(Investigator 175, 2017 July)
Edward Jenner (1749-1823), theorised that cowpox included two different
forms of disease, and that one of them — fluid from the sores of
vaccinia, a disease of cattle, could be used to inoculate humans
The theory was successfully tested in 1796, and again in 1798, when he
published his Inquiry into the Cause
and Effects of the Variolae Vaccinae.
Henry Cline, surgeon of St. Thomas's hospital, London, made a number of
successful inoculations against smallpox and thereby brought
vaccination before the previously prejudiced medical profession.
In 1803, the Royal Jennerian Society For The Proper Spread Of
Vaccination in London was established resulting in a drastic reduction
of average deaths from smallpox.
In France, Louis Pasteur (1822-1895) discovered that by culturing a
disease then injecting it into an animal, he could produce immunity to
the disease. In 1881 Pasteur demonstrated immunisation against anthrax
and four years later developed a rabies vaccine.
Subsequent developments of other immunising agents have contributed to
the elimination of smallpox and the reduction in the incidence of many
The introduction into the body of a vaccine composed of suspensions of
living or dead micro-organisms of a specific kind will stimulate the
body cells to combat the invasion of disease-producing micro-organisms
or help control the spread of infectious agents already established in
Immunisation by injection or taken orally.
In medicine, no matter how comprehensive the trials, no matter how
conclusive the results, there is always that remote possibility that
some people will react adversely to an otherwise safe procedure.
Unfortunately, it is the exception to the rule which receives the most
The objections to immunisation are based principally on anecdotal
evidence, and include the belief that complications following
immunisation are more common and more serious than the medical
profession is prepared to admit. This, coupled with the media's
predilection for sensationalising the irrational has, in recent times,
been partly responsible for the rising incidence of epidemics of
infectious diseases previously under control.
On the other hand, overwhelming evidence cited for the efficacy of
immunisation (Basser 1997) is borne out by a perusal of statistics from
all over the world. In Japan for example, following the suspension of
immunisation in1975, the number of pertussis (whooping cough) cases
jumped from an average of 350 per year to over 13,000 per year in 1979.
Conversely, in Sweden following the commencement of MMR immunisation in
1982, the number of measles and encephalitis cases dropped from an
average of 330 per annum to an average of 10. Likewise in the USA,
following the introduction of measles immunisation in 1963-64 there was
an eighty per cent decline in measles cases and related deaths.
In both Sri Lanka and Bangladesh, neonatal tetanus is now rare due to
immunisation. Epiglottitis has been all but eliminated in Finland. The
incidence of Japanese encephalitis in India, China and Japan has
dropped markedly and thanks to vaccines, smallpox has been eradicated
worldwide and public health officials expect that polio will be
eradicated within the next few years.
There can be no doubt that the risks associated with immunisation are
negligible and are far outweighed by the advantages. Unfortunately, the
anti-immunisation lobby has not been above spreading misinformation and
lies in effort to achieve their aims.
Basser, Dr. Stephen. 1997. Anti-immunisation scare: the inconvenient
facts. the Skeptic, Vol. l7,
Gordon, Dr. Richard. 1991. Immunisation Under Threat, the Skeptic, Vol. II, No.3, p8-9.
Meyerson, Michael. 1997. Immunisation: a rational perspective. the Skeptic, Vol. 17. No. 1.
p.I6-17. Australian Skeptics Inc.
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