooms, Gawler Place, between 16 November 1910 and 8 February 1911.
The Critic 23 November 1910  -  “There was a fair attendance at the Lyric Club on Wednesday evening, when Mr Wanborough Fisher was responsible for the programme, which was devoted to original compositions for the encouragement of local talent. ...... Mr Gordon Short contributed two pianoforte selections - Romanze and Capriccio - both the composition of Mr Arthur Williamson.”
Annual Business Meeting of the Adelaide Glee Club 25 January 1911 - Secretary’s Report for 1910  -  “Towards the end of the year our talented deputy conductor and pianist (Mr A B Williamson) returned from his trip to England, and we were glad to give him a hearty welcome home.  Mr Williamson acted as accompanist at the operatic concert, and shared the honour with Mr L Coombe at the Smoke Social, and carried out his duties in his customary efficient manner. ...... The second subscribers’ concert was given on December 1, and took the form of an operatic concert, and the space of the Adelaide Town Hall was severely taxed. ...... The smoke concert was held at Miss Martin’s Cafe on Dec 21, and a splendid programme was carried out by the Club.”  Arthur Williamson was elected honorary conductor of the Club.
Annual Business Meeting of the Adelaide Glee Club 7 February 1912 - Secretary’s Report for 1911  -  “The Club gave or took part in the following concerts :
16 June - United Labour Party Concert, Norwood Town Hall
21 June - Acting Mayor’s Coronation Reception, Exhibition Building
6 July - Subscribers’ Concert, Exhibition Building
30 August - Annual Smoke Concert, South Australian Hotel
30 November - Subscribers’ Concert, Adelaide Town Hall
16 December - Henley on Torrens Concert, River Torrens
Unfortunately paid engagements were scarce last season, the only revenue from that source being obtained from the United Labour Party’s concert on June 16.  The same difficulty as last year affronted the committee with respect to the engagement of the Town Hall, and it was not until November 30 that it could be secured for a concert.  The fact that the weather was particularly oppressive on that and several preceding evenings, and quite unsuitable for indoor entertainments, and further on account of the Adelaide Bach Society and Adelaide Orpheus Society having given concerts on the two evenings previous in the same hall, militated greatly against the Club, and the takings at the door and for sale of tickets suffered in consequence.  The first subscribers’ concert was given by the Club and orchestra in the Exhibition Building to a large and enthusiastic audience.  An attractive programme was arranged and carried out in a manner that did credit to all concerned, despite the fact that the hall is far from perfect for concerts such as the Club gives.  The second concert was given in the Town Hall, and notwithstanding the difficulties the Club laboured under on account of the heat, the programme gave the audience a large amount of pleasure, and many of our patrons voted it the Club’s best effort.  The music rendered by the Club on this occasion was of a much higher class than that attempted previously.  The smoke concert passed off very satisfactorily, the interest of the large audience being maintained throughout. ...... The Club met for rehearsal in Mr Holder’s room in Gawler Place for the first part of the year, but the room was far from comfortable in the hot weather. ...... The Club was particularly fortunate in securing the services of Mr Arthur Williamson as conductor.  Mr Williamson had had practically no experience in conducting a male choir previously, and a large amount of persuasion was needed to induce him to accept the position.  However it was only his natural modesty that caused his delay in acceding to the unanimous wish of the members, and after a year’s work I can without fear of contradiction assert that he has shown such marked ability and thorough knowledge of his work as to predict a brilliant future in his profession.  Under his skilful conductorship the Club is sure to flourish.”  The Minutes of this meeting record that “Prior to allowing himself to be re-elected as conductor, Mr Williamson mentioned that it is his present intention to go to England for an indefinite period, and probably would be leaving Australia at an early date. ...... Mr Anderson, on behalf of the members, spoke of the valuable services Mr Williamson had rendered the Club as conductor during the past twelve months, and requested the President to hand over to Mr Williamson the sum of £10, which had been subscribed by the members and three of our hon officers, Messrs Sowden, Threlfall and Morris.  In making the presentation, the President referred to the high qualities of Mr Williamson as a conductor, and to the esteem in which he is regarded by the members.  He stated that the value of the present was not compensation for the services rendered, but a slight recognition of the esteem the members have for him, and he hoped he would accept it in the spirit in which it is proffered.  Mr Williamson stated that the members had sprung a surprise on him, and he did not think a special call on the members should have been made for the purpose.  He thanked the members for the gift, and stated that he had enjoyed his work, and if he went away would regret very much having to sever his connection with the Club.”
The Critic 19 June 1912  -  “The Adelaide Glee Club, assisted by Miss May Forsaith, gave a most enjoyable concert in the Unley Town Hall last Thursday evening.  Despite the wet night, there was a large and appreciative audience, and the programme rendered was a distinctly capital one.  The conductor, Mr Arthur B Williamson, is to be highly complimented on the chorus work, especially in Haydn’s “Maiden fair, O deign to tell”, and “I’m a Viking bold” (Chadwick). ...... Mr G T Short contributed two solos, “Romance in E flat” and “Caprice in D”, both the compositions of Mr Arthur Williamson.”
The Critic 24 July 1912  -  “Farewell Concert - All the musical folk of Adelaide were present in the Victoria Hall on Saturday night, when that popular and talented young pianist Mr Gordon Short made his last appearance at a complimentary concert tendered to him prior to his departure for Europe to continue his musical studies.  The manager (Mr A J Chapman) had a difficulty in making a selection; so many artists offered their services. ...... The Adelaide Glee Club (conductor Mr Arthur Williamson) gave an effective rendering of “Farewell thou lovely forest glade” (Abt) and “The bandit” (Verdi).”
The Critic 11 September 1912  -  “The Henley Beach “Papillion” dance was carried out with great success on Saturday August 31st.  Among those present :-  Misses ...... K and B Holder, white satin; K Joyce, white satin with black lace overdress; Williamson, pink satin; ...... Messrs ...... A Williamson.”
The Critic 23 October 1912  -  “Mr and Mrs Frederick Bevan are prolonging their stay at Del Monte Palace, Henley Beach, until the end of the month.  On Saturday, Mr Bevan, who is never so happy as when entertaining his Conservatorium pupils, brought a party of them down in the afternoon, and they stayed to tea and returned to town in the evening in charge of Mr Arthur Williamson.”
The Critic 29 January 1913  -  “Wedding - We have seen many military and “pink” weddings in Adelaide, but the first naval marriage was celebrated at the North Adelaide Congregational Church on Saturday afternoon, when Miss Gertrude Kidman, eldest daughter of Mr Sidney Kidman of Kapunda, was married to Lieutenant Nelson Clover RN, of HMS Protector, son of Mr Matthew Clover, Chester, England.  The church was very extensively decorated with fern and white blossoms, arranged in festoons and arches.  A floral wedding bell was suspended over the bridal party.  The Kapunda minister (Rev A G Fry) officiated, and Mr A Williamson, who presided at the organ, played “Benedicte Nuptiale” (Hollins), “Spring Song” (Hollins), Mendelssohn’s “Wedding March” and “The voice that breathed o’er Eden”. ”
Annual Business Meeting of the Adelaide Glee Club 5 February 1913 - Secretary’s Report for 1912  -  “Twenty Eighth Annual Report - It is with regret that the committee is compelled to admit that the season has not been the success that it should have been.  The cause was the irregularity of a large number of members at rehearsals.  Although the singing at the concerts was on the whole good, the effect of the irregularity of members was felt in the more difficult and newer music.  The members are urged to work with greater diligence and enthusiasm during the coming season.
Concerts - Two Subscription Concerts and two Smoke Concerts were given by the Club, and the Club also took part in the complimentary concert give to Mr Gordon T Short prior to his departure to Europe.  All these functions were attended by large audiences.  The first concert took place in the Unley Town Hall on June 13.  Miss May Forsaith was the lady vocalist, and delighted the audience with her efforts.  The Club vocalists were Messrs W J Trezona, S B Harvey and H J Heinemann, the latter filling the place of Mr G F May, who was indisposed. ...... The balance of the programme was made up of masterly pianoforte solos by Mr Gordon Short (who performed two clever writings from the pen of Mr Arthur Williamson, our esteemed conductor), and choruses by the Club which were well received.
The second concert was given in the Adelaide Town Hall on November 4.  On this occasion the Club soloists were Messrs H Pomeroy and H J Heinemann. ...... Miss Katie Joyce was in good voice, and rendered excellent service, and Mr Fritz Homburg’s violoncello solos were by no means the least acceptable items.
The principal event of the year was the Smoke Social, given by the President (Mr W J Sowden), at the Aurora Banquet Hall.  On this occasion a splendid musical and elocutionary item was interspersed with excellent speeches.  The toast of the evening, that of “Music, associated with the Adelaide Glee Club”, was proposed by Dr L D Bevan, and that venerable gentleman dealt with the toast in a masterly fashion, and treated his hearers to a magnificent oration.  Mr Williamson responded on behalf of the Club, and gave evidence that music is not his only forte.
The members rolled up in good numbers at the Victoria Hall on July 20 to do honour to their pianist by assisting at his complimentary concert, and the two items rendered were given in the Club’s best style.
The Club finished the 1912 season with the Subscribers’ Smoke Concert which was given at the South Australian Hotel on December 18.
Membership - The number of members on the roll is 62, as against 72 last year.  The average attendance at rehearsals was 30, and at concerts 42.
Conductor - Mr Arthur Williamson has shown marked ability as conductor, and has put a lot of vigor into his work.  The previous year’s experience with the baton has given him confidence, and the Club should perform splendid work under his direction in the future.  In conclusion the committee desire to impress upon the members the importance of punctuality and regular attendance, and requests them to put forth a special effort to make the forthcoming season the most successful in the Club’s long career.
It was proposed that a very hearty vote of thanks be accorded the executive officers, and especially eulogised the excellent work executed by Mr Williamson during the year 1912.  Mr Williamson responded on behalf of the executive officers.”
Arthur Williamson attended 39 of a maximum 44 rehearsals, and 5 out of 5 concerts.
The Critic 12 February 1913  -  “The Adelaide Glee Club, at its annual meeting on Wednesday evening, elected Mr W J Sowden for the third year in succession as its President, and Mr A H G Edwards as Hon Secretary for the ninth time.  The Hon Conductor, Mr Arthur B Williamson, was congratulated upon the high standard of the club.”
The Critic 19 February 1913  -  “An Event at Gawler - Gawler residents were afforded a musical treat on Thursday evening February 6th, when, assisted by Miss Muriel Cheek AMUA, Miss Olive M Carter, teacher of elocution and lecturer on voice production in the Education Department, Miss Ivy Topperwien LAB, accompanist, and Herr Kugelberg, Mme Kugelberg, with a party of her pupils, gave a concert in the Institute Hall.  Miss Cheek’s (Mrs A Millhouse) beautiful voice has greatly gained in power, and we doubt not that when she has finished her studies in the Old Country, where she intends going next year, she will rank high among the world’s vocalists.  She sang the great aria from the “Freischutz” admirably, and finished up the concert by a bracket of two exquisite little songs by that rising young South Australian composer Mr Arthur Williamson. ...... Mr A Williamson accompanied Miss Cheek for his own compositions.”
The Critic 28 May 1913  -  “The Adelaide Orpheus Society celebrate their 25th anniversary in the Exhibition Building on Thursday evening, assisted by the Adelaide Liedertafel, Adelaide Glee Club, Eugene Alderman (solo violinist), first engagement of Miss Hilda Felstead, just arrived from London, second appearance of Miss Martha Bruggemann, Mrs W A Magarey, Mr Wilfred Arlom, accompanists.”
The Critic 11 June 1913  -  “Peter Dawson Concerts - On Tuesday June 17th Mr Peter Dawson will make his first reappearance at a concert in Adelaide, assisted by Miss Annette George [Mrs Peter Dawson] (first appearance in Australia), Mr Eugene Alderman (violinist), and Mr Alexander Cooper (tenor), accompanists Mr Arthur Williamson AMUA, and Mr George Pearce.”
The Critic 25 June 1913  -  “Peter Dawson Concert - The Exhibition Building was crowded to its limit on Tuesday evening when Mr Peter Dawson, a South Australian who, on absolute merit, has “made good” in the old country and all over the world.  No man living has become the household word that “Peter Dawson” has.  Back again now for a holiday in the land of his birth, the concert on Tuesday evening afforded the Adelaide public an opportunity for a demonstration of good feeling towards a popular favourite. ...... [He sang] a bracket of three songs, Lohr’s “Little Grey Home in the West”, “Thy Remembrance”, a composition by Mr Arthur Williamson, Adelaide’s talented organist and musician, and Lohr’s “It was a Song you Sang Me”.  All three were exquisitely rendered. ...... Mr A Williamson accompanied the vocalists.”
The Critic 16 July 1913  -  “Adelaide Glee Club Concert - There was a good attendance at the Adelaide Town Hall on Thursday July 10th when the Adelaide Glee Club gave one of their enjoyable concerts.  Mr Arthur Williamson AMUA conducted in masterly style, and the choruses were given in spirited style.  The programme included “Battle Song” (Meyerbeer), and “The Three Fishes”.  Miss Hilda Felstead, who looked well in black velvet, contributed “She is Far From the Land” and “Softly Awakes My Heart” from “Samson and Delilah”.”
The Critic 30 July 1913  -  “Exhibition Building - On Wednesday evening August 6th a grand farewell concert will be given by Mr Peter Dawson, who leaves for England with his charming wife, Miss Annette George, the talented soprano, on Friday August 8th.  The plan is open at Cawthorne’s, Rundle Street, where all tickets may be had.  Those taking part will be Mr Peter Dawson, the world’s famous bass, Miss Annette George, Mr Walter Wood, Mr Arthur Williamson, Mr Eugene Alderman, and Mr George Pearce.”
The Critic 13 August 1913  -  “Peter Dawson’s Farewell - The Exhibition Building was a heaving mass of enthusiastic admirers of the famous vocalist on Wednesday evening, when Mr Peter Dawson gave his farewell concert in Adelaide before departing back to England, galleries and floor space packed to overflowing.  If no man is a prophet in his own country he has only to go away and come back to be one.  The basso met with a great reception, his good nature caused him to add by encores to his programmed numbers. ...... Mr Arthur Williamson officiated at the piano for the vocalists.  The greatest enthusiasm was exhibited at the close of the performance.  Mr Peter Dawson was the recipient of a laurel wreath tied with red ribbon, and Miss Annette George was handed up some exquisite baskets of blooms.”
Annual Business Meeting of the Adelaide Glee Club 4 February 1914 - Secretary’s Report for 1913  -  “Your committee has pleasure in submitting the twenty-ninth Annual Report.  In doing so, the committee congratulates the members on the very marked improvement shown in the Club’s work during the past season; in fact the committee considers that the Club reached high water mark at the subscription concert given on November 13.  This was accomplished mainly through the enthusiasm evinced by the members, and it now behoves them to continue on the upgrade and not allow the Club to go back.
Concerts - During the year the Club gave the usual two subscription concerts and a smoke concert, and in addition took part in a concert given to celebrate the 25th anniversary of the Adelaide Orpheus Society.  A concert was also given at the Archer Street Methodist Lecture Hall in aid of the organ fund of the church; and all these functions were well attended.  The first of the subscribers’ concerts took place at the Adelaide Town Hall on July 10.  On this occasion Miss Hilda Felstead (who had returned from England a few weeks beforehand) contributed to the programme and pleased the audience by her artistic vocalisation and charming personality.  Miss Erica Chaplin renewed her acquaintance with the Club’s audience, and her violin solos had much to do with the success of the concert.
The second subscribers’ concert was given in the same hall on November 13, and is acknowledged to be the finest of the Club’s efforts.  An exceptionally strong programme was arranged, and although it was half past ten before the last item was completed, very few of the large audience left before the final number.
The smoke concert on December 18 at the South Australian Hotel completed the Club’s work for the season, and it was voted to be one of the most enjoyable of the Club’s “smokes”.
Membership - The number of members on the roll is 56, against 62 the previous year.  The average attendace at rehearsal was 33, and at concerts 41.
Conductor - Mr A B Williamson has now completed three years with the Club as conductor, and, like good wine, his work improves with age.  The work performed by this officer during the past season was excellent, and the improvement in the Club’s singing under his tuition was very marked.
Presentations - In recognition of the work so ably carried out by our talented conductor during the seasons 1913 and 1914 [actually 1912 and 1913], the Club has asked him to accept two honorariums [of £10 10 0 each], and your committee regrets that the Club’s financial position would not permit of the amounts being more in keeping with the value of his services.
In conclusion, your committee desires to thank the members for the enthusiasm they have shown, and urge them to spare no efforts to make the 1914 season the best on the Club’s records.”
Arthur Williamson attended 48 out of 49 rehearsals, and all 5 of the concerts held during the year.
The Critic 22 July 1914  -  “On Friday evening the YMCA celebrated their annual anniversary, and the function was considered one of the most successful the institution has known.  Starting with high tea at 6.30, the meeting was held afterwards.  The speakers were His Excellency the Governor, [Sir Henry Galway] ...... . The musical programme was in the capable hands of Mr E A Daltry, the Adelaide Amateur Orchestra of 35 performers, and the Adelaide Glee Club of 45 male voices, with Mr A Williamson AMUA conducting, rendered some very fine choruses.  There was a capital attendance.”
The Critic 9 September 1914  -  “Exhibition Building - Adelaide people responded nobly in seconding Madame Delmar Hall’s efforts to make a big financial success of the Patriotic Concert held in the Exhibition Building on Saturday night. ...... The accompanists were Miss Dorothy McBride and Messrs A Williamson AMUA ...... .”
The Critic 18 November 1914  -  “Adelaide Town Hall - On Thursday evening November 19th the Adelaide Police Band are giving a grand Patriotic Concert in the Adelaide Town Hall.  The band will be assisted by ...... Mr Arthur Williamson.  The concert is being given under the patronage and in the presence of His Excellency the Governor, and members of the Ministry, His Worship the Mayor, Aldermen and City Councillors, the Military Commandant, the Commissioner of Police, the Police Magistrate, ...... . A large gathering is anticipated.”
The Critic 23 December 1914  -  “There was a large gathering at the Town Hall on Tuesday evening when “The Messiah” was impressively rendered under the conductorship of Professor Ennis.  Miss Muriel Cheek and Miss Gladys Cilento were equally successful in the soprano and contralto parts.  Other vocalists were Mr Francis Halls and Mr A Lloyd Williams.  Mr Arthur Williamson officiated at the organ, and Mr Eugene Alderman was leader of the excellent orchestra.”

    By Christmas 1914 Arthur was presenting a book to Kathleen Holder (Helen Rowland’s “Sayings of Mrs Solomon”), who had also been a music student at the Conservatorium.

Annual Business Meeting of the Adelaide Glee Club 3 February 1915 - Secretary’s Report for 1914  -  “Mr Edwards proposed and Mr Woods seconded that the names of Messrs Williamson and Pomeroy be added to the list of honorary members.  In support of his proposition Mr Edwards drew attention to the fine work Mr Williamson has performed for the Club, first as pianist and afterwards as conductor, during his membership of over 11 years.  The motion was carried unanimously.
Your committee has pleasure in submitting the 30th Annual Report, and in doing so desires to compliment the members on having had a very successful season.  The singing was of a high order, and the improvement shown in this direction during the past two or three seasons is very marked.  The members have exhibited an enthusiastic spirit, and although the attendance at rehearsals might be improved upon, the Club has reason to be satisfied with the year’s work.
Concerts - The customary two subscription concerts and a smoke social were given, and in addition the Club gave or took part in six other functions.  The first subscription concert took place in the Town Hall on June 17. ...... Miss Muriel Cheek was the lady vocalist.
The second concert was given at the same place on November 5.  On this occasion the Club was assisted by Misses Gladys Cilento, Kathleen Norman and Kathleen Holder. ...... Miss Holder had a difficult task to perform, as she acted as accompanist throughout the evening, in addition to playing a pianoforte solo, but came through the ordeal with flying colours, and your committee appreciates very highly the assistance so readily given by Miss Holder.
The smoke social, which was given in the South Australian Hotel on December 17, was one of the most enjoyable the Club has given.
The other engagements in which the Club took place were :-
February 12 and March 11 - Semaphore Wondergraph Picturedrome
May 7 - Institution for the Blind Fair, Exhibition Building
July 17 - YMCA Anniversary, Exhibition Building
July 22 - Archer Street Methodist Church
September 2 - Expeditionary Forces Camp, Morphetville
The Club also participated in the Patriotic Concert engineered by Madame Delmar, and which took place at the Exhibition Building on 29 August.
Membership - The number of members on the roll at the close of the year was 59, as against 56 in the previous year.  The average attendances at rehearsals and concerts was exactly the same as last season, viz :- 33 and 41 respectively.  The Club has every reason to feel proud of the patriotic spirit shown by its members, as no less than nine have enlisted for active service in the war against Germany.  The committee feels sure that the Club wishes these members “good luck and a safe return” at an early date.
Conductor - Too much credit cannot be given Mr Williamson for the efficient and painstaking manner in which he has carried out the duties of conductor.  The progress made in the Club’s performances during the past two or three seasons is entirely due to his masterly mind.
Presentation - With a view to showing the Club’s appreciation of the services so ably performed by Mr Williamson, your committee granted an honorarium [of £10 10 0] as a slight recognition.
In conclusion, your committee desires to thank the members for the enthusiasm shown last season, and urges them to spare no efforts to keep up the efficiency of the Club, as owing to the depression caused by the war and the drought, every member will need to accept his share in the Club’s work.”
Arthur Williamson attended all 45 rehearsals and all 9 concerts given.
The Critic 11 August 1915  -  “Queen’s Hall - The grand opening of the Queen’s Hall, Grenfell Street, on Saturday evening was largely attended.  The Central Hall as we remember it is quite transmogrified - the electric installation and artistic decoration make a surprising difference.  His Excellency the Governor, Lady Galway and suite were received. ...... The accompanists were numerous and included Messrs ...... Arthur Williamson. ...... The proceeds are in aid of the Cheer-up Society to help build a club for the use of our wounded soldiers.”
The Critic 8 September 1915  -  “Marshall’s circle are holding a grand series of gala nights in the Exhibition Building on September 18th, 20th and 21st, in the distinguished presence of Lady Galway, the Premier (Hon Crawford Vaughan) and the Mayor of Adelaide (A A Simpson Esq).  The whole of the proceeds of these concerts will be given to the Wounded Soldiers Fund.  A first class programme is assured for each night, and will be selected from the following well known artistes :- Misses ...... Kathleen Holder, Messrs ...... Arthur Williamson AMUA.”
The Critic 29 September 1915  -  “Brewster Jones’ Symphony Concert, Town Hall - Great interest is being manifested in this forthcoming musical feast, and a programme which contains the names of the greatest masters of orchestration of each of the countries of the Allies would not be richer in promise of good fare. ...... There will be an orchestra of 70 performers, which includes such well known names as the following :- ...... Mr Arthur Williamson, grand organ.”  The concert took place on October 7th, with proceeds benefiting the Red Cross Fund.
Annual Business Meeting of the Adelaide Glee Club 1 March 1916 - Secretary’s Report for 1915  -  “Your committee has pleasure in submitting the 31st Annual Report.  The Club has felt the effects of the war rather severely.  The usual enthusiasm was lacking in many of the members, consequently the attendance at rehearsals, and of necessity the quality of the singing, was hardly up to the standard.  In addition to the usual subscription concerts and the subscribers’ smoke social, the Club gave or took part in seven other functions, viz
May 6 - Belgian Relief Concert, Adelaide Town Hall
June16 and November 10 - Concerts at the Expeditionary Forces Camp, Mitcham
July 30 (Australia Day) - Concerts at Parliament House and Bowman’s Arcade
September 7 - Wattle Day League Concert, Norwood Town Hall
December 8 - Archer Street Methodist Lecture Hall
The proceeds from the two subscribers’ concerts were donated to the South Australian Soldiers’ Fund, and the Club is indebted to the City Corporation for granting the free use of the Town Hall.  The first of the subscription concerts was given on August 10, and a splendid programme was presented to the audience.  On this occasion the Club was assisted by Misses Cheek, Joyce, Holder and Felstead, and Mr Eugene Alderman. ...... In addition to playing the accompaniments, Miss Holder played a pianoforte solo and delighted her hearers with her efforts.
The second concert took place on 2 December, and on this occasion Miss Muriel Cheek was the lady vocalist. ...... The Club had 48 choristers on this occasion, and the singing was good, and reflected credit on our worthy conductor.  A collection taken up during the performance in aid of the Soldiers’ Fund resulted in £9 17 4 being received.
The smoke social was an unqualified success.  It was given at the South Australian Hotel on December 22.
Membership - The number of members on the roll at the end of the year was 62, as against 59 in 1914, and the average attendance at rehearsals and concerts was 26 and 38 respect-ively, as against 33 and 41 the previous season.  The Club has every reason to feel proud of its members, as fourteen have enlisted for active service, and are now serving their King and Country.
Conductor - Mr Williamson has had a very trying year.  Some of the members have not given him the support he has earned, as will be seen by referring to the record of attendances attached.  Notwithstanding this, he has worked assiduously, and the members have benefited greatly by his wide musical knowledge.
Pianist - The war has robbed the Club of the services of Mr Gordon Short for another year, as he is still interned in Germany.  Mr Fry, who took his place, has enlisted.  However, Miss Kathleen Holder came to the Club’s assistance, and when a pianist was required for public performances, readily offered her services.  Your committee feels deeply indebted to Miss Holder, and appreciates to the fullest extent her kindness.
Presentation - As a slight recognition of the splendid work achieved by our conductor, your committee decided to give him an honorarium [of £10 10 0], and feels sure the action will meet with general approval.
In concluding, your committee requests the members to make a special effort to make the forthcoming season a successful one, and this can only be done by regular attendance at rehearsals and strict attention to the conductor’s instructions.”
Arthur Williamson attended all 39 rehearsals and all 6 concerts during the year.
Annual Business Meeting of the Adelaide Glee Club 7 February 1917 - Secretary’s Report for 1916  -  “Your committee has pleasure in presenting the 32nd Annual Report.  The Club has passed through another trying year, caused by the terrible war that is raging in Europe, and although the majority of the members have remained loyal to the Club, it has been difficult to put the enthusiasm into the work that is expected.  Considering all things, however, the singing has been fairly good, and at times a glimpse of the old enthusiasm overshadowed the dark clouds, and some of the old spirit was enthused into the work.
Concerts - The committee decided to abandon the subscribers’ concerts during 1916, but the Club gave or took part in seven concerts during the season.  The principal of these was one given in conjunction with the St Cecelia Ladies’ Choir in the Town Hall on October 18 in aid of the SA Soldiers’ Fund.  This was successful from a financial as well as a musical standpoint. ...... On December 13 the Club finished the season with a smoke concert at the South Australian Hotel, and if the enthusiasm shown on that occasion is any indication of what the members intend to do this season, the Club should have a most successful year.  The other concerts in which the Club took part were :-
June 17 - Red Cross Concert, Stirling Institute
July 5 - Archer Street Lecture Hall
July 26 - Woodville Methodist Church
August 16 - Henley Beach Kiosk, in aid of the Lady Galway Clubhouse
October 7 - Naval, Military and Red Cross Fair, Exhibition Building
Membership - The number of members on the roll at the end of the year (including those who enlisted etc) was 67, as against 62 in 1915, and the average attendance at rehearsals and concerts were 24 and 33 respectively, as compared with 26 and 38 the previous season.  The Club has suffered severely through members enlisting for active service, but feels proud of the loyalty displayed.
Conductor - Mr Williamson has been most enthusiastic in imparting his musical knowledge to the members, and in making the rehearsals interesting.  Had it not been for his keenness, the Club’s work would have deteriorated seriously.  His decision to offer his services for active service came as a big blow to the Club, and his services as conductor have practically been lost since the end of October.  An attempt to struggle along by meeting weekly for social gatherings did not have the desired effect, and it was found necessary to find a successor to Mr Williamson during his absence.  Mr Roy Mellish was approached, and in a most willing manner, and also as a duty to Mr Williamson, accepted the position.  A proposal was made by the committee of the Adelaide Orpheus Society that the Club should join that body until Mr Williamson was at liberty to resume, but the members, whilst appreciating to the fullest extent the splendid offer of the Orpheus Society, decided to go on under the leadership of Mr Mellish.
Pianist - The position of pianist is still open to Mr Gordon Short, and it is sincerely hoped that he will again occupy his place before another season passes.  Miss Kathleen Holder again filled the vacancy as accompanist at the majority of the Club’s functions, and at rehearsals when neccesary.  The Club cannot thank Miss Holder enough for her many kindnesses.
Presentations - To show the high esteem in which Mr Williamson is held, your committee decided to ask him to accept an honorarium [of £10 10 0], and also a wristlet watch as a parting gift before entering the military camp [cost £2 5 0 ].  A presentation of a gold bangle wristlet watch was made to Miss Holder as a token of appreciation of the many services rendered as pianist [cost £5 5 0 ].
Marriage of Mr Williamson - On Friday December 22 [1916] your conductor and Miss Holder were joined together in the bonds of holy matrimony, and it is the wish of the members that their wedded life may be one of complete happiness and prosperity.
In conclusion, your committee would strongly urge the members to put forward every effort to make the year 1917 a most successful one, and this can easily be done by regular attendance at the rehearsals.”
Arthur Williamson attended 32 out of 37 rehearsals, and 6 of 7 concerts during the year.
The Secretary was asked to forward to Mr Williamson a letter of appreciation of the fine work he has accomplished as conductor, and wishing him every success in the future.
Minutes of Comittee Meeting of the Adelaide Glee Club 22 January 1919  -  “It was proposed that the secretary be instructed to write to Mr Wiliamson with regard to his resumption to the position of conductor of the Club, and asking him to state his wishes on this subject.”

    During 1916/18 there were few references to Arthur Williamson and his musical activities.  Some reasons for this may be the rapid increase in popularity of motion pictures, the spread of the gramophone as a substitute for live concerts, and the general war-weariness which was creeping into the minds of the civilian population and reducing the numbers of concerts being held, even for patriotic purposes.  The Critic of 9 April 1919 complained that “Adelaide, truly called the “city of culture” by a passing journalist, has, however, not lived up to its reputation from a musical point of view, as for years past little opportunity has been given to music lovers to hear many works that could, with a little expenditure and self-sacrifice on the part of our leading musicians, have been easily placed before a music-loving public.”

    Enlistment, marriage and life in Adelaide

    Arthur Williamson enlisted in the Australian Medical Corps on 21st November 1916, with Regimental Number S9331.  His enlistment papers stated that he had previously been rejected for service on the grounds of his chest measurement.  He was discharged from the Mitcham AIF Camp on 31st March 1917 with the rank of acting Corporal, “being found medically unfit (not due to misconduct)”.  His height was recorded as 5’ 7¼", weight 109½ lbs, his complexion dark, with dark brown eyes and hair, and two vaccination marks on his left arm.  His religious denomination was recorded as Methodist.

    Photographs indicate that Arthur was a Sergeant in the AAMC in early 1917.  One photograph shows him in the medical store, surrounded by bottles of chemicals, and it was probably here that he got his interest in amateur medicine.

    On 22nd December 1916 Arthur married Kathleen Holder in St John’s Church, Adelaide.  Both were older than average, Arthur being 34 and Kathleen 28, and both were described as “musicians”.  The celebrant was Thomas Hugh Frewin, Rector of Hindmarsh, and the witnesses to the marriage were Katie Joyce (teacher of singing), a lifelong friend of Kathleen’s, and Harry Heinemann (watchmaker).  Arthur’s watch, which I still have, dates from this time.  It was bought from Wendt’s, Adelaide, and was a present from the Adelaide Glee Club, being inscribed on the back “A.B.W. from A.G.C.  29-11-16”.

The Critic 17 January 1917  -  “Farewell to Soldiers - The Cheer-up Hut accommodation was strained to its fullest extent on Monday evening when between four and five hundred soldiers were given a send-off. ...... A capital programme was contributed by the Exhibition Camp Party, organised by that well known musician, Private A Williamson.  It includes a string orchestra and a glee party. ...... Another large body of men were entertained on Tuesday evening.”
The Critic 24 January 1917  -  “Concert in aid of Comfort Fund, 19th Reinforcement 27th Battalion - There was a packed house at the Queen’s Hall on Wednesday evening when a capital concert was given in aid of the Comfort Funds of the 19th Reinforcement of the 27th Battalion.”  Private A Williamson was one of the accompanists for the various vocal items.
The Critic 31 January 1917  -  Mesdames H Sexton and A Williamson, accompanied by Miss Katie Joyce, returned from Melbourne last week.”
The Critic 3 October 1917  -  “Concert at Queen’s Hall - The very admirable entertainment in aid of the 11th Field Ambulance ...... was splendidly attended. ...... Mr Roy Mellish and Corporal A Williamson were the accompanists.”
The Critic 21 November 1917  -  “Among those present at the Red Cross concert on Thursday evening were :- ...... Private and Mrs Arthur Williamson.”
The Critic 1 May 1918  -  “Captain and Mrs Williamson are staying down at Victor Harbor.” (?)
The Critic 6 July 1921  -  “Reception at Government House - On Thursday evening a brilliant reception was given at Government House in honour of Their Excellencies the Governor-General (Lord Forster) and Lady Forster.  The guests passed through the drawing rooms to the ball room where the reception took place, Mr Legh Winser announcing each in turn to Lord and Lady Forster and His Excellency the Governor and Lady Weigall. ...... After the reception the investiture took place, and the order of knighthood conferred upon Sir George Brookman. ...... After the ceremony the orchestra played inspiring music and His Excellency the Governor and Lady Weigall led off in a dance.  Later in the evening supper was served in a huge marquee.  The Governor-General and Lady Forster moved around among the guests, chatting with the many they have met during their brief visit.  Among those present were :- ..... Mr and Mrs A Williamson.”
The Critic 21 June 1922  -  “Miss Grace Vawser, the champion lady vocalist of the late Band Competitions was happy in carrying off two first prizes and one second, and Mr Arthur Williamson, the judge, on hearing her sing in the soprano section, stated that her performance was excellent, the voice rich and compelling.”
The Critic 1 August 1923  -  “Unley Mayoral Ball - A decidedly unusual and very attractive note was struck for the decorations of the Unley Mayoral Ball when Mr and Mrs A E Morris (Mayor and Mayoress of Unley) on Wednesday evening [July 25th] entertained the citizens at a function which was a decided success in every way. As one entered the main hall [Unley City Hall] one was instantly reminded of the Chinese in the decorative scheme.  All around the hall high overhead was placed a pagoda-shaped verandah made of pale pink latticed paper.  Each corner was quaintly roofed in for the sitters-out.  Groups of palms were also placed at intervals while the dais on the eastern side of the hall where the Mayor and Mayoress received their guests had also a latticed fence.  All the hanging lights were enshrouded to represent big foursided Chinese bells of the latticed paper, and as each had a light which threw a rosy glow the effect was particularly warm and cheery.  There was a latticed and quaintly shaped arch on the stage, fronted with a short fence.  The entrance hall was artistically draped with flags, while in the supper room (a sitdown affair) the tables were charming with slender vases of pink sweet peas and maidenhair fern with here and there a small palm.  Suspended from the lights were ribbons of pale lemon coloured papers. ...... His Excellency the Governor and Lady Bridges were present, also the Lord Mayor and Lady Mayoress of Adelaide, Mr and Mrs L Cohen. ...... Mrs A Williamson in white charmeuse and cream lace, Mrs H Williamson a smart navy charmeuse frock, Miss S Williamson (?) in pretty flame coloured georgette.”
The Critic 22 August 1923  -  “A party consisting of Professor Wood-Jones of the University, his wife and two daughters, and Mr T D Campbell of the Dental Hospital left Adelaide on Wednesday for the Stuart Ranges.  The expedition is partly for pleasure, but the Professor hopes to obtain interesting information about marsupials and the aboriginal tribes of the interior.”
The Critic 31 October 1923  -  “Sturt Bowling Club - The Premier (Sir Henry Barwell) opened the green of the Sturt Bowling Club on Saturday afternoon.  Among those noticed were :- ...... Mrs A Williamson, navy silk.”
Adelaide Observer 30 January 1926  -  “A Farewell Party – On Thursday evening, January 21, at the Brougham Place Church Hall, a delightful farewell party was given to Mr Frederick Bevan, who is shortly leaving for England.  A very enjoyable impromptu musical programme was given by members of the church choir, and past and present members of Mr Bevan.  A delicious supper was served on tables decorated with yellow and white daisies and broom, and everyone joined in wishing Mr Bevan a very happy holiday.  Among the guests were :- …… Mr Arthur Williamson.”

    On his return to Adelaide, Arthur spent nine years at Archer Street Methodist Church, and three years at the East Adelaide Methodist Church, subsequently taking a rest for health reasons.  He became associated with a number of leading organisations for the advancement of music, and was for four years president of the Musical Association of South Australia.  He was on the advisory committee of the Adelaide Music Salon, and was a vice-president of the Adelaide Junior Orchestra.  He was also actively associated with the Corinthian Club.  In March 1928, one of a series of articles in The News on local church choirs featured the North Adelaide Baptist Church, where “after taking the place of Mr E A Daltry on various occasions during his absence, Mr Arthur Williamson, AMUA, was in October last permanently appointed to the position of conductor and organist.”  The church was fortunate to have “enjoyed the services as choirmasters and organists of a number of men whose names have been prominent in the musical history of the State”.  The choir and congregation of this church (the Brougham Place Church) presented him with a fine copy of Kipling’s “Jungle Books” with their gratitude and affection on 19th September 1926.

    In the S.A. Directories between 1916 and 1920, Arthur Williamson was listed as a teacher of music, working in Bunyip Buildings, Gawler Place.  In 1918 he was listed as a musician, living at 14 Walkerville Road, East Adelaide.  In 1922 he was shown as a director, living at 4 Gardiner Avenue, Newstead, and between 1923 and 1929 he had reverted to music teacher at the same address.  From 1926 to 1939 he was also listed as a music and singing teacher at Allan’s Teaching Studio, 51 Rundle Street.  Arthur also taught music to pupils at the Methodist Ladies’ College, who presented him with “The Talisman” by Walter Scott in 1927.

    Throughout his life he composed many piano, organ and choral works.  Arthur’s obituary in the Advertiser of 1st April 1939 said that “Mr Williamson composed a number of songs, which were published abroad.  As an adjudicator at many competitions, he had a wide knowledge of music standards.  He was a member of the Rationalist Society, the Organist’s Society and the Anthropological Society, and was keenly interested in the Repertory Theatre.”

    He frequently gave or assisted at concerts, such as the one whose program survives, of original compositions by members of the Elder Conservatorium Association on 30th August 1926, in the Elder Hall.  Three of Arthur’s songs were sung, and he accompanied another musician in a ‘cello solo composed by T Draper Campbell.  He accompanied Peter Dawson in his Grand Welcome Home concert in the Exhibition Building in 1913, when the Adelaide Choral Society performed Elijah, conducted by Professor Ennis, with Dawson in the title role.  (It is possible that a cylindrical recording was made of this concert.)  Arthur was elected President of the Musical Association of South Australia in competition with Oscar Tauber, and was Vice-President  in 1938, when Sir Granville Bantock, “one of the earliest pioneers of contemporary British music, and one of the foremost creators of it”, visited Adelaide.  At a musical evening given in his honour on 12th November in the Claridge Theatre, Gawler Place, 10-year-old Brenton Langbein performed a violin solo.

    Arthur was well-thought of in musical circles, in spite of the many petty jealousies which were rife between the temperamental artists in those circles.  He was accepted as an impartial and expert adjudicator for vocal and instrumental competitions, and sometimes went to places such as Tanunda and Kadina for judging.  In 1936, Arthur wrote the following letter to the Advertiser:
                                                                        EXCELLENT SELECTION
    Sir - On behalf of the council and members of the Musical Association of South Australia, I congratulate our broadcasting stations on the dignified manner in which they reflected the atmosphere created by the death of King George V.  Great occasions, jubilant or catastrophical, call for fitting musical expression.  In this instance, the choice of numbers displayed excellent taste generally, and a refreshing freedom from that bane of secular and religious life, cheap sentimentalism.  In the light of much favourable comment from some quite unexpected quarters, it would appear that the musically intelligent section of this community is larger than had been suspected.  Is it asking too much to suggest that its justifiable desires and aspirations should in future receive a larger meed of satisfaction than hitherto vouchsafed?  -  I am, Sir, etc.,
                                                                   ARTHUR WILLIAMSON,
                                    President of the Musical Association of SA, King’s Grove, Tranmere.

    In 1932 T Draper Campbell, a well-known Adelaide dentist with musical aspirations, composed the score for a musical play, The Moon Dream, which was performed by the South Australian Operatic Society, from 26th November  to 3rd December.  Arthur Williamson assisted as Deputy Conductor during the illness of the Musical Director.  My father Ted attended a performance of this play, but remembers only “an orange boat descending onto the stage”, or an airship-shaped device made of tissue paper with lights inside it.  Vera Gard, daughter of the Rev Thrush, and one of the singers in the show, was the wife of Harold Gard, and their son Alf was a friend of Ted’s.  Harold Gard was the local agent for Douglas motorcycles, and for the Guardian Star pushbike (a family company, the name being a pun on their surname), which rivalled the Malvern Star as one of the two best-selling brands of the day.

    Family life

    Arthur was an atheist, but enjoyed long arguments with his great friend, Rev Parkin, the founder of the Parkin Theological College on Magill Road.  He and Draper Campbell, one of his closest friends, were both members of the Rationalist Society.

    Arthur’s interest in anthropology was shared with Campbell, and is shown in the number of textbooks on the subject in his library.  He accompanied Campbell and anthropologist Norman Tindale on several expeditions to the outback, where Arthur studied the music of the aborigines, while Campbell studied their teeth.

    Thomas Draper Campbell, Professor of Dentistry, died on 8th December 1967, aged 74, at his home at 24 Lynington Street, Tusmore.  He had married Elizabeth Jane Young, aged 30, on 9th December 1927 at the Archer Street Methodist Church, North Adelaide.  The couple had no children.  The young Ted called Draper “One Japer” as he could not pronounce his name properly.

    Arthur’s friends included the Keckwick family, a musical family, father, mother, son Bruce (a friend of Keith Cambrell’s), and two daughters, Beryl, a singer, and Evelyn, who married Tim Wall, the cricketer.  Arthur was fond of Evelyn, and often visited the family.  Bruce Keckwick eventually became the Liberal member for Bass in Tasmania between 1949 and 1954.  Arthur was the organist at the marriage of Bruce Keckwick and Stella Orr at St Andrew’s Church, Walkerville, on 19th September 1936, for which L K Cambrell was a witness.

    Other hobbies of his included chemistry, demonstrated in an interest in developing, enlarging and printing photographs, and amateur medicine, for which he compounded his own pills.  His interest in medicine stemmed from his own ill-health.  He suffered for many years from stomach ulcers, and from severe headaches (migraine).  He lived mainly on milk and dairy products, like semolina and milk, and was always concocting medicines and powders (“white meddy”) to settle his stomach.  This high cholesterol diet may have contributed to his early death from a stroke.  He had a cupboard full of chemicals, from which he would make up various home-made remedies to treat the rest of the family for coughs, colds, indigestion etc.

    Ted Williamson remembers that his father owned a large Sanderson camera, in which the lens was mounted in an adjustable bellows, and was focused by moving the lens along a set of runners.  He also owned a large black camera, about one foot in cube, which was supposedly used as an aerial observation camera in World War I, and had a superb lens.  The story was told that this camera had been taken from a downed German airplane in Belgium.

    Music, of course, was enjoyed as a hobby as well as a profession, and Arthur owned a comprehensive collection of classical records, and a record player.  He also built his own AC/DC wireless and amplifiers and Magnavox speaker cabinet.

    He enjoyed “pottering about” in the sheds and garages of his houses, making and repairing all manner of things, and was a competent amateur carpenter, metalworker and plumber.  One useful item he made was an adjustable steel table for reading and eating in bed.  At the time of his death he had more than half completed repairing and restoring an old belt-driven Douglas motorbike.  This was undertaken simply for the challenge, as he himself had never before owned a bike or car, and could not drive.

    On 28th February 1917 Arthur and Kathleen’s first child was born, a daughter, Kathleen May.  A series of photos depict a proud father and mother showing off the new baby to Arthur’s family on the verandah at Carmel.  He took many photos of his daughter as she grew up in the next few years.

    By 1922 they were living at 4 Gardiner Avenue, Newstead (now St Morris), and here in 1922 their son, Arthur Edward (Ted), was born.  The informant of the birth details was a T Carless, nurse, of 15 Lock Street, St Peters, who probably assisted at the birth.  Ted in turn became the subject of many photographs.  The house was a big, solid brick iron-roofed home on a large block.  It had originally been built by an employee of the Metropolitan Tramways Trust (MTT), and it was claimed that he had put old tram rails in the foundations, which made it an exceptionally stable house, which never cracked.  Arthur erected a swing in the front porch for Ted which was suspended from a large wooden beam attached to the roof.  One day the beam collapsed and fell, missing Ted by only a few inches.  Later he built a wooden swing in the back yard for the children to play on, and planted the rear of the block with fruit trees, fenced off from the lawned area.  Two tall guyed radio masts, one in the front garden and one at the rear, supported a long antenna strung over the house, revealing an interest in “wireless”, probably caught from brother Fred.  Across the road lived the Francis family, Les, Ruby and children Betty, Bill and Mary, who became great friends, especially of Kathleen and Lal.  Les Francis worked for C.O.R. in Adelaide, and later in Melbourne.

    In July 2003 the Gardiner Avenue home came on the market, for the first time on over 50 years.  Ted and I visited it, and we stood in the very room in which he had been born 82 years before.  The house was still totally crack-free.  An interesting feature of the house was a “beurriere”, a small trapdoor in the floor of the walk-in pantry, which gave access to a brick-lined cavity under the floorboards, in which could be stored milk, butter etc, to keep them cool in summer.  Ted remembered that when they moved to Burnside, the house had initially been rented to a family of the name of Blake, who had numerous children.  Ted would see these children playing and sitting in the gutter on Magill Road, and they were given the nickname of “Blake’s barebots”.

    The house was sold again in 2009, after a complete renovation.

    In 1928 the family moved to a new house at 123 Burnside Road, now 443 Glynburn Road, built for them by a family friend, George Griffiths, a builder, who had a daughter, Gwen.  The seven-roomed Tudor bungalow was probably built using money inherited from Arthur’s father, who died in 1927.  At the time it was built there were vacant blocks on both sides, but some time later Harold also had a house built at 121 Burnside Road.  Arthur painted the whole house, including the steeply-pitched roof, built trellises, and other items for the house and garden.  At Burnside the family had a maid, Kitty, even though the Depression was beginning.  Arthur’s income as a music and organ teacher could not have been great, and his mother probably provided some financial assistance.  Often down-and-outs would knock on the back door looking for food or work.  One Italian man for whom they found occasional work made them a rustic timber garden seat in appreciation. During this time the Gardiner Avenue house was rented out to a family called Blake.  George Griffiths gave Ted a cricket bat, autographed by Len Darling.

    At this time the Depression was at its height, and music teachers had a lean time for many years, as music lessons were among the first luxuries forgone by hard-pressed families.  In 1933, the Williamsons moved to rented accommodation in the two-storeyed Tranmere House, where they occupied a ground floor flat with use of a garage.  The Gardiner Avenue and Burnside Road houses were rented out while the family remained at Tranmere House.  The family lived in a seven-roomed flat on the front (southern) and western sides of the ground floor, and the Melton family (Frank, Kath and children Joan and Molly) had a smaller, three-roomed flat on the north-eastern side of that floor.

    Other tenants became close friends, including the Cozens sisters, Ella, Minna and Vida, who lived above them in the corresponding large flat on the first floor with their mother, and the Treloars, (Norman, Zara and children) who had the small first floor flat.  Norman Treloar was associated with Jackman & Treloar, who owned Tranmere House, and he was Kath Melton’s brother.  Zara Treloar (nee Myers) and her mother owned or part-owned the Theatre Royal.  Her sister Bunty was a friend of Lal’s at MLC.

    The Cozens owned an Erskine Sedan, and on Sundays Vida, who taught piano at home, would drive Arthur to the North Adelaide (Brougham Place) Congregational Church.  The sound of the piano lessons was heard clearly in the flat below.  The Cozens owned pastoral properties, and later moved to a house on the Parade at Kensington Gardens, east of  Burnside Road.

    Another friend of Kathleen’s was Mrs Vera Syme, who had a daughter, Josie, who was “slow” and had temper tantrums when she did not get her own way.

    During the Depression, Kathleen played the piano in the Theatre Royal Orchestra, conducted by William Cade, who later led the Adelaide ABC Orchestra, to supplement the family’s income.

    Kathleen and Lal slept together in the large room on the south-eastern side of the ground floor, on the right of the entrance hall, and Ted had the smaller octagonal room leading off it, separated only by a curtain.  On the left side of the entrance hall was a sitting room with another octagonal area on the western side.  Behind the sitting room was the large dining room, and another room behind it, in which Arthur slept.  This room had to be traversed to get to the kitchen, and his sleeping area was curtained off from the passageway.  Meals were normally taken in the kitchen.

    Arthur always slept late in the mornings, staying in bed until the children had left for school, and he stayed up late at night, reading and composing, often until 3 or 4 am.  He was usually out teaching piano in his rooms at Allans in Rundle Street, or the organ at the church where he played, until late at night.  He was soft-hearted, and Kathleen administered discipline when needed.

    Arthur attended a Conference of music teachers in Melbourne in January 1938, followed by a trip to Sydney, and he sent two letters to Ted:
    20 Greengate Rd
    Thursday Jan 27th (1938)
    Dear Ted,
            Suppose you think it time I sent a note telling of my doings.  The trip to Melbourne wasn’t bad in the air-conditioned carriage.  My off-sider wasn’t too offensive, though “blotto” most of the time.  He brought a cobber into the carriage during the evening, and they polished off nearly a bottle of whisky between them.  He slept like a dog all night and next morning put his block out and asked the conductor if he could get him a whisky and soda, but his luck was out.
    Roy met me in Melbourne.  He was staying at Menzies, whilst I put up at the Victoria.  He returned to Sydney on Friday.  I arranged to follow on Saturday as I wasn’t sure if the Conference would finish before.  However it did finish on Friday.  On Saturday afternoon I went to Camberwell to see the Dusting family, returning to Melbourne with just sufficient time to catch the Sydney express.  Good run to Albury in the “Spirit of Progress” (another air-conditioned train), but the run from Albury as you know is a very shaky and uncomfortable one.  Was met at Sydney by Roy, Alan, Peter, Em, Brian and George Griffiths.  We had a good yarn after which we drove about the city and saw some of the preparations for the 26th [Australia’s 150th birthday celebrations], thence across the Bridge!!! and home.
    Had a long drive Sunday afternoon over to Manly Ocean Beach and North Head.  Monday I went across to Em’s place for tea and Roy and Mabel came later on and drove me home.  Tuesday the warships and flying boats came in.  I went to Vaucluse for lunch but was too late to see the actual arrivals.  However the boats all look very striking.  Saw the Centaurus at Rose Bay.  There were 33 planes in the air in the morning.  Saw a group of Yankee seaplanes flying in formation.  George Griffiths came to Vaucluse for lunch and drove us all into the city as Em had to see Mrs Watt off from Wynyard Station.
    Wednesday was the great day when 750,000 people saw the long procession.  We reckoned it would be impossible to see it unless we went early.  However Roy put a couple of kerosene tins in the back of the car and we drove to Oxford Street, erected our tins at the rear of some people who were already perched on chairs, boxes, stools and tables, and in spite of the fact that the procession had already left the Domain an hour earlier, we had an excellent view when it came in sight and saw the lot.  The crowd was a very orderly one and extremely good natured.
    In the afternoon Roy took me to Bobbin Head and Berowral Waters, a marvellous drive, did you go there?  Tonight am being taken to “One  Hundred Men and a Girl”, a picture being shown at the State Theatre.  Roy, Mabel and some friends of theirs are going, also Em.  Afterwards I am going to Vaucluse to stay for a few days, then to Randwick for a day or two with George.  I might motor back to Adelaide with him if I feel well enough to do it in easy stages, but am not sure.
    Had a good night with Wallace Nelson and his missus.  He is a young villain.
    City is very gay with bunting and lights.  Joan has had her tonsils removed.  She went away on Sunday for a week’s holiday, but had to be brought home the same day.  She is much better again.  She and Mabel are going to Leura next Monday for a week.
    Alan and Brian are both anxious over the Inter[mediate] results which are coming out this afternoon.  Have your come out yet?  Peter is some boy, a funny little character.  Mrs Nelson thinks he is the image of me, but I can’t see it.
    Hope you are all well.  Give my kind regards to the flatites.
    Have you seen Harold? and how is the fence progressing, finished I hope.
    Em tells me that the Francis family live somewhere out her way, but I don’t suppose I shall see them.
    Must close now.  You can send a line to Vaucluse during the coming week if you feel like doing so.
                                                                    Love from Dad.

    Sunday 13th February (1938)
    Dear Ted,
            Well here I am on the way home.  Left Sydney by motor Friday morn  and reached Melbourne at noon on Sat.  Had a little engine trouble which delayed us at Camden and Goulburn, otherwise OK.  Roads are good, we touched over 70 for long stretches.  Drove part of the night, and slept in the car which we parked in a side road about 120 miles the other side of Albury.  Rose at 5.30 (and wasn’t it cold), made some tea and came on to Melbourne.  Leaving for Adelaide 12 o’clock Monday, so if the luck holds, should be home Tuesday some time.
    We were going to leave Sydney last Tuesday, but I was laid up, not fit for travel, the usual silly trouble.
    Am glad you passed the exam.  Brian had bad luck, he went back to school last Tuesday.
    No more at present. Am going out to Camberwell to see the Dustings for a few hours.
                                                                    Love from Dad.

    In January 1939 Adelaide suffered a prolonged heatwave, when the temperature climbed over 110o for many days.  Ted recalls his father sitting in shorts and singlet in the sitting room of the relatively cool Tranmere House, with its big rooms, high ceilings and second floor.


    On Thursday night 30th March 1939 Arthur was conducting choir practice at Brougham Place when he collapsed with a stroke.  He was taken to a North Adelaide private hospital, but died without regaining consciousness at about 2 am on 31st March, aged only 54.  Ted was working late that night with Keith Cambrell, and Frank Melton picked them up in his car and drove them to the hospital.  Arthur was buried in West Terrace Cemetery with his father and mother.  I have one of a pair of gold fob watches which he sported, and my father has the other.

    An obituary was published in the Advertiser on 1st April:
Leading member of Adelaide Music Circles
    “Mr Arthur Williamson, 54, a leading member of Adelaide musical circles, collapsed at choir practice at the Brougham Place Congregational Church on Thursday night.  He was taken to a North Adelaide private hospital, where he died about 2 am yesterday.

    “Mr Williamson was devoted to the development of music in South Australia, as a student, teacher, and active worker in many organisations.  He was born and educated in Adelaide, continuing his studies at the Elder Conservatorium.  He was appointed organist at the Flinders Street Baptist Church, and later served in the same capacity at the Archer Street Methodist Church, North Adelaide, and at the Tynte Street Baptist Church.

    “In 1910 Mr Williamson visited England and the Continent.  On returning to Adelaide 12 months later he became associated with a number of leading organisations for the advancement of music, and was for four years president of the Musical Association.  He was on the advisory committee of the Adelaide Music Salon, and was a vice-president of the Adelaide Junior Orchestra.  He was also actively associated with the Corinthian Club.

    “Mr Williamson composed a number of songs, which were published abroad.  As an adjudicator at many competitions, he had a wide knowledge of music standards.  He was a member of the Organists’ Society and the Anthropological Society, and was keenly interested in the Repertory Theatre.

    “Mr Williamson, who lived at King’s Grove, Tranmere, is survived by a widow, a son, Arthur Edward, and a daughter, Kathleen.”

    Another snippet appeared in the “Out Among the People” column by Vox:
    “Last night I was talking about the late Arthur Williamson to Mr Oscar Taeuber, who told me that Arthur played some of his first accompaniments at concerts in the Victoria Hall, Gawler Place.  “Arthur Williamson will be very much missed in musical circles; he will be a hard man to replace,” Oscar Taeuber said.  “He was a delightful companion, and I was always willing to accept his view on musical matters, because of his keen, logical, and well-balanced mind.”

    “We recalled how strangely cycles occurred.  Within a short time of each other, musicians J M Dunn, Gus Cawthorne, and A J Chapman passed on.  Now another parallel has arisen by the deaths of Edward Howard, Frederick Bevan, and Arthur Williamson.”

    [John Millard Dunn, cathedral organist of Childers Street, North Adelaide, died on 3rd March 1936, aged 71.]

Minutes of Committee Meeting of the Adelaide Glee Club 20 March 1939  -  “It was proposed and seconded that a letter of sympathy be forwarded to Mrs Williamson on the death of her husband.”

    On his death Kathleen got her nephew Bert Holder to clear out all Arthur’s tools and bits and pieces from the garage at Tranmere House, and he probably took the Douglas motorbike as well.  She and the family then moved back to the Gardiner Avenue house late in 1939.  When Australian troops returned from the Middle East in 1940/1, several were billeted with them, and Lal went out with one of them.

    Kathleen Williamson found the house at Gardiner Avenue too hot in summer, and bought a house at 4 Kings Grove.  Ted was at Ballarat at the time at the RAAF Wireless School.  He tried to get leave to assist in the move, but was refused.  The Gardiner Avenue house was rented for a few years to the Tabe family, who later bought it, and it remained in their family until 2003.  In 1946, when Ted and Phyllis Muxlow got engaged, Kathleen sold 4 Kings Grove to Dave Monfries, and she, Lal and Ted moved back to Burnside Road.  When Ted and Phyl moved to 5 Grandview Grove, Magill, in 1949, the Burnside home was sold for £8500, and Kathleen and Lal bought a smaller home at 5 Vauxhall Street, Erindale, where they lived until Lal’s marriage.

    In 1946 Kathleen sailed to England for a visit which lasted xx months.  For much of the time she stayed with her old friend Daisy Kennedy in London.  This trip was probably financed by the sale of the Kings Grove house.

    After Lal was married, Kathleen bought a house in Ascot Avenue, Dulwich, where she lived until she moved into one of the foundation units at the Helping Hand Centre in Buxton Street, North Adelaide.  She probably obtained the unit through the help of Shirley Jefferies, who lived in the house behind Kathleen’s Burnside Road house, and who was on the Board of the Centre.  He was also a politician, being a Minister (for Education?) for some time.

    Kathleen May Williamson

    Kathleen May Williamson was born at Walkerville Road, St Peters, on 28th February 1917.  Her father’s occupation was given as “soldier, previously musician”, and his residence as St Peters.  The young  Kathleen had trouble pronouncing her own name, and from her mis-pronunciation of it came her lifelong nickname Lal.  She was educated at the Methodist Ladies’ College, and worked at C.O.R. (Commonwealth Oil Refineries, before it was taken over by B.P.) as a secretary.  This job was probably organised by Mr Francis, who worked at C.O.R. and retired as the manager of their Adelaide office.

    She married Gordon D’Arcy Wainwright, Personnel Officer with C.O.R., on 5th September 1955, at St Peter’s College Chapel, and they lived at Braund Road Prospect.  Gordon had previously been a Public Accountant in Brookman Buildings, until he was noticed by Mr Francis and persuaded to move to C.O.R.  He was a widower, whose first wife was Elizabeth Jury, sister of Charles Rischbieth Jury, poet, playwright and Jury Professor of English at Adelaide University in the late 1940’s.  Their son, David Gordon Arthur, was born in 1956, and a daughter, Janet Kathleen, in 1960.  They later moved to a home on Dutton Terrace, and finally to 9 Raldon Grove, Myrtle Bank.  Gordon died on ????????????, and Lal died of cancer on 16th April 1985.

    Gordon Wainwright was born on 20th February 1900 at Angaston, where his father was a Bank Manager.  His parents were John Stanley Wainwright (father John Dickens Wainwright) and Florence Alice Chalwin (born on 31st May 1860 to Thomas Chalwin and Caroline Elizabeth Green Dinham), who married on 5th March 1885 at St John’s Church, Adelaide.  His brothers were :

    Gordon Wainwright married Elizabeth Rischbieth Jury (born 19th December 1904 at New Glenelg, father George Arthur Jury, mother Elizabeth Susan Rischbieth) on 28th October 1926, at St Cuthbert’s Church, Prospect.  Charles Rischbieth Jury died, aged 64, on 22nd August 1958, of cancer of the bladder.  He was a bachelor, and lived at 210 Archer Street, North Adelaide.

    David Wainwright married Judith (Jude) Christie in 1992, and in 1993 their son, Jack Christie, was born at Queen Victoria Hospital.  Their daughter Alice was born on xxxxxxxxxx.

    Arthur Edward Williamson

    My father, Arthur Edward (Ted) Williamson, was born in 1922, in the Williamson home at 4 Gardiner Avenue, Newstead (Tranmere).  It is claimed that his father was playing a record of Brahms’ 4th Symphony  at the time he was born.  He married Phyllis Muxlow in 1946.

    Clytie May Hine

    Clytie May Hine was born in Adelaide on 8th May 1887, the only child of gold-and-silversmith William Henry Hine and Mary McDonald, who were married on 22nd April 1886.

    The Times of Friday 20th October 1911 contained a notice of Clytie Hine’s debut as a singer with the Covent Garden Company, for which she took the part of Freia in Wagner’s opera Das Rheingold.
“Covent Garden Theatre - Das Rheingold (in German) - The season of German opera, long promised as a sop to those music-lovers who possessed their souls in patience through the emptiness of the summer season, began last night with Das Rheingold. ...... There was a full house last night, and though too large a proportion of the audience were still shuffling into their seats while the prelude was being played, on the whole the work was listened to, as it ought to be, in silence. ...... The grace and simple freshness of Miss Clytie Hine’s singing as Freia gave to the part far more character than it often has, so that she was a really valuable acquisition.”
The Critic 9 July 1913  -  “Miss Clytie Hine, South Australian soprano, who made a successful appearance at Covent Garden a season ago, has been engaged to tour the North and Scotland in October with the Denhop Opera Company.  She will play in the “Ring”, “Electra”, and “The Magic Flute”, among other operas, and as she has a charming presence and histrionic ability, she should be very well received.”

    Thomas Beecham organisd a grand Opera Tour of England in the autumn of 1913.  Clytie Hine sang in the following roles with the Beecham Opera Company :
October 1 : Theatre Royal, Manchester
Mozart – The Magic Flute ……; First Lady, Clytie Hine; …..
October 21 : Grand Theatre, Leeds
Wagner – Die Walkure ……; Rossweisse, Clytie Hine; ……
October 24 : Grand Theatre, Leeds
Wagner – Gotterdammerung ……; Woglinde, Clytie Hine; ……
November 4 : Theatre Royal, Manchester
Wagner – Die Walkure ……; Rossweisse, Clytie Hine; ……
November 7 : Theatre Royal, Manchester
Wagner – Gotterdammerung ……; Woglinde, Clytie Hine; ……
November 25 : King’s Theatre, Edinburgh
Wagner – Die Walkure ……; Rossweisse, Clytie Hine; ……
November 28 : King’s Theatre, Edinburgh
Wagner – Gotterdammerung ……; Woglinde, Clytie Hine; ……

The Critic 20 May 1914  -  “Back in Adelaide, more musical than ever, Mr Harold Parsons Mus Bac, who has been in England and on the Continent for over 12 months. ...... He came across Australian folk on his travels.  “I chatted with Miss Clytie Hine, who has met with success as an operatic singer.” ”
The Critic 26 July 1916  -  “Miss Clytie Hine - Good news comes from London of the progress in the musical world of Miss Clytie Hine, who is now Mrs John Mundy, having married some time ago a noted ‘cellist and the son of a retired piano manufacturer.  Miss Hine has won golden opinions from leading critics, and the fact that she has been associated with Sir Thomas Beecham in grand opera is conclusive proof of the eminence she has attained.  She has been appearing in his classical productions for two years, and one influential newspaper recorded of her that she was one of the most brilliant members of the company.  Of her work in “The Critic” it was written that to her was due the chief credit for the success of the performance.”

    She stayed at Covent Garden until the company was disbanded during the First World War, returning when it was reopened in 1919.  During the war she sang with Sir Thomas Beecham’s company, amongst others.  Her stature was such that she was chosen as soprano soloist for the premiere of Elgar’s “Starlight Express” in 1915.  She married John Mundy, a well-known ‘cellist, who played with the London Symphonic Orchestra, and they later moved to America.

    Sir Edward Elgar was heard to profess no special love for English singers, and yet, he relied heavily upon a few for much of his success. Muriel Foster elevated his oratorios, The Dream Of Gerontius, The Apostles and The Kingdom, while being wonderful in the cycle Sea Pictures. Agnes Nicholls and Caroline Hatchard were supreme in The Spirit Of England too, but it is baritone Charles Mott who deserves special note for his loveable creations in Elgar’s two wartime master works, The Starlight Express and Fringes Of The Fleet.

    Elgar’s friend, Lena Ashwell had pressed him for incidental music for The Starlight Express, a play she was producing at year’s end in the Kingsway Theatre. Algernon Blackwood supplied the story, drawn from his novel, A Prisoner In Fairyland; costumes and scenery were entrusted to Henry Wilson, President of the Arts and Crafts Society, and Mott was assigned the key role of the Organ-Grinder.

    The theme was the significance of childhood vision in a world sullied by the mistakes of grown-ups.  Its timing was perfect for late in 1915 the Great War was crunching through its second horror-filled year; if ever there was a monument raised to the stupidity and wretchedness of the adult world, this was it.  The authors would discover to their dismay that trying to create a show with and for children but with a powerful message for adults was not such an easy task.

    Elgar urged Blackwood to see Mott in action.  On 15 December, he said, “You want me to hear Mott and I long to.  I suppose you realise that your music is the most divine, unearthly thing ever written.  It makes me happy all day long, and I want to cry and sing.  It will go all over the world, I know.  I shall simply burst when I hear Mott sing it”.

    Blackwood wrote again on 21 December, this time to express concern over the staging.  “Mr Wilson has designed the Sprite in the spirit of Greek fantasy ... Lamplighter a quasi-Mercury, Gardener as Priapus, or someone else, and Sweep possibly as Pluto.  It is a false and ghastly idea.  There is nothing pagan in our little Childhood Play.  It is an alien symbolism altogether.  It robs our dear Sprites of all their significance as homely childhood Figures.  Don’t you think so too?  If our Play means anything at all, it means God ... not the gods.  But Mr Wilson is obsessed with Greece …”  Alas, he aired his concerns far too late.  On this rather glum note The Starlight Express opened on schedule at the Kingsway on 29 December 1915.

    The Musical Times enthused over Mott: “A feature of the presentation is an organ-grinder, a kind of Pied Piper, who, with a group of children, makes his appearance before each Act.  Some of the music allotted to this character is searchingly expressive - the first song particularly. Mr. Charles Mott was a highly sympathetic exponent.”  Rounding out the cast were VB Clarence as “Daddy, who has a dim idea of something great which he cannot find words to express,” Ruth Maitland as a far more practical Mother and Clytie Hine as The Laugher “who sings trouble into joy.”  …...  “(The music) is certainly the main lure.  It affords a glimpse of a quality of Elgar’s genius that owing probably to lack of encouragement, has not yet been sufficiently explored.  We had a foretaste of its potentialities in the Wand Of Youth Suites, which resurrected some of Elgar’s youthful fancies, and much of the music is deftly woven into the Starlight Express.  The scoring is delightfully dainty, .….. dance-music especially is captivating, and many of the songs and other incidental music have conspicuous melody and rhythmic grace.”

    There was universal acclaim for the music - it was unlike anything previous from Elgar and the singing actors were praised but, as expected, both story and staging drew criticism.  For such an important event, Elgar should have conducted but four days earlier his wife Alice had suffered a mild concussion when her automobile was struck by a taxi during an air raid blackout.  Besides this worry, Elgar had just lost a nephew to tuber-culosis.  Ultimately he remained by Alice’s side and left the premiere to Julius Harrison.

    Wulstan Atkins, Ivor’s eleven year old son, followed the proceedings with glee.  He wrote of a meeting between his father and Elgar at the beginning of January: “Elgar told him that The Starlight Express was running at the Kingsway Theatre, and though he did not like the sets, he was pleased with the music and especially the songs.”  Then, after attending a performance, “I expected to see Elgar conducting, but in fact the young Julius Harrison appeared on the rostrum.  My disappointment soon disappeared, however, when Elgar’s fascinating overture began and when the Organ-Grinder, Charles Mott, appeared on the apron of the stage to sing his first song, ‘O children, open your arms to me’.  Soon I was completely absorbed.”

    Composer and critic Thomas Dunhill attended too, and compared it with Elgar’s other wartime works, “Of slighter texture, but far more musical importance, were the delicate entr’actes and songs which Elgar wrote for Algernon Blackwood’s fantastic children’s play, The Starlight Express ... the music which accompanied it does not deserve to be forgotten. It is of altogether finer quality than that of the ephemeral songs called Fringes Of The Fleet.”

    Elgar had missed the opening and registered his displeasure in the process.  Why did the staging have to differ so much from his childhood memories?  As reports trickled in, his dark mood started to dissipate, and he attended regularly throughout January.  His music could not stem the inevitable though and the show closed after just that single month.

    Though keenly disappointed, Elgar had his spirits lifted by executives from The Gramophone Company, who came to express interest in recording four sides from The Starlight Express.  Elgar held out for eight and this was agreed, making this in 1916, nothing less than a recording miracle.  Elgar saw it as an opportunity to preserve forever his personal memories.

    On 18 February 1916, Mott appeared at Hayes to record the Organ-Grinder’s songs with Agnes Nicholls managing those of The Laugher.  All eight records were cut that single day.  They were hurriedly produced and introduced two months later at a lavish press party in the Savoy Hotel.  When Blackwood came on 13 March to spend a few days with the Elgars, no doubt they felt uplifted listening to the gramophone.  On the 26th, Charles Mott came with his wife and child to share tea and biscuits and presumably to share the recorded magic.

The Critic 5 March 1924  -  “Miss Clytie Hine, an Adelaide vocalist who is now in New York, and has recently signed a contract for five seasons of grand opera.  The first presentation will be “The Marriage of Figaro”.”

    Other information about her life comes from The Australian Musical News :
2 June 1924  -  “Clytie Hine’s Success - Opera in America - One of the most successful, but at the same time least pretentious of Australian singers abroad is Miss Clytie Hine, who has followed up her successes in grand opera and concert work in England by going across to America and there giving samples first of all in recital work and later in opera.  Miss Hine has been engaged by William Wade Hinshaw, who is one of America’s chief propagandists for grand opera, for one of his tours across the States.  She is to play the role of the Countess in Mozart’s “Marriage of Figaro”.
    “Among Australian singers, Miss Hine is one of those who have applied themselves most seriously to their art, and she is reaping the reward.  She was educated principally in music at the Royal College of Music in London, where she won two scholarships and graduated with the highest honours.  While she was a student at the college, she sang in Schumann’s “Genoveva”, and on the strength of her achievement in this, she was engaged for Covent Garden, where she made her debut as the goddess Freia in “Das Rheingold”.  During her first season there she took part in the whole of the Wagnerian repertory consistent with the possession of a soprano voice of lyrical quality, and she also sang in “The Marriage of Figaro” and other Mozart operas.  Later on she joined Sir Thomas Beecham’s Opera Company, originally the Denhof Company with Sir Thomas as one of its conductors, on a great English tour which was likened to “Covent Garden on Wheels”.  With this company she did excellent work, singing in “Der Rosenkavalier” and “Electra” of Strauss, the Wagner “Ring”, Mozart’s “Magic Flute” and other big operas.  When Stanford’s opera “The Critic” was first produced, she was chosen to create the leading role.”
1 August 1934  -  “Over in America - Australian Soprano’s Work - One of the Australians who has done well in both England and the United States is Miss Clytie Hine, who should not be forgotten when opera seasons to include Australians are in prospect.  From her successes in several Covent Garden seasons, and also with the Beecham Opera Company, she proceeded to America with her husband, Mr John Mundy, a noted ‘cellist, about ten years ago, and was then for a considerable time a member of William Wade Hinshaw’s touring opera company, playing the leading parts in various operas, and more particularly identifying herself with that of the Countess in “Le Nozze di Figaro”.  Conspicuous roles assigned to her at Covent Garden included that of Freia in Wagner’s “Ring”, and she made great successes in two of the Richard Strauss operas, “Der Rosenkavalier” and “Electra”, and in Mozart’s “Magic Flute”.
    “An essentially lyric soprano, Miss Hine has also won very great praise from all the New York critics for her recital singing, while Mr Mundy, who in England was solo ‘cellist of the Beecham Opera Company and a member of the Royal Philharmonic and Albert Hall Orchestras, has also won a distinctive place in the musical life of America.  He served as an English Army officer in the war.
    “In New York Clytie Hine has a private class of twenty-five vocal students, a choral class of about twenty, two vocal quartet parties, and a women’s trio.  She has been giving these students also operatic training, stage deportment, mise-en-scene, and make-up - not the least important knowledge for an operatic career.  She has produced two complete operas, including ballets, and a number of separate scenes.  Every week she is responsible for two broadcast programmes of operatic, oratorio, and vocal ensemble, besides her own vocal recital.  One of her pupils, whom she discovered singing outside New York, is after a year’s study the outstanding baritone of the National Broadcasting Station.  Her husband is conducting a repertoire of Italian opera, “Rigoletto”, “Marta”, etc, with a fine orchestra and chorus, and eminent soloists, over one of the important radio “chains”.”
1 February 1939  -  “Word comes from Clytie Hine, the South Australian soprano, that she and her husband, John Mundy the ‘cellist, are still very busy in New York, where they have been settled for a number of years.  Their daughter has made a distinct footing for herself on the stage, and their son John is still at college.  Clytie Hine will be remembered as possessor of a light soprano of beautiful quality, who gained a place at Covent Garden and also in opera in the golden Beecham days.  She was particularly effective as Sophie [?] in the Richard Strauss opera “Der Rosenkavalier”.”
1 April 1940  -  “Clytie Hine, the Adelaide soprano who won her way to Covent Garden and Beecham Opera ranks before the last great war, and then crossed to America, is one of the artists holding the fort for Australia in New York.  Her husband is a well-known ‘cellist who was formerly in the London Symphony Orchestra.  Miss Hine (privately Mrs Mundy) is looking forward to the opening of an Australian Club in New York, as recently mooted.”

    Clytie Hine died on 27th June 1983, and the following obituary appeared in an unknown newspaper :
    “Clytie Hine Mundy, a noted vocal teacher of such performers as Sir Peter Pears, Kathleen Ferrier, Alfred Drake, Celeste Holm, David Wayne, Nanette Fabray, John Forsythe, died Monday June 27th at the age of 96.  Mrs Mundy was born in Adelaide, South Australia.  She studied music at Adelaide University, and in 1909 at the Royal College of Music in London, England.  At age 24 she sang at Covent Garden, and, after that, joined the Beecham Opera Company.  Married to the cellist John Mundy, she and her husband came to the United States joining the William Wade Hinshaw Mozart opera Company touring the United States.  During this time Mrs Mundy also sang in German opera houses specializing in Mozart.  She subsequently opened a vocal studio in New York City and in 1945 also taught at the Academy of Vocal Art in Philadelphia and in the music division of the American Theatre Wing.  From 1938 to 1942 Sir Peter Pears and Kathleen Ferrier were among her English pupils.  Other students who studied with her were Arthur Kent, Irene Jordan, Ralph Kirbery (the radio singer), Betty Ivey Martin, Lee Venora, Ruth Lakeway, Ruth Harvey, Ray de Vol, William Ventura, and Val Patarchi.  Mr and Mrs Mundy were also close friends of distinguished musicians such as Sir John and Lady Barbirolli, Sir Thomas Beecham, Benjamin Lord Britten, Giorgio Polacco, and Ethel and Ray Robertson, the duo-pianists, and much music was made at their home, including the premier performance of Britten’s Michelangelo Sonnets and his Rape of Lucretia.  John Mundy died in 1970, and Clytie Mundy leaves her children, Professor John Hine Mundy of Columbia University (1917 - ), Meg (Margaret) Mundy, an actress [mainly live theatre, and fashion editor of Vogue magazine], and three grandchildren, Sotirios Yannopoulos, Martha Saumarez Smith, and John Williams Mundy.”

    Benjamin Britten arranged some folksongs for his wartime recitals with Peter Pears.  The first volume was published in 1943 and all of the seven settings in it are dedicated to friends he and Pears had made in America.  “Down by the Salley Gardens” is dedicated to Clytie Hine Mundy, Pears’s singing teacher in the United States.  It is an Irish folksong, with words by W B Yeats.  Britten’s setting is simple and understated, with the subtlest of harmonic touches conveying the folly of youth with touching pathos.

    In 1969 the Clytie Hine Mundy Recital Prize was instituted as an annual award for the best recital singer at the Royal College of Music.  The prize was discontinued after the death of Clytie Hine.

John Mundy (1886-1971) was a concert cellist, trained at London’s Royal Academy of Music.  After serving in World War I and teaching music in Ireland, Mundy came to the United States to pursue his musical career further.  He was a freelance cellist and began composing his own music.  He eventually joined the orchestra of The Metropolitan Opera, and became an orchestra manager there for thirteen years.  In 1945, he collaborated with Edward Eager and Alfred Drake on The Burglar’s Opera, a musical comedy based on Italian commedia dell’arte.  The Burglar’s Opera was staged at Catholic University, and then revised five years later for a brief Broadway run under the title, The Liar.  Other incarnations of the musical were staged under the titles The Rascal, The Gay Rascal and The Burglar.  The John Mundy Papers were donated to the Music Division of the New York Public Library for the Performing Arts in 1973 by Clytie Hine Mundy.